DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY Government Arts and Science College, Karwar Syllabus of Botany (B. Sc. Course – Karnataka University) Semester V Paper V:DIVERSITY OF ANGIOSPERMS AND THEIR SYSTEMATICSUnit 1 : Angiosperms: Origin and evolution. Morphology of root, stem and leaf . Their modifications forvarious functions. Inflorescence – types. Flower as a modified shhot, structure and variations of flower.Floral diagram and floral formula. Fruits – types. 14 hrsUnit 2: Angiosperm Taxonomy: Brief history, botanical nomenclature, principles and rules, taxonomicranks, type concept and principle of priority. 5 hrsUnit 3:Classification of Angiosperms: Systems proposed by Bentham and Hooker and Engler and Prantl.Their slient features, merits and demerits. Major contributions of cytology ( Cytotaxonomy), phytochemistry (Chemotaxonomy) and taximetrics (Numerical taxonomy) to taxonomy. 5 hrsUnit 4:Diversity of flowering plants as illustrated by members of the following families: Magnoliaceae,Annonaceae, Brassicaceae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Anacardiaceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Combretaceae,Cucurbitaceae, Apiaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae, Apocyanaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Solanaceae,Convolvulaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Acanthaceae, Verbenaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaranthaceae,Euphorbiaceae, Urticaceae, Orchidaceae, Liliaceae, Arecaceae and Poaceae.20 hrs.Unit 5:Herbarium techniques, botanical gardens and Botanical Survey of India and its functions. 2 hrs. List of Books available in College Library 1. ATB of Botany-Angiosperms by V.Singh (Rastogi Publications) 2. Taxonomy of Angiosperms by B.P.Pandey (S.Chand Publications) 3. Fundamentals of Botany by Biligramy (Vikas Publications) 4. Modern Practical Botany Vol II by B.P.Pandey (S.Chand Publications) 5. Taxonomy of Angiosperms by P.C.Vasishta (S.Chand Publications) 6. Botany by A.C.Dutta (Oxford university press) 7. College Botany Vol III by S.Sundar Rajan ( Himalaya Publishing House) 8. Introductory Botany by Bendre and Kumar (Rastogi Publications) 9. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants by Lawrence (Oxford and IBH Pub) 10. Taxonomy of Angiosperms by Singh, Pandey and Jain (Rastogi Pub) 11. Angiosperms by G.L.Chopra (Pradeep Publications) Paper VI: ECOLOGY AND UTILISATION OF PLANTSUnit 1:Plants and Environment: Atmosphere (gaseous composition), Water (properties of water cycle),Light (global radiation, photosynthetically active radiation), Temperature, soil (development, soil profiles,physico-chemical properties) and Biota.
Morphological, anatomical and physiological responses of plants to water (hydrophytes, xerophytes andepiphytes), temperature (Thermo-periodicity and vernalisation), light ( photoperiodism, heliophytes andsciophytes) and salinity 10 hrsUnit 2: Population Ecology: Growth curves, ecotypes and ecades. Community ecology: communitycharaqcteristics- frequency, density, cover, life forms , biological spectrum, ecological succession-hydrarch and xerarch. 5 hrsUnit 3:Ecosystems: Structure – biotic and abiotic components, food chain, food web, ecological pyramids,energy flow, bio-geo chemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. 8 hrs.Unit 4:Vegetation types of the world: Bio-geographical regions of India. Vegetation types of Karnatakaand India and their distribution. 6 hrs.Unit 5:Conservation of Natural Resources: Over exploitation, forest management, sanctuaries andnational parks. 8 hrs.Unit 6:Origin, distribution, botanical names and uses of the following: a)Food plants: rice, wheat, maize, pulses, potato and sugarcane b)Fibres: Cotton and jute c)Vegetable oils: groundnut, sunflower and coconut d)General account of sources of firewood, timber – teak, sissoo e)Paper and Pulp: Bamboo and Eucalyptus f)Spices: General account g)Medicinal Plants: General account h)Beverages: Tea and coffee i)Rubber: Heavea 9 hrs. List of Books available in College Library 1. ATB of Botany by S.N.Pandey and A.Chadha (Vikas Publications) 2. ATB of Plant Ecology by V.Verma (Emkay Publications) 3. Economic Botany by B.P.Pandey (S.Chand Publications) 4. Modern Concepts of Ecology by H.D.Kumar (Vikas Publishing House) 5. Concepts of Ecology by P.S.Verma and Agarwal (S.Chand Publications) 6. Environmental Studies by D.K. Asthana (S.Chand Publications) 7. Ecology and Environment by P.D.Sharma (Rastogi Publications) 8. Economic Botany by S.Sen (New Central Agency) 9. Plant Ecology,Phytogeography and Palaeobotany by Ganguli and Kumar (Emkay ) 10. Plant Ecology by Chandel and Shukla (S.Chand Publications) 11. Plant Ecology and Soil Science by Chandel and Shukla (S.Chand Publications) 12. Plant Ecology by P.C.Vasishta (S.Chand Publications) 13. Ecology by M.T.Arora (Himalaya Publications) 14. Environmental Biology by P.S.Verma and Agarwal ( S.Chand Publications) 15. Ecology for B.Sc. III Students by Singh, Pandey and Jain (Rastogi Publications) 16. Plant Ecology by P.L.Kochhar
SEMESTER V1 PAPER V11: CELL BIOLOGY, GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGYUnit 1. Ultra-structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, Structure and function of nucleus, ultra-structure ofnuclear membrane and nucleolus. 5hrsUnit 2. Structure and function of plastids, mitochondria, golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes andvacuoles. The cell envelopes- plasma membrane , bilayer lipid structure and its functions. The cell wall.Unit 3. Chromosome organization- Morphology, centromere and telomere. Chromosomal alterations- deletion,duplication, translocation, inversions. Variation in chromosome number- aneuploidy and euploidy. Sexchromosomes. DNA structure, replication, DNA protein interaction. The nucleosome model, genetic code, satelliteand repetitive DNA. Mitosis and meiosis, their significance.Unit 4. Genetic inheritance – Mendelism, Laws of segregation (monohybrid, dihybrid and tri hybrid ratios) andindependent assortment, Linkage and linkage analysis and sex-linked inheritance. Gene interaction-allelic and nonallelic. Problems related to the above topics.Gene expression - structure of gene, transfer of genetic information, transcription, translation and protein synthesis,tRNA, ribosomes, regulation of gene expression in pro- and eukaryotes.Unit 5. Genetic variations - -spontaneous and induced. Transposable genetic elements, DNA damage and repair.Extra nuclear genome - presence and function of mitochondria and plastid DNA, Plasmids. PAPER V111: EVOLUTION, PLANT BREEDING AND BIOTECHNOLOGYUnit 1. Origin of life. Lamarkism, Darwinism, Mutational and modern concepts of evolution.Unit 2. Plant breeding- History and objectives. Plant propagation-cutting, grafting, layering, gooting and clones.Pollination and its types. Hybridisation -interspecific and intergeneric. Germplasm and its maintenance. Pollenbanks. Querantine methods.Unit 3. Male sterility – types, production and significance in plant breeding.Unit 4. Genetic engineering – tools and techniques of recombinant DNA technology. Cloning vectors. Genomicand cDNA library. DNA fingerprinting, gene therapy and stem cell. Techniques of gene mapping and chromosomewalking.Unit 5. Plant tissue culture-scope and significance, Basic aspects. Cellular totipotency, differentiation andmorphogenesis. Biology of agrobacterium, marker genes and transgenic plants.Unit 6. Immunology –immuno systems. Immunotechniques in agriculture, medicine and industries. ELISA methodto detect plant diseases, Monoclonal antibodies.