Morphology of fruits

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Different morphological types of fruits in angiosperms

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Morphology of fruits

  1. 1. MORPHOLOGY OF FRUITS Created by using various internet Resources for Educational Purpose only by Dr. M. Jayakara Bhandary Associate Professor of BotanyPhoto: Dinesh Nayak Vittla Government College Karwar -581301
  2. 2. What is a fruit?A mature or ripened ovary formed after fertilization is called fruit. Ovary wall – Pericarp Ovule- seed
  3. 3. Parts of Fruits Fruit Ripened ovary Pericarp Seed Covering of ovary Ovule developmentEpicarp Mesocarp Endocarp Outermost Middle layer Innermost layer
  4. 4. Types of Fruits1. True fruits Ovary of the flowers grows into the fruit.2. Peudo-fruits/False fruits It is often found that other floral parts such as thalamus, receptacle or calyx, may grow and form a part of fruit.
  5. 5. Types of the fruits• Depending upon the number of fruits developing from a flower (which depends on number of carpels present in the flowers), the fruits are classified:
  6. 6. Fruit Composite/ Aggregate Simple fruit multiple fruit fruit Fleshy Dry fruit fruitDehiscen Indehiscen Schizocarpi t t c
  7. 7. Types of Fruits
  8. 8. Simple Fruits• Single fruit from a flower – Dry simple • Dry Dehiscent – dehisce automatically – Legume – Follicle – Siliqua – Capsule • Dry Indehiscent- no dehiscence – Caryopsis – Achene – Samara – Cypsella – Nut • Schizocarpic – splitting to many one seeded bits – Lomentum – Cremocarp – Regma
  9. 9. Simple Fruits contd….• Fleshy simple Fruits – Drupes – Berry – Pepo – Pome – Hesperidium
  10. 10. Aggregate Fruits• Flowers with many apocarpous (free) ovaries – many fruits from a single flower: – Aggregate/Etaerio of Follicles – Aggregate/Etaerio of Achenes – Aggregate/Etaerio of Drupes – Aggregate/Etaerio of Berries
  11. 11. Composite or Multiple Fruits• One fruit from an entire inflorescence – Sorosis – from spadix/spike inflorescences (Jackfruit, Pineapple) – Syconus – from hypanthodium (Eg. Fig)
  12. 12. LegumeFrom monocarpellery,single chambered Ovary.Seeds in marginalplacentation.Splits along bothmargins.
  13. 13. FollicleDry monocarpellary, singlechambered, burst from one suture ,Ex. Calotropis
  14. 14. SiliquaSplit frombelowupwards,Seeds attachedto centralReplumEx. Mustard
  15. 15. SiliculaA short siliquaEx. Shepherdspurse
  16. 16. CapsuleMultilocular, manyseeded fruit.From bi-polycarpellarysyncarpous ovary.Different typesbased nature ofdehiscence
  17. 17. CaryopsisOne seeded fruitfrommonocarpelleryovary.Pericarp fusedwith testa.Ex. Paddy, Grassfruits
  18. 18. AcheneOne seeded fruitfrommonocarpelleryovary.Pericarp free fromtesta.Ex. Mirabilis
  19. 19. Samara• Winged fruitsone /two seeded fruitswith flattened wing likeout growthsEx. Terminalia
  20. 20. Cypsella• One seeded fruit from an inferior Ovary• Ex. Sunflower
  21. 21. • One seeded Nut fruit with a hard covering
  22. 22. Schizocarpic Fruits Intermediate between dehiscent and indehiscent• Lomentum – Splitting into many one seeded pieces – Ex: Mimosa, Ground nut
  23. 23. CremocarpFrom bicarpellary syncarpousbilocular ovary,2 chambered fruit – one seed ineach chamber.Splits into two pieces calledmericarps which remain attachedto a central stalk calledcarpophore.Ex. Coriandrum, Fennel
  24. 24. RegmaFrom trilocular ovary,3-chambered withseeds in axileplacentation.Each chamber withsingle seed separates,Remains attached tothe centralcarpophore.Ex. Castor
  25. 25. Fleshy Fruits - Drupes
  26. 26. Berry
  27. 27. Pepo
  28. 28. Hesperidium
  29. 29. Aggregate of Follicles
  30. 30. Aggregate of Berries
  31. 31. Multiple/composite fruit Composed of a number of closely associated flowers aggregate together is called multiple fruit.1. Sorosis Developing from spike in which flowers fused by sepals and becomes woody. Pineapple2. Syconus Developing from hypanthodium, pear-shaped which encloses number of minute male and female flowers. Banyan, peepul, fig.

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