Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Teknologi Sel Surya (14)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Teknologi Sel Surya (14)

409
views

Published on

unj fmipa-fisika

unj fmipa-fisika

Published in: Education

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
409
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. TeknologiSel Surya
    SatwikoSidopekso
    Sesion#14
    JurusanFisika
    FakultasMatematikadanIlmuPengetahuanAlam
  • 2. Outline
    Electrical Characteristic:
    Conductivity
    Current –Voltage
    Staeblewronski effect
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    2
    06/01/2011
  • 3. Electrical Characteristic
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    3
    06/01/2011
  • 4. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    Conductivity Measurement
    Used to Measure and Control the Percent Concentration of Acids, Bases and Salts in Solution
    Measures Total Concentration
    Not Ion Specific
    • May be Used to Determine the Dominant Chemical
    4
  • 5. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    Electrolytes
    Acids
    • Substances which ionize in solution and produce hydrogen ions, H+
    • 6. Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) dissociates into H+ + Cl-
    Bases
    • Substances which ionize in solution and produce hydroxide ions, OH-
    • 7. Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH, dissociates into Na+ + OH-
    Salts
    • Substances which ionize in solution and produce neither hydrogen or hydroxide ions
    • 8. Sodium Chloride, NaCl, dissociates into Na+ + Cl-
    5
  • 9. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    Typical Conductivity Values
    6
  • 10. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    Conductivity Measurement
    Units of Measurement
    • U.S. Units = Micromhos/cm
    • 11. International Units = MicroSiemens/cm
    1.0 S/cm = 1,000 mS/cm = 1,000,000 uS/cm
    • umho/cm = uS/cm
    Conductivity is the Reciprocal of Resistance
    • 1.0 MicroSiemen/cm = 1,000,000 Ohms/-cm
    • 12. 1,000,000 MicroSiemens/cm = 1.0 Ohm/-cm
    7
  • 13. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    Conductivity Measurement
    High Purity Water Applications
    • Power & Semiconductor Manufacturing
    • 14. Conductivity Measured as Resistivity in MegOhms/cm
    • 15. Pure Water = 18.18 Meg Ohms/-cm = 0.055 uS/cm
    Water & Water Treatment Applications
    • Industrial Boilers & Cooling Towers
    • 16. Conductivity Measured in Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
    8
  • 17. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    Conductance of Common Acids, Bases and Salts @ 25oC
    9
  • 18. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    Conductivity Measurement
    Each Acid, Base and Salt has Its Own Temperature Vs. Concentration Curve
    The Temperature Slope Varies for Different Chemicals
    • Acids 1.0% - 1.6% /oC
    • 19. Natural Waters 2.0%/oC
    • 20. Bases > 1.8 - 2.2%/oC
    • 21. High Purity Water 2.3% - 7.3%/ oC
    10
  • 22. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    Specific Conductivity of Sulfuric Acid
    11
  • 23. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    5.0% Sulfuric Acid Solution
    12
  • 24. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    Change in Temperature Slope/oC
    13
  • 25. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    Na+
    Cl-
    Conductivity Measurement
    Apply an AC Voltage to Two Electrodes of Exact Dimensions
    Acids, Bases and Salts (NaCl) Dissolve in Solution and Act as Current Carriers
    The Current Flow is Directly Proportional to the Total Dissolved Solids in Solution
    The Physical Dimensions of a Conductivity Electrode are Referred to as the Cell Constant
    Cell Constant is Length/Area Relationship
    Distance Between Plates = 1.0 cm
    Area of Each Plate = 1.0 cm x 1.0 cm
    Cell Constant = 1.0 cm-1
    Cell Constant
    Used to Determine the Measuring Range of the Analyzer
    Acts as Multiplier
    Used to Calibrate Analyzer
    Determined Using NBS Standards
    Can be NIST Traceable
    14
  • 26. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    V
    Four Electrode Conductivity Cells
    Measures Current and Voltage Drop
    Current Increases with an Increase in Voltage Drop Across Electrodes
    Compensates for Minor Coatings on Conductivity Electrodes
    Used for Higher Range Measurement
    15
  • 27. 06/01/2011
    Inductive Conductivity
    Also Known as Toroidal and Electrodless
    Principle of Measurement
    • Two Sealed Wire Wound Coils Electrically Coupled by Solution Conductivity
    Advantage
    • No Electrodes Exposed to the Measured Solution
    • 28. Not Affected by Coating
    Disadvantage
    • +- 10% Accuracy
    • 29. High Range Measurement Only > 100 uS/cm
    16
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
  • 30. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    Reverse Osmosis Unit
    pH Transmitter
    Feed Water
    Acid Feed
    Feed
    Water
    Tank
    Conductivity Transmitter
    RO Unit
    Waste
    17
  • 31. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    Demineralizer Unit
    Acid Regeneration
    Caustic Regeneration
    Conductivity
    Transmitter
    Conductivity
    Transmitter
    Mixed
    Bed
    Anion
    Bed
    Cation
    Bed
    Conductivity
    Transmitter
    To Water Storage
    Conductivity
    Transmitter
    Conductivity
    Transmitter
    18
  • 32. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    Power Utilities Average Number of Analyzers for Each Demin Unit
    TypeNumber
    Conductivity 4
    Concentration 2
    pH 1
    Total 7
    Usually 2 per generation unit (make up & polisher) and built in pairs
    Total X 4 = 28 Analyzers per Unit
    Two Units Built at a time = 56 Analyzers
    19
  • 33. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    Power Utilities Average Number of Analyzers Per Generating Unit
    Analyzer TypeNumber
    pH 5
    Specific Conductivity 6
    Cation Conductivity 11
    Condensate Analyzer 1
    Total 23
    Usually Units Built in Pairs = 46 Analyzers
    20
  • 34. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    Conductivity
    Transmitter
    Heat
    Exchanger
    Condensate Return
    Feed
    Water
    Tank
    Waste
    Steam Header
    Conductivity
    Transmitter
    Steam
    Drum
    Top Blowdown Line
    Blowdown Valve
    Mud
    Drum
    Flash
    Tank
    Manual Blowdown Valve
    Do Not Automate !
    Boiler Blowdown and Condensate Return Lines
    21
  • 35. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    Clean in Place (CIP)
    Conductivity
    Transmitter
    CIP Return Lines
    Caustic
    Process
    Vessels
    Caustic
    Dilution
    Tank
    Solution
    Recovery
    Conductivity
    Transmitter
    Water
    22
  • 36. 06/01/2011
    © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    23
    TerimaKasih

×