What Goes On In An Oil Refinery? --------AIChE Speaker--------- this presentation is probably too long; pick and choose fr...
Introduction  <ul><li>Introduce Yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Explain Why You Are Here </li></ul><ul><li>Explain Why You Are ...
Agenda <ul><li>this presentation is probably too long, select from: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>What ...
Agenda -  Cont. <ul><li>How Do You Get from Crude Oil to Products?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separations </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Overview  <ul><li>THE PURPOSE OF AN OIL REFINERY IS TO TRANSFORM RELATIVELY LOW VALUE CRUDE OIL INTO HIGH VALUE PRODUCTS A...
Overview -  Cont.  <ul><li>The price and quality of crudes is constantly changing.  The price and specifications of the pr...
How Do I Keep In Business ? <ul><li>I need to design and revamp the plant utilizing the latest technology to be more effic...
OK, But... WHAT GOES ON IN AN OIL REFINERY?
THE REFINERY
What Is Crude Oil? <ul><li>Crude Oil is a liquid mixture of  thousands  of organic chemicals found underground.  It is the...
Major Refinery Products <ul><li>LPG (Propane/Butane) </li></ul><ul><li>GASOLINE (hundreds of blends) </li></ul><ul><li>JET...
Gasoline Specifications <ul><li>Gasoline must meet many criteria which change with the time of year and geographic locatio...
Other Specifications <ul><li>Other refinery products must meet other specifications such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Cetane numb...
So, How  Do  You Make Good Stuff Out Of That Gooey Crude?
So, How  Do  You Make Good Stuff Out Of That Gooey Crude?
So, How  Do  You Make Good Stuff Out Of That Gooey Crude? <ul><ul><li>REACTIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>& </li></ul></u...
So, How  Do  You Make Good Stuff Out Of That Gooey Crude? <ul><li>Separate crude into  fractions </li></ul><ul><li>Convert...
SEPARATIONS
SEPARATIONS - CRUDE FRACTIONATION <ul><li>HUGE  DISTILLATION   COLUMNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATMOSPHERIC  DISTILLATION </l...
OTHER SEPARATIONS <ul><li>FLASH </li></ul><ul><li>DISTILLATION </li></ul><ul><li>ABSORPTION </li></ul><ul><li>ADSORPTION <...
REACTIONS
REACTIONS <ul><li>Almost all the reactions in the refinery use special  catalysts  that increase the  rate  and  selectivi...
Reactions to Make Higher Octane <ul><li>ISOMERIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>C-C-C-C-C-C -->  C  C </li></ul><ul><li>nC6   C-C-...
Reactions To Make Higher Octane <ul><li>ALKYLATION </li></ul><ul><li>C  C </li></ul><ul><li>C=C-C  +  C-C-C  -->  C-C-C-C-...
Reactions To Convert Heavy Oils <ul><li>HYDROCRACKING  </li></ul><ul><li>H2 + heavy oil --> gasoline + diesel </li></ul><u...
Reactions To Convert Resid <ul><li>Resid is the “bottom of the barrel” - the material that is left in the bottom of the cr...
Reactions To Remove Sulfur <ul><li>HYDRODESULFURIZATION   </li></ul><ul><li>2 R-SH + H2 -->  2 R + 2  H2S </li></ul><ul><l...
MAJOR REFINERY EQUIPMENT <ul><li>Vessels-Reactors, Separators, Storage Tanks </li></ul><ul><li>Pumps & Compressors </li></...
 
 
 
MINIMIZING POLLUTION <ul><li>Operate Furnaces Efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Waste Material Goes To The Flare Stack </li></...
WHAT HAPPENS TO THE BAD STUFF IN THE CRUDE? <ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>converted to elemental sulfur </li></ul><...
WHAT ROLE DO ENGINEERS PLAY IN THE REFINERY?
What Role Do Chemical Engineers Play? <ul><li>Operations Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance Engineer </li></ul><ul><li...
Other Ways Chemical Engineers Support The Refining Industry <ul><li>Research & Development Engineers </li></ul><ul><li>Tec...
Other Engineering Disciplines In The Refinery <ul><li>Mechanical Engineers - design & maintenance of compressors, vessels ...
Where to get more information <ul><li>Other training sessions </li></ul><ul><li>List books, articles, electronic sources <...
Summary <ul><li>Refineries are  very complicated  chemical processing plants that use  reactions  and  separations  to con...
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Refining

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Refining

  1. 1. What Goes On In An Oil Refinery? --------AIChE Speaker--------- this presentation is probably too long; pick and choose from this material
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Introduce Yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Explain Why You Are Here </li></ul><ul><li>Explain Why You Are Talking About Refineries </li></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>this presentation is probably too long, select from: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Purpose of an Oil Refinery? </li></ul><ul><li>What Goes In/Out of the Refinery </li></ul><ul><li>How Do You Get from Crude Oil to Products? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Reactions cont... </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Agenda - Cont. <ul><li>How Do You Get from Crude Oil to Products? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizing Pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do The Chemical Engineers Do? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Overview <ul><li>THE PURPOSE OF AN OIL REFINERY IS TO TRANSFORM RELATIVELY LOW VALUE CRUDE OIL INTO HIGH VALUE PRODUCTS AS EFFICIENTLY, PROFITABLY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND A WAY AS POSSIBLE </li></ul>
  6. 6. Overview - Cont. <ul><li>The price and quality of crudes is constantly changing. The price and specifications of the products is constantly changing. Government regulations add additional constraints. There is not much differential between the price of crude and products. </li></ul><ul><li>HOW DO I KEEP IN BUSINESS? </li></ul>
  7. 7. How Do I Keep In Business ? <ul><li>I need to design and revamp the plant utilizing the latest technology to be more efficient </li></ul><ul><li>I need to make the plant more flexible and responsive </li></ul><ul><li>I need to operate (control) the plant in the most efficient manner possible </li></ul><ul><li>I need to keep the equipment running all the time </li></ul><ul><li>I NEED CHEMICAL ENGINEERS! </li></ul>
  8. 8. OK, But... WHAT GOES ON IN AN OIL REFINERY?
  9. 9. THE REFINERY
  10. 10. What Is Crude Oil? <ul><li>Crude Oil is a liquid mixture of thousands of organic chemicals found underground. It is the result of organic matter decaying over thousands of years; hence the name fossil fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Crude oil is found all over the world and varies tremendously in its density , aromatics , sulfur , and metals content </li></ul>
  11. 11. Major Refinery Products <ul><li>LPG (Propane/Butane) </li></ul><ul><li>GASOLINE (hundreds of blends) </li></ul><ul><li>JET FUELS </li></ul><ul><li>DIESEL FUELS </li></ul><ul><li>HEATING OILS </li></ul><ul><li>GREASES </li></ul><ul><li>ASPHALTS </li></ul><ul><li>COKE (not the kind you drink ) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Gasoline Specifications <ul><li>Gasoline must meet many criteria which change with the time of year and geographic location. Some critical specifications are: </li></ul><ul><li>Vapor Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Octane </li></ul><ul><li>Aromatics / Benzene Content </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur Content </li></ul><ul><li>Gasolines are always a blend of a number of streams in the refinery </li></ul>
  13. 13. Other Specifications <ul><li>Other refinery products must meet other specifications such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Cetane number </li></ul><ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>Pour Point </li></ul><ul><li>Flash Point </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity </li></ul>
  14. 14. So, How Do You Make Good Stuff Out Of That Gooey Crude?
  15. 15. So, How Do You Make Good Stuff Out Of That Gooey Crude?
  16. 16. So, How Do You Make Good Stuff Out Of That Gooey Crude? <ul><ul><li>REACTIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>& </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEPARATIONS </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. So, How Do You Make Good Stuff Out Of That Gooey Crude? <ul><li>Separate crude into fractions </li></ul><ul><li>Convert low octane components to higher octane components </li></ul><ul><li>Convert the very heavy stuff to heavy oils </li></ul><ul><li>Convert heavy oils to gasoline,diesel,jet fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Remove sulfur/nitrogen through reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Blend intermediate streams together to meet product specifications </li></ul>
  18. 18. SEPARATIONS
  19. 19. SEPARATIONS - CRUDE FRACTIONATION <ul><li>HUGE DISTILLATION COLUMNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATMOSPHERIC DISTILLATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VACUUM DISTILLATION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TYPICAL SIZE: 150,000 BARRELS/DAY </li></ul><ul><li>750 DEGREES F </li></ul>
  20. 20. OTHER SEPARATIONS <ul><li>FLASH </li></ul><ul><li>DISTILLATION </li></ul><ul><li>ABSORPTION </li></ul><ul><li>ADSORPTION </li></ul><ul><li>SETTLING (WATER/OIL) </li></ul>
  21. 21. REACTIONS
  22. 22. REACTIONS <ul><li>Almost all the reactions in the refinery use special catalysts that increase the rate and selectivity of the reaction. This improves efficiency and reduces unwanted byproducts. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Reactions to Make Higher Octane <ul><li>ISOMERIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>C-C-C-C-C-C --> C C </li></ul><ul><li>nC6 C-C-C-C iC6 </li></ul><ul><li>REFORMING </li></ul><ul><li>C-C-C-C-C-C-C --> C </li></ul><ul><li>nC7 C C-CH3 </li></ul><ul><li>C C toluene </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul>
  24. 24. Reactions To Make Higher Octane <ul><li>ALKYLATION </li></ul><ul><li>C C </li></ul><ul><li>C=C-C + C-C-C --> C-C-C-C-C </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>propylene isobutane isoheptane (2,2,dmp) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Reactions To Convert Heavy Oils <ul><li>HYDROCRACKING </li></ul><ul><li>H2 + heavy oil --> gasoline + diesel </li></ul><ul><li>550  F 300  F 450  F </li></ul><ul><li>use boiling point to describe oils </li></ul><ul><li>CAT CRACKING </li></ul><ul><li>heavy oil --> gasoline + propylene, butane, </li></ul><ul><li>other “light ends” </li></ul><ul><li>550  F 300  F </li></ul>
  26. 26. Reactions To Convert Resid <ul><li>Resid is the “bottom of the barrel” - the material that is left in the bottom of the crude/vacuum distillation towers </li></ul><ul><li>COKING </li></ul><ul><li>resid + heat --> coke + heavy oil </li></ul><ul><li>> 900  F solid 550  F </li></ul>
  27. 27. Reactions To Remove Sulfur <ul><li>HYDRODESULFURIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>2 R-SH + H2 --> 2 R + 2 H2S </li></ul><ul><li>mercaptan hydrocarbon </li></ul><ul><li>SULFUR RECOVERY </li></ul><ul><li>convert H2S to elemental sulfur: </li></ul><ul><li>2 H2S + 2 O2 --> SO2 + S + 2 H2O </li></ul><ul><li>2 H2S + SO2 --> 3S + 2 H2O </li></ul>
  28. 28. MAJOR REFINERY EQUIPMENT <ul><li>Vessels-Reactors, Separators, Storage Tanks </li></ul><ul><li>Pumps & Compressors </li></ul><ul><li>Furnaces </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Exchangers </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments (measure flow, temperature, pressure, composition) </li></ul><ul><li>Control Systems </li></ul>
  29. 32. MINIMIZING POLLUTION <ul><li>Operate Furnaces Efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Waste Material Goes To The Flare Stack </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Spills & Accidental Releases </li></ul><ul><li>Special Treatment of Sewer Water </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of Paper Work! </li></ul>
  30. 33. WHAT HAPPENS TO THE BAD STUFF IN THE CRUDE? <ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>converted to elemental sulfur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in high sulfur fuel oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in coke </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heavy Metals (nickel, vanadium) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in high sulfur fuel oil and coke </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen (organic nitrogen) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most is converted to ammonia and neutralized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in high sulfur fuel oil and coke </li></ul></ul>
  31. 34. WHAT ROLE DO ENGINEERS PLAY IN THE REFINERY?
  32. 35. What Role Do Chemical Engineers Play? <ul><li>Operations Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Control Systems Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Design Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Health/Safety/Environmental Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Planning / Scheduling Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Manager </li></ul>
  33. 36. Other Ways Chemical Engineers Support The Refining Industry <ul><li>Research & Development Engineers </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Sales Engineers </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering & Construction Engineers </li></ul><ul><li>Governmental Regulators (EPA) </li></ul><ul><li>University Professors </li></ul>
  34. 37. Other Engineering Disciplines In The Refinery <ul><li>Mechanical Engineers - design & maintenance of compressors, vessels … </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Engineers - electrical, instrumentation, controls </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Scientists - main plant control & information systems </li></ul>
  35. 38. Where to get more information <ul><li>Other training sessions </li></ul><ul><li>List books, articles, electronic sources </li></ul><ul><li>Consulting services, other sources </li></ul>
  36. 39. Summary <ul><li>Refineries are very complicated chemical processing plants that use reactions and separations to convert crude oil into gasoline and other valuable products </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical engineers play an important role in keeping these plants running safely and efficiently </li></ul>
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