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Teknologi Sel Surya (14)
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    Teknologi Sel Surya (14) Teknologi Sel Surya (14) Presentation Transcript

    • TeknologiSel Surya
      SatwikoSidopekso
      Sesion#14
      JurusanFisika
      FakultasMatematikadanIlmuPengetahuanAlam
    • Outline
      Electrical Characteristic:
      Conductivity
      Current –Voltage
      Staeblewronski effect
      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      2
      06/01/2011
    • Electrical Characteristic
      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      3
      06/01/2011
    • 06/01/2011
      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      Conductivity Measurement
      Used to Measure and Control the Percent Concentration of Acids, Bases and Salts in Solution
      Measures Total Concentration
      Not Ion Specific
      • May be Used to Determine the Dominant Chemical
      4
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      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      Electrolytes
      Acids
      • Substances which ionize in solution and produce hydrogen ions, H+
      • Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) dissociates into H+ + Cl-
      Bases
      • Substances which ionize in solution and produce hydroxide ions, OH-
      • Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH, dissociates into Na+ + OH-
      Salts
      • Substances which ionize in solution and produce neither hydrogen or hydroxide ions
      • Sodium Chloride, NaCl, dissociates into Na+ + Cl-
      5
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      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      Typical Conductivity Values
      6
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      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      Conductivity Measurement
      Units of Measurement
      • U.S. Units = Micromhos/cm
      • International Units = MicroSiemens/cm
      1.0 S/cm = 1,000 mS/cm = 1,000,000 uS/cm
      • umho/cm = uS/cm
      Conductivity is the Reciprocal of Resistance
      • 1.0 MicroSiemen/cm = 1,000,000 Ohms/-cm
      • 1,000,000 MicroSiemens/cm = 1.0 Ohm/-cm
      7
    • 06/01/2011
      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      Conductivity Measurement
      High Purity Water Applications
      • Power & Semiconductor Manufacturing
      • Conductivity Measured as Resistivity in MegOhms/cm
      • Pure Water = 18.18 Meg Ohms/-cm = 0.055 uS/cm
      Water & Water Treatment Applications
      • Industrial Boilers & Cooling Towers
      • Conductivity Measured in Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
      8
    • 06/01/2011
      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      Conductance of Common Acids, Bases and Salts @ 25oC
      9
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      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      Conductivity Measurement
      Each Acid, Base and Salt has Its Own Temperature Vs. Concentration Curve
      The Temperature Slope Varies for Different Chemicals
      • Acids 1.0% - 1.6% /oC
      • Natural Waters 2.0%/oC
      • Bases > 1.8 - 2.2%/oC
      • High Purity Water 2.3% - 7.3%/ oC
      10
    • 06/01/2011
      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      Specific Conductivity of Sulfuric Acid
      11
    • 06/01/2011
      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      5.0% Sulfuric Acid Solution
      12
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      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      Change in Temperature Slope/oC
      13
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      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      Na+
      Cl-
      Conductivity Measurement
      Apply an AC Voltage to Two Electrodes of Exact Dimensions
      Acids, Bases and Salts (NaCl) Dissolve in Solution and Act as Current Carriers
      The Current Flow is Directly Proportional to the Total Dissolved Solids in Solution
      The Physical Dimensions of a Conductivity Electrode are Referred to as the Cell Constant
      Cell Constant is Length/Area Relationship
      Distance Between Plates = 1.0 cm
      Area of Each Plate = 1.0 cm x 1.0 cm
      Cell Constant = 1.0 cm-1
      Cell Constant
      Used to Determine the Measuring Range of the Analyzer
      Acts as Multiplier
      Used to Calibrate Analyzer
      Determined Using NBS Standards
      Can be NIST Traceable
      14
    • 06/01/2011
      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      V
      Four Electrode Conductivity Cells
      Measures Current and Voltage Drop
      Current Increases with an Increase in Voltage Drop Across Electrodes
      Compensates for Minor Coatings on Conductivity Electrodes
      Used for Higher Range Measurement
      15
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      Inductive Conductivity
      Also Known as Toroidal and Electrodless
      Principle of Measurement
      • Two Sealed Wire Wound Coils Electrically Coupled by Solution Conductivity
      Advantage
      • No Electrodes Exposed to the Measured Solution
      • Not Affected by Coating
      Disadvantage
      • +- 10% Accuracy
      • High Range Measurement Only > 100 uS/cm
      16
      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
    • 06/01/2011
      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      Reverse Osmosis Unit
      pH Transmitter
      Feed Water
      Acid Feed
      Feed
      Water
      Tank
      Conductivity Transmitter
      RO Unit
      Waste
      17
    • 06/01/2011
      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      Demineralizer Unit
      Acid Regeneration
      Caustic Regeneration
      Conductivity
      Transmitter
      Conductivity
      Transmitter
      Mixed
      Bed
      Anion
      Bed
      Cation
      Bed
      Conductivity
      Transmitter
      To Water Storage
      Conductivity
      Transmitter
      Conductivity
      Transmitter
      18
    • 06/01/2011
      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      Power Utilities Average Number of Analyzers for Each Demin Unit
      TypeNumber
      Conductivity 4
      Concentration 2
      pH 1
      Total 7
      Usually 2 per generation unit (make up & polisher) and built in pairs
      Total X 4 = 28 Analyzers per Unit
      Two Units Built at a time = 56 Analyzers
      19
    • 06/01/2011
      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      Power Utilities Average Number of Analyzers Per Generating Unit
      Analyzer TypeNumber
      pH 5
      Specific Conductivity 6
      Cation Conductivity 11
      Condensate Analyzer 1
      Total 23
      Usually Units Built in Pairs = 46 Analyzers
      20
    • 06/01/2011
      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      Conductivity
      Transmitter
      Heat
      Exchanger
      Condensate Return
      Feed
      Water
      Tank
      Waste
      Steam Header
      Conductivity
      Transmitter
      Steam
      Drum
      Top Blowdown Line
      Blowdown Valve
      Mud
      Drum
      Flash
      Tank
      Manual Blowdown Valve
      Do Not Automate !
      Boiler Blowdown and Condensate Return Lines
      21
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      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      Clean in Place (CIP)
      Conductivity
      Transmitter
      CIP Return Lines
      Caustic
      Process
      Vessels
      Caustic
      Dilution
      Tank
      Solution
      Recovery
      Conductivity
      Transmitter
      Water
      22
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      © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
      23
      TerimaKasih