N M T
V Vs OP
Dr. Jayakara Bhandary M.
GAS College, Karwar – 581301
WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT…?
Enabling the community to meet
everyone’s basic human needs for
food security, housing, health,
clean water and fuel.
It should lead to a dynamic, just
and prosperous Society
WHAT IS ENVIRONMENT…?
Environment means everything surrounding
us, including something that is tangible
(objects) and intangible (culture, belief,and
norm) which associate to each other as
cycle of system.
Everything that surround us.
Includes Flora (vegetation) and Fauna (animals
consists of: AIR, SOIL and WATER
More than 4,000 large dams of over 15 metres
Spent about 919 billion rupees.
Played an important role in increasing farm
productivity, power generation and industrial
(Report by World Commission on Big Dams)
AT WHAT COST..?
• On average, each big dam has submerged
nearly 5,000 hectares of forest.
• In the last 20 years, big dams have swallowed
up 9.1 million hectares of forests.
• 16 million Indian people have been forced
from their homes because of these dams.
• ¾ of these people were not ‘rehabilitated’.
• 4-5fold increase in food production.
• Yield of wheat increased from 2 to 6 metric
tons per hectare.
• Cereal and calorie availability per person
increased by nearly 30%
• Eliminated the threat of starvation of
• Per capita incomes doubled in Asia between
1970 - 1995.
• Poverty declined from 3 out of every 5 Asians in
1975 to less than 1 in 3 by 1995.
• The number of poor fell from 1.15 billion in
1975 to 825 million in 1995 despite a 60 %
increase in population.
• In India, the % of rural Poor was 50 – 65% in
• Declined to about 1/3 of the rural population by
(Report by International Food Policy Research Institute, USA, 2003)
AT WHAT COST…?
Excessive chemical inputs – Pollution.
• Pesticide use 57, 240 million tonnes (98-99)
• Fertilisers -161.88 lakh tons (98-99)
Increase in water use (75-85% of total water Usage)
• 6 of the 20 major river basins in India suffer
from water scarcity.
Erosion of crop genetic diversity.
The Punjab Story…
4 % land under cultivation ( 42 % for India as a
whole) . Only 4% is “forest”!
oss of soil fertility – decreasing yield.
cute shortage of water (60 out of 118 blocks cannot
ustain any more tube wells).
.5 % total agricultural land in the country, but
Indian Pollution Status…
• 33000MLD waste water generated, only
7000MLD is treated.
• 1,20,000 TPD Municipal Solid waste
generated, 70% collected, only 5% disposed.
• 65 cities and towns – air quality un healthy.
• 112 MT coal ash/annum, 150MT by 2015.
• 40,000 T of e-waste
How many earths needed to support
developmental consumption of
resources, at the present rate? (by 2050)
Energy - 8
Minerals – 2
Metals - 7
Land - 1.5
Wood – 3.5
Mclaren et al 1998
Tomorrow’s World, Earthscan, London
in general leads to…
• Depletion of natural
• Depletion of
• Climate Change
warming by 2100.
9-88 cm sea level
We are Witnessing Unprecedented Climatic Changes
Mumbai, 2005, 100 cm rainfall in less than 48 h, More than 7 ft Water, 1000 death toll
• Over the period of 1995-2004, a total of 2,500
million people were affected by disasters, with
losses of 890,000 dead and costs of US$ 570
billion. Most disasters (75%) are related to
weather extremes that climate change is
expected to exacerbate.
• The 2003 European heat wave — involving
temperatures that were 18°F (10°C) above the
30-year average, killed 21,000 to 35,000
people in five countries.
• The number of months with average
temperatures higher than 18C and the
degree of urbanization were found to
correlate with increasing risk of dengue
fever (Wu et al, 2009). Temperature affects
insect survival time and habitats as well as
maturation and infective periods, and
higher temperatures shorten the incubation
period and viral development rate.
Development Vs Environment –
Taking care of We have already wasted
millions of people and destroyed vast
who are starving at amounts of natural
present is more resources, and in so
important than doing have put earth at
saving natural risk. We must preserve
resources. the earth for our children
and grand children.
Development Vs Environment –
•Developed Vs Developing countries
•Rich Vs Poor
•Progress Vs Stagnation
Led the people
to assert their
Icon for tribals
their land and
Her 1962 book Silent
Springs changed the
way the world saw
Faced a sea of
like DuPont, maker of
the deadly DDT.
Labor leader from
Soon, he was
fighting to save
in 1988 by
A housewife from
New York who led
the community to
and clean up of Love
Canal, a locality
initial built on toxic
oil companies for
polluting the lands
of Ogoni people.
Hanged in 1995 for
His book The One
Straw Revolution of
farmers across the
world to go organic.
WHICH IS THE WAY OUT?
……BIRTH OF A NEW CONCEPT
What is Sustainable Development?
“ Development that meets the needs
of the present without compromising
the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs”
“Our Common Future”
World Commission on
Environment and Development
The Brundtland Report 1987
Gro Harlem Brundtland
“ Sustainable development is a dynamic process,
which enables all people to realise their potential
And to improve their quality of life in ways
which simultaneously protect and enhance the
Earth’s life support systems”
Forum for the Future
Sustainable development has three
Overarching objectives and essential
Changing unsustainable patterns of
production and consumption;
Protecting and managing the
natural resource base of economic
and social development.
Cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as
biodiversity is for nature” The Universal Declaration on Cultural
Diversity (UNESCO, 2001) .
Cultural diversity is the fourth policy area of
The Important Goals of Sustainable
SOCIAL OBJECTIVES ECOLOGICAL OBJECTIVES
* Empowerment * Ecosystem Integrity
* Participation * Carrying Capacity
* Social Mobility * Biodiversity
* Social Cohesion * Global Issues
* Cultural Identity
* Institutional Development
Emergence of Sustainable Development
Limits of Growth (Club of Rome) 1972
Stockholm Conference 1972
World Conservation Strategy (IUCN) 1980
Brundtland Commission 1987
(our Common Future)
UN Conference on Environment & Development 1992
(Agenda 21) Rio Earth Summit
UN Commission on Sustainable Development 1992
National Sustainable Development Action Plans 1992
UNCSD Reviews Progress on Agenda 21 1997
Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework 1997
Convention on Climate Change
World Summit on Sustainable Development, 2002
Johannesburg (Rio +10)
Action Plan/ Blueprint for Sustainable Development
(40 chapters, 300 pages)
(Global Agreement on Sustainable Development)
• A comprehensive plan of action to be taken up
globally, nationally and locally by organizations of
the United Nations System and Governments in
areas of human impacts on the environment.
• Agreed to at the Rio de Janeiro Summit in 1992.
• Strongly reaffirmed at the World Summit on
Sustainable Development (WSSD) held in
Johannesburg, South Africa, 2002
• A 21 recognises National
governments as the main role
• Main focus on Local/Regional
• Promotion of participation at
THE ROAD FROM RIO
PRE - Rio POST-Rio
Do more with more Do more with less
Throwaway society 3R’s
Regulations as the ceiling Best available
Least cost Least risk
Mitigate / control Anticipate / Prevent
Use resources Manage resources
Planning for profit Integrated planning
Targets for Sustainable
Development in India
• Reduction of poverty by 15 percentage points by 2012 (
21.8% in 2004-5)
• Reduction in population growth between 2001 and
2011 to 16.2% (21.34% in 2001)
• Increase in literacy rate to 75% by 2012 (65.2%
• Reduction of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) to 28 by
2012 (72 at 2002)
• Reduction of Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) to 1
by 2012 (3 in 2002)
• Increase in forest cover to 33% by 2012 (20.60 % or
67.71 million hectares - 2008)
• Cleaning of major polluted rivers by by 2012
Some important Strategies…
• Shifting to renewable/eco-friendly sources of
• Conservation/ afforestation and sustainable forest
management practices (JFM)
• Efficient, fast and reliable public transport
systems (Metro railways).
• Cost-effective energy-efficient technologies in
electricity generation, transmission distribution,
and end-use (CFL).
• Chemical-free Agriculture (IPM, NPM)
• EIA / Environmental Hearing /CDM…
• MOEF/PCBs/Environmental Legislations
2002 The World Summit
on Sustainable Development…
27% coral reefs 2.8 billion living
Seriously threatened Below poverty line
(up from 10%)
1.1 billion lack
clean water Extinctions
on the rise
10 years after Rio
6 million children Greenhouse gas
died from hunger emissions up 9%
In 10 years
between rich & poor
When the last tree is cut
When the last river is dry
When the last fish is caught
Then we realise that
Money just can’t be eaten