MORPHOLOGY OF FRUITS Created by using various internet Resources for Educational Purpose only by Dr. M. Jayakara Bhandary Associate Professor of BotanyPhoto: Dinesh Nayak Vittla Government College Karwar -581301
What is a fruit?A mature or ripened ovary formed after fertilization is called fruit. Ovary wall – Pericarp Ovule- seed
Parts of Fruits Fruit Ripened ovary Pericarp Seed Covering of ovary Ovule developmentEpicarp Mesocarp Endocarp Outermost Middle layer Innermost layer
Types of Fruits1. True fruits Ovary of the flowers grows into the fruit.2. Peudo-fruits/False fruits It is often found that other floral parts such as thalamus, receptacle or calyx, may grow and form a part of fruit.
Types of the fruits• Depending upon the number of fruits developing from a flower (which depends on number of carpels present in the flowers), the fruits are classified:
Fruit Composite/ Aggregate Simple fruit multiple fruit fruit Fleshy Dry fruit fruitDehiscen Indehiscen Schizocarpi t t c
Aggregate Fruits• Flowers with many apocarpous (free) ovaries – many fruits from a single flower: – Aggregate/Etaerio of Follicles – Aggregate/Etaerio of Achenes – Aggregate/Etaerio of Drupes – Aggregate/Etaerio of Berries
Composite or Multiple Fruits• One fruit from an entire inflorescence – Sorosis – from spadix/spike inflorescences (Jackfruit, Pineapple) – Syconus – from hypanthodium (Eg. Fig)
LegumeFrom monocarpellery,single chambered Ovary.Seeds in marginalplacentation.Splits along bothmargins.
FollicleDry monocarpellary, singlechambered, burst from one suture ,Ex. Calotropis
Schizocarpic Fruits Intermediate between dehiscent and indehiscent• Lomentum – Splitting into many one seeded pieces – Ex: Mimosa, Ground nut
CremocarpFrom bicarpellary syncarpousbilocular ovary,2 chambered fruit – one seed ineach chamber.Splits into two pieces calledmericarps which remain attachedto a central stalk calledcarpophore.Ex. Coriandrum, Fennel
Multiple/composite fruit Composed of a number of closely associated flowers aggregate together is called multiple fruit.1. Sorosis Developing from spike in which flowers fused by sepals and becomes woody. Pineapple2. Syconus Developing from hypanthodium, pear-shaped which encloses number of minute male and female flowers. Banyan, peepul, fig.