Sacred groves of karnataka, india
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Sacred groves of karnataka, india

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The conservation significance of sacred groves of Karnataka

The conservation significance of sacred groves of Karnataka

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  • 1. GOD’S OWN PHARMACIES - THE SACRED GROVES OF UDUPI AND DAKSHINA KANNADA AS THE TREASURE HOUSES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS DR. JAYAKARA BHANDARY M. PRESENTED IN: NATIONAL SEMINAR ON MEDICINAL PLANTS- PROMOTION & PROTECTION PLANTS- MM SCIENCE COLLEGE, SIRSI OCTOBER 4 & 5, 2008
  • 2. WHAT ARE SACRED GROVES ? Pieces of vegetation existing at present as a consequence of religious refugia offered to them are called sacred groves. Traditional, community-linked, oldest form of forest conservation. Occur in Asia, Africa, Europe, America and Australia. Early manifestation of nature worship, played important role in conservation of forest and constituent biodiversity elements.. Models to be examined and explored to transform forest conservation a community oriented process.
  • 3. In India, about 13,720 sacred groves have been enumerated so far from 19 states. From Karnataka, sacred groves have been reported from the districts of Uttara Kannada, Shimoga, Kodagu, Udupi and Dakshina Kannada. Locally called Devarakadu, Nagabana, Kan, Bhootha bana, Pavithra vana…. Named after a variety of local deities, managed by local agrarian communities/families
  • 4. State-wise distribution of Sacred Groves Underestimation!
  • 5. Extensively studied in Kerala, Maharashtra, Himachala Pradesh…… Last shelters of natural vegetation in many parts of India Repository of valuable biodiversity, especially endemic, rare and economically valuable plants (medicinal). In Kerala, SG’s of 1.42 sq. km. Encompasses 722 angiosperm species while 90 sq. km. Of Silent Valley has just 960 sps. A new species Kunstleria keralensis (Fabaceae)reported only from sacred groves
  • 6. In Karnataka, some studies undertaken in Udupi, Dakshina Kannada, Shimogga, Kodagu and Uttara Kannada. 1214 SG’s recorded from Kodagu – total extent is 2550.45 ha. Kans of Uttara Kannada – rich in endemics like Myristica spp. Garcinia spp. Natural strands of Vateria indica found only in SG’s! A new tree species Semecarpus kathlekanensis (Anacardiaceae) reported from Kathlekan SG (Myristica swamp).
  • 7. Semecarpus kathlekanensis A new species reported from the Kathlekan sacred grove (Myristica swamps) of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka Only about 250 plants all over the world – Tree species with smallest population!
  • 8. SG’s of Udupi and Dakshina Kannada – little scientific attention. Network of numerous small SG’s dedicated to Naga (serpent god) and local Bhoothas. Individually smaller in size, collectively of great conservation significance. Managed by agrarian families (Family groves)
  • 9. Total villages No. villages No. SG’s recorded surveyed Dakshina 90 2144 Kannada- 374 Udupi - 254 6 482 Total- 628 96 2626 GLOBAL HOTSPOT OF SACRED GROVES!? Ref: Achar K. P. and Nayak V. S. , 2006. Dakshina Kannadada Devara kadugalu (in Kannada).
  • 10. Traditional Deities of sacred groves
  • 11. Preliminary studies indicate that….. Last shelters of natural vegetation in coastal regions. Rich in plant diversity. Rich in Endemic species, medicinal plants, RET species.
  • 12. Repository of huge trees and liana…….. Liana of stunning girth Gigantic wild mango tree (Entada purseatha)
  • 13. Albizia lebbeck/Mimosaceae/Bage Alstonia scholaris/Apocynaceae/Pale Aphanamixis polystachya/Meliaceae/Rohituka Barringtonia racemosa/Lecythidaceae/Samudrapala Bauhinia malabarica/Papilionaceae/Mandara Calophyllum inophyllum/Guttiferae/Ponnekai mara Cinnamomum verum/Lauraceae/Ijin Drypetes roxburghii/Euphorbiaceae/Putranjeeva Ficus benghalensis/Moraceae/Alada mara Ficus microcarpa/Moraceae/Ittida mara Ficus racemosa/Moraceae/Arthi mara Garcinia gummigutta/Guttiferae/Uppage puli Garcinia indica/ Guttiferae/Punarpuli Garcinia morella/Guttiferae/Ardala Hydnocarpus pentandra/Flacourtiaceae/Surante Madhuca neriifolia/Sapotaceae/Irpe
  • 14. Mallotus philippensis/ Euphorbiaceae/Kunkumada mara Euphorbiaceae/ Nothopegia racemosa/Anacardiaceae Nothopodytes nimnoniana/Icacinaceae/Durvasane mara Icacinaceae/ Oroxylum indicum/Bignoniaceae/Anemoonku Bignoniaceae/ Pajanelia longifolia/Bignoniaceae/Mandeli pale Bignoniaceae/ Pterocarpus marsupium/Papilionaceae/Bengada mara Papilionaceae/ Sterculia foetida/Sterculiaceae/Peenari Sterculiaceae/ Tabernaemontana heyneana/Apocynaceae/Kokke kayi Apocynaceae/ Terminalia bellirica/Combretaceae/Shanthi kayi Combretaceae/ Zanthoxylum rhetsa/Rutaceae/Kare mara Rutaceae/ Many are RET species
  • 15. Climbers and Shrubs: Alangium salvifolium/ Alangiaceae/Ankole Alangiaceae/ Anamirta cocculus/ Menispermaceae/Chiplotte Menispermaceae/ Cassia spp./ Caesalpiniaceae Clerodendrum spp./ Verbenaceae Costus speciosus/Zingiberaceae/ Nayi karumbu Zingiberaceae/ Cyclea peltata/ Menispermaceae/Padala Menispermaceae/ Gloriosa superba/ Liliaceae/Gouri poo Liliaceae/ Ixora coccinea/Rubiaceace/ Kepula Rubiaceace/ Jasminum malabaricum/ Oleaceae/Adroli Oleaceae/ Memecylon malabaricum/ Melastomataceae/Ollekodi Melastomataceae/ Salacia chinensis/ Salaciaceae/Akanayaka Salaciaceae/ Uvaria narum/ Annonaceae/Kariya maderi Annonaceae/ Ventilago madraspatana/ Rhamnaceae/Aithal Rhamnaceae/ Vitex negundo/ Verbenaceae/Nekki Verbenaceae/
  • 16. Ampelocissus latifolia / Vitaceae Nothopodytes nimnoniana / Icacinaceae Cissus repens / Vitaceae Anamirta cocculus / Menispermaceae Capparis floribunda / Capparidaceae Hydnocarpus pentandra / Flacourtiaceae Garcinia morella / Cluciaceae Sterculia foetida / Sterculiaceae Aphanamixis polystachya / Meliaceae Nothopegia racemosa / Anacardiaceae Syzygium lanceolatum / Myrtaceae Lagerstroemia microcarpa /Lagerstromiaceae Drypetes roxburghii / Euphorbiaceae Blepharistemma membranifolia / Rhizophoraceae Ref: Bhat, K. G. 2003. Flora of Udupi.
  • 17. Some Medicinal species commonly found in sacred groves of Coastal Karnataka………
  • 18. Freshwater swamps..highly threatened habitats…
  • 19. THREATS TO SACRED GROVES • ENCROACHMENT • REJUVANATION – SANSKRITISATION • EROSION OF TRADITIONAL BELIEFS • FRAGMENTATION OF AGRARIAN FAMILIES
  • 20. Inside view of a sacred grove – deity is only symbolical, importance and reverence to the grove
  • 21. Deities of modernised sacred groves – only concrete and stone structures, Reverence only to the deity!
  • 22. Newly added concrete structures A sacred grove partially destroyed during renovation
  • 23. WHEN THE LAST TREE IS CUT WHEN THE LAST RIVER IS DRY WHEN THE LAST FISH IS CAUGHT THEN WE REALISE THAT MONEY JUST CAN’T BE EATEN THANKS Dr. Jayakara Bhandary M. Department of Botany Government Arts and Science College Karwar – 581301 jaikarb@yahoo.com