Sustainable Development
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Sustainable Development

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The debate of development Vs environment. The birth and growth of the concept of Sustainable Development with special emphasis on and examples from India

The debate of development Vs environment. The birth and growth of the concept of Sustainable Development with special emphasis on and examples from India

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  • 1. E NT N M T RO MEN I EN V Vs OP V EL DE IMPORTANCE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMRNT Dr. Jayakara Bhandary M. SGL-Botany GAS College, Karwar – 581301 Email: jaikarb@yahoo.com
  • 2. WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT…? Enabling the community to meet everyone’s basic human needs for food security, housing, health, clean water and fuel. It should lead to a dynamic, just and prosperous Society
  • 3. WHAT IS ENVIRONMENT…? Environment means everything surrounding us, including something that is tangible (objects) and intangible (culture, belief,and norm) which associate to each other as cycle of system. Everything that surround us. Includes Flora (vegetation) and Fauna (animals and insects), consists of: AIR, SOIL and WATER
  • 4. DEVELOPMENT ACHIEVEMENTS.. BIG DAMS… More than 4,000 large dams of over 15 metres height . Spent about 919 billion rupees. Played an important role in increasing farm productivity, power generation and industrial water supply. (Report by World Commission on Big Dams)
  • 5. AT WHAT COST..? • On average, each big dam has submerged nearly 5,000 hectares of forest. • In the last 20 years, big dams have swallowed up 9.1 million hectares of forests. • 16 million Indian people have been forced from their homes because of these dams. • ¾ of these people were not ‘rehabilitated’.
  • 6. GREEN REVOLUTION…….. • 4-5fold increase in food production. • Yield of wheat increased from 2 to 6 metric tons per hectare. • Cereal and calorie availability per person increased by nearly 30% • Eliminated the threat of starvation of exploding population.
  • 7. GREEN REVOLUTION.. • Per capita incomes doubled in Asia between 1970 - 1995. • Poverty declined from 3 out of every 5 Asians in 1975 to less than 1 in 3 by 1995. • The number of poor fell from 1.15 billion in 1975 to 825 million in 1995 despite a 60 % increase in population. • In India, the % of rural Poor was 50 – 65% in 1960s. • Declined to about 1/3 of the rural population by 1993. (Report by International Food Policy Research Institute, USA, 2003)
  • 8. AT WHAT COST…? Excessive chemical inputs – Pollution. • Pesticide use 57, 240 million tonnes (98-99) • Fertilisers -161.88 lakh tons (98-99) Increase in water use (75-85% of total water Usage) • 6 of the 20 major river basins in India suffer from water scarcity. Erosion of crop genetic diversity.
  • 9. The Punjab Story… 4 % land under cultivation ( 42 % for India as a whole) . Only 4% is “forest”! oss of soil fertility – decreasing yield. cute shortage of water (60 out of 118 blocks cannot ustain any more tube wells). .5 % total agricultural land in the country, but
  • 10. Indian Pollution Status… • 33000MLD waste water generated, only 7000MLD is treated. • 1,20,000 TPD Municipal Solid waste generated, 70% collected, only 5% disposed. • 65 cities and towns – air quality un healthy. • 112 MT coal ash/annum, 150MT by 2015. • 40,000 T of e-waste
  • 11. Evidences of impact…
  • 12. How many earths needed to support developmental consumption of resources, at the present rate? (by 2050) Energy - 8 Minerals – 2 Metals - 7 Land - 1.5 Wood – 3.5 Mclaren et al 1998 Tomorrow’s World, Earthscan, London
  • 13. Developmental Activities in general leads to… • Depletion of natural resources • Depletion of Biodiversity • Pollution • Climate Change UNSUSTAINABLE!
  • 14. Global Climate Change… 1.4-5.8 degrees warming by 2100. 9-88 cm sea level rise. Heat waves… Heavy rains Floods… Diseases…
  • 15. We are Witnessing Unprecedented Climatic Changes Mumbai, 2005, 100 cm rainfall in less than 48 h, More than 7 ft Water, 1000 death toll
  • 16. • Over the period of 1995-2004, a total of 2,500 million people were affected by disasters, with losses of 890,000 dead and costs of US$ 570 billion. Most disasters (75%) are related to weather extremes that climate change is expected to exacerbate. • The 2003 European heat wave — involving temperatures that were 18°F (10°C) above the 30-year average, killed 21,000 to 35,000 people in five countries.
  • 17. Diseases.. DENGUE • The number of months with average temperatures higher than 18C and the degree of urbanization were found to correlate with increasing risk of dengue fever (Wu et al, 2009). Temperature affects insect survival time and habitats as well as maturation and infective periods, and higher temperatures shorten the incubation period and viral development rate.
  • 18. Development Vs Environment – The Debate Taking care of We have already wasted millions of people and destroyed vast who are starving at amounts of natural present is more resources, and in so important than doing have put earth at saving natural risk. We must preserve resources. the earth for our children and grand children.
  • 19. Development Vs Environment – The Debate •Developed Vs Developing countries •Rich Vs Poor •Progress Vs Stagnation
  • 20. INSPIRING VOICES……. Birsa Munda Led the people of Chotanagpur to assert their rights over their Land. Icon for tribals struggling for their land and forests..
  • 21. Rachel Carson Her 1962 book Silent Springs changed the way the world saw pesticides and industrial chemicals. Faced a sea of opposition from chemical companies like DuPont, maker of the deadly DDT.
  • 22. Chico Mendes Labor leader from Brazil, defended poor rubber tappers against rich ranchers. Soon, he was fighting to save the Amazon rainforests. Killed in 1988 by ranchers.
  • 23. Lois Gibbs A housewife from New York who led the community to demand evacuation and clean up of Love Canal, a locality initial built on toxic waste dump.
  • 24. Ken Saro-wiwa Fought Nigerian Government and oil companies for polluting the lands of Ogoni people. Hanged in 1995 for his non-violent struggle.
  • 25. Masanobu Fukuwaka His book The One Straw Revolution of 1978 inspired farmers across the world to go organic.
  • 26. WHICH IS THE WAY OUT? CAN DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT GO TOGETHER?
  • 27. Striking a BALANCE…
  • 28. ……BIRTH OF A NEW CONCEPT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  • 29. What is Sustainable Development? “ Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” “Our Common Future” World Commission on Environment and Development The Brundtland Report 1987 Gro Harlem Brundtland
  • 30. “ Sustainable development is a dynamic process, which enables all people to realise their potential And to improve their quality of life in ways which simultaneously protect and enhance the Earth’s life support systems” Forum for the Future
  • 31. OBJECTIVES… Sustainable development has three Overarching objectives and essential requirements: Poverty reduction; Changing unsustainable patterns of production and consumption; Protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social development.
  • 32. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Interacting Systems Economic Environment Social Cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature” The Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (UNESCO, 2001) . Cultural diversity is the fourth policy area of sustainable development?
  • 33. The Important Goals of Sustainable Development ECONOMIC OBJECTIVES * Growth * Equity * Efficiency SOCIAL OBJECTIVES ECOLOGICAL OBJECTIVES * Empowerment * Ecosystem Integrity * Participation * Carrying Capacity * Social Mobility * Biodiversity * Social Cohesion * Global Issues * Cultural Identity * Institutional Development 38
  • 34. Emergence of Sustainable Development Limits of Growth (Club of Rome) 1972 Stockholm Conference 1972 (Eco-development) World Conservation Strategy (IUCN) 1980 Brundtland Commission 1987 (our Common Future) UN Conference on Environment & Development 1992 (Agenda 21) Rio Earth Summit UN Commission on Sustainable Development 1992 National Sustainable Development Action Plans 1992 UNCSD Reviews Progress on Agenda 21 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework 1997 Convention on Climate Change World Summit on Sustainable Development, 2002 Johannesburg (Rio +10) 40
  • 35. AGENDA 21 Action Plan/ Blueprint for Sustainable Development (40 chapters, 300 pages) (Global Agreement on Sustainable Development) • A comprehensive plan of action to be taken up globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the United Nations System and Governments in areas of human impacts on the environment. • Agreed to at the Rio de Janeiro Summit in 1992. • Strongly reaffirmed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) held in Johannesburg, South Africa, 2002
  • 36. • A 21 recognises National governments as the main role actors. • Main focus on Local/Regional governments. • Promotion of participation at grassroots levels.
  • 37. THE ROAD FROM RIO Changing Paradigms PRE - Rio POST-Rio Do more with more Do more with less Throwaway society 3R’s Regulations as the ceiling Best available Control Technology Least cost Least risk Consumerism Environmentally friendly Products Mitigate / control Anticipate / Prevent Use resources Manage resources Planning for profit Integrated planning 43
  • 38. Targets for Sustainable Development in India • Reduction of poverty by 15 percentage points by 2012 ( 21.8% in 2004-5) • Reduction in population growth between 2001 and 2011 to 16.2% (21.34% in 2001) • Increase in literacy rate to 75% by 2012 (65.2% in 2002) • Reduction of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) to 28 by 2012 (72 at 2002) • Reduction of Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) to 1 by 2012 (3 in 2002) • Increase in forest cover to 33% by 2012 (20.60 % or 67.71 million hectares - 2008) • Cleaning of major polluted rivers by by 2012
  • 39. Some important Strategies… • Shifting to renewable/eco-friendly sources of energy (CNG) • Conservation/ afforestation and sustainable forest management practices (JFM) • Efficient, fast and reliable public transport systems (Metro railways). • Cost-effective energy-efficient technologies in electricity generation, transmission distribution, and end-use (CFL). • Chemical-free Agriculture (IPM, NPM) • EIA / Environmental Hearing /CDM… • MOEF/PCBs/Environmental Legislations
  • 40. 2002 The World Summit on Sustainable Development… 27% coral reefs 2.8 billion living Seriously threatened Below poverty line (up from 10%) 1.1 billion lack clean water Extinctions on the rise 10 years after Rio 6 million children Greenhouse gas died from hunger emissions up 9% In 10 years Growing gap between rich & poor
  • 41. When the last tree is cut When the last river is dry When the last fish is caught Then we realise that Money just can’t be eaten THANKS