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# Fisika Zat Padat (12 - 14) c-spin_paramagnetism

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### Fisika Zat Padat (12 - 14) c-spin_paramagnetism

1. 1. Pertemuan 13 FISIKA ZAT PADAT Iwan Sugihartono, M.Si Jurusan Fisika Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam
2. 2. Electromagnetism <ul><li>University of British Columbia </li></ul><ul><li>Physics 420 </li></ul><ul><li>By: Jason Cheung </li></ul>02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
3. 3. What is a Field? <ul><li>A region of space characterized by a physical property having a determinable value at every point in the region </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: gravitational field, Electric field ,and magnetic field </li></ul>02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
4. 4. Gravitational Field <ul><li>Defined as </li></ul>A = acceleration G = gravitational constant m = mass of big object r = distance to the center of the big object 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
5. 5. 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
6. 6. Electric Field <ul><li>Electric field is defined as the electric force per unit Charge </li></ul><ul><li>It is the surrounding charges that create an electric field </li></ul>E = Electric Field F = Electric Force q = Charge E is measure in Force/Coulomb 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
7. 7. 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
8. 8. Magnetic Field <ul><li>Magnetic field is a field that exerts a force on a moving charge </li></ul><ul><li>A magnetic field can be caused either by another moving charge or by a changing of electric field or magnetic dipoles of materials </li></ul>02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
9. 9. <ul><li>Magnetic Field is measure in Tesla </li></ul>A simple formula to calculate Magnetic Field B = magnetic field F = Magnetic Force Q = charge V = velocity of the moving charge 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
10. 10. <ul><li>Charge moving in a magnetic field obeys the Right Hand Rule </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of RHR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right Hand Rule #1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right Hand Rule #2 </li></ul></ul>02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
11. 11. Right Hand Rule 1 <ul><li>The thumb represents the velocity of which the charge is going </li></ul><ul><li>The remaining fingers tell you the direction of the magnetic field </li></ul><ul><li>example: </li></ul>02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
12. 12. Right Hand Rule 2 <ul><li>I = direction of the charge </li></ul><ul><li>B = direction of the Magnetic Field </li></ul><ul><li>F = Force act on the charge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palm Push Positive (*Remember!!) </li></ul></ul>02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
13. 13. 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
14. 14. Magnetism <ul><li>example of pair and unpaired: </li></ul><ul><li>N is unpaired, </li></ul><ul><li>O is paired (one of them) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is magnetism? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetism is one of the phenomena by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What causes magnetism in material? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the unpaired electrons in the electron orbit cause magnetism </li></ul></ul>02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
15. 15. Remember SPDF?? (Chem 11) <ul><li>Electrons fall into electron shell according to Hund’s rule. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul>02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
16. 16. Nitrogen -Electrons -Protons and Neutrons 1s2 2p3 Electron Configuration of Nitrogen Wrong Wrong 2s2 Right 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
17. 17. There are four types of magnetism <ul><ul><li>1.Ferromagnetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.Paramagnetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.Diamagnetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.Ferrimagnetic (Not going to cover) </li></ul></ul>02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
18. 18. Magnetism is Measure in Magnetic Susceptibility ( χ m) The more susceptibility of a material has, the more magnetic property it processes 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id | Material Susceptibility χ m Vacuum 0 Water -1.2*10 -5 Bi -16.6*10 -5 C -2.1*10 -5 O2 0.19*10 -5 Al 2.2*10 -5 Fe 200 Co 70 Ni 110
19. 19. Ferromagnetic <ul><li>Any material that possess magnetization WITHOUT an external magnetic field is ferromagnetic </li></ul><ul><li>large and positive susceptibility </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of ferromagnetic materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cobalt (Co) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Susceptibility = 70 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron (Fe) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Susceptibility = 200 </li></ul></ul>02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
20. 20. Iron electron configuration Fe: 1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2,3p6,4s2,3d6 Fe: [Ar],4s2,3d6 Ar: 1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2,3p6 = [Ar] “ Core ” [Ar] -The electrons seems to align spontaneously -Pure quantum mechanics effect 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
21. 21. Why are some Ferromagnetic doesn’t attract one another? <ul><li>Has to do with the magnetic domain of the material </li></ul>02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
22. 22. Paramagnetic <ul><li>Any material that possess magnetization (i.e. attraction with other magnetized material) WITH an external magnetic field is paramagnetic </li></ul><ul><li>small and positive susceptibility </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of paramagnetic materials </li></ul>Aluminum Al Susceptibility = 2.2*10-5 Platinum Pt 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
23. 23. Aluminum electron configuration [ Ne ]. 3s 2. 3p 1 Compare to Iron (Fe) [Ar] Fe: [Ar],4s2,3d6 the dipoles do not interact with one another and are randomly oriented in the absence of an external field due to thermal agitation, resulting in zero net magnetic moment What is the differences between the two?! 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
24. 24. Diamagnetic <ul><li>very weak and negative susceptibility to magnetic fields. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative susceptibility = repel against magnetic fields (diamagnetism) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive susceptibility = attract to magnetic fields (para + ferromagnetism) </li></ul>02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
25. 25. Diamagnetism <ul><li>Examples of diamagnetic materials </li></ul>Gold Copper Human (mostly) 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
26. 26. Applications of Magnetism MRI (magnetic resonance images) Superconductors 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
27. 27. Applications of Magnetism <ul><li>Maglev Trains </li></ul>02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
28. 28. THANK YOU 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |