REPRODUCTION IN MARCHANTIA Reproduction: Vegetative: 1. By Fragmentation: 2. Formation of adventitious branches: 3. Formation of Gemmae: Gemmae are multicellular bodies, develop inside gemma cups, on the upper surface of thallus, in midrib region. • They are green, flat, biconvex structures with a short, single celled stalk. • Several cells thick in the middle, deeply notched at the edges. • Meristematic cells present below the notches • Majority cells are green chlorenchymatous. Some cells contain oil- oil cells • Some cells on the surface are colourless- rhizoidal cells – develop into future rhizoids. • Along with gemmae, mucilage cells found in the cup, secrete mucilage which swells and helps in detachment of gemmae. • Gemmae fall on soil and germinate. Rhizoidal cells develop into rhizoids. Meristematic cells of the notch develop into two separate plants. Middle portion decay.Sexual Reproduction: Oogamous type. Thalli are sexually dimorphic or heterothallic, male plants produceantheridiophores and female plants produce archegoniophores at their tips.Structure of Antheridiophore: Consists of a long stalk and a 8-lobed disc-like receptacle at the tip.Antheridia are embedded in the upper surface of each lobe of the disc, in pit-like cavities called antheridialchambers. Alternating with the antheridial chambers, air chambers are present (structure similar to thallus)Antheridia are arranged in acropetal order. Each antheridium is ovoid, with a multicellular stalk. (Structure ofantheridium and spermatozoid similar to that of Riccia).