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Ecology and Biodiversity Of Mangroves



Biodiversity and ecological significance of mangroves of India

Biodiversity and ecological significance of mangroves of India



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Ecology and Biodiversity Of Mangroves  Ecology and Biodiversity Of Mangroves Presentation Transcript

  • MANGROVES FOR COASTAL SUSTAINABILITY Presented in Workshop on Environmental Stability Through Preservation and Restorations of the Ecological Balance Sirsi, Uttara Kannada 29-30 October 2010 KSCST & Forestry College, Sirsi Dr. M. Jayakara Bhandary Department of Botany Government Arts and Science College Karwar – 581301 mbjaikar@gmail.com
  • Coasts are very important! Coastal Areas of the World - Resource Rich Most inhabited, Exploited Geographical Units Supports 50% Global Population Provides 90% global fish supply Sink for 90% of River load/Pollutants Anything that affects the Coastal Ecological Balance affect smajority of People on Earth!
  • Demand for Space & Resources Rich & Productive Needs Protection & Tourism Potential Conservation Coastal Serene & Critical & Beautiful Changing Environment Globally Significant Modified from: Sudarshan et al., 2000, Subtle Issues in Coastal Management, IIRS
  • Fragile & Prone for Natural Disasters…. Super Cyclone (1999) Winds of 160 mile speed, More than 10,000 deaths, Coast of Orissa washed away! Deadly Tsunami (2004) Waves of 10 mt height, 10,880 deaths (in India), Total about 2,30,000, 13 countries affected. Worst hit – Indonesia, Thailand, Srilanka & India. Floods…
  • Post- Disaster Analysis.. Eye Openers on the ecological value of Coastal Ecosystems!? Mangroves were associated with statistically significant reductions in human deaths during the cyclone that struck the eastern coast of India in 1999. October 1999. Source: Mangroves protected villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone, Saudamini Das and Jeffrey R. Vincent, 2009 www.pnas.org_cgi_doi_10.1073_pnas.0810440106
  • Pre-tsunami—Simulation models illustrated that a wide (100 m) belt of dense mangrove trees (referred to as a “greenbelt”) could reduce a tsunami pressure flow by more than 90% (Hiraishi and Harada, 2003). Post tsunami—In an area of S.E. India there was significantly less damage where mangroves had been conserved (Danielsen et al., 2005; Science)
  • Ecological Value of MANGROVES rediscovered…? What are Mangroves? Mangroves are woody plants that grow along the land‐sea interface, bays, estuaries, lagoons, backwaters, and in the rivers, reaching upstream up to the point where the water still remains saline (Qasim, l998). These plants and their associated organisms (microbes, fungi, other plants and animals) constitute the ‘mangrove forest community’ or ‘mangal’. The mangal and its associated abiotic factors constitute the mangrove ecosystem.
  • Global Distribution…. 120 tropical and Sub tropical Countries. 18.1 milion ha. Source: Spalding et al., 1997, The World Mangrove Atlas
  • Mangroves of India…. Occurs along the East Coast (80%) and West Coast (20%). 3-4% of Global Extent Area estimates range from 7 lac ha. to 3.6 lac ha. 4,639 Km2 - 2007 Sundarbans, Mahanadi Delta, Picchavaram, Cauvery Delta, Godavari- Krishna Estuarine Complex, Andaman-Nicobar Islands – notable mangrove locations.
  • State-wise mangrove cover -2005 (in sq. km.)
  • Speciality of Sundarbans…….. Contains 37 species of 'obligate' mangrove plants stretched over km2 an area of 2,200 km2, the largest diversity of mangrove Globe. plants on the Globe. This is also the only mangrove area on earth that is inhabited tigers. by tigers. It also contains 127 species of euryhaline fish, a total of 1287 animal species comprising 873 invertebrates, one species of Hemichordata, Hemichordata, and 413 species vertebrates. of vertebrates.
  • Mangroves of Karnataka Official Estimates 2 - 3 Km2 - Underestimated! Along estuaries, Fringing Type Kali, Aghanashini, Sharavathi, Kundapura, Nethravathi – main locations Fragmented Patches
  • Mangroves of Kali Estuary 14 out of 15 True mangrove species of Karnataka grow here
  • Floral Diversity Global – About 90 species India East Coast – 60 species West Coast – 34 species True Mangroves- Exclusive mangroves Mangrove Associates – Also found outside mangrove habitats Rhizophoraceae, Avicenniaceae, Sonneratiaceae – Major families
  • Mangrove diversity….. Excoecaria agallocha Aegiceras corniculatum Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Acrostichum aureum Lumnitzera racemosa (Mangrove fern)
  • Species Diversity
  • Mangrove associates Derris spp. Clerodendrum sp. Premna sp. Dolichandrone spathaceae Pongamia sp. Cyperus sp. Canavalia sp. Caesalpina crista
  • Biological Speciality – Highly adapted to mangrove habitats
  • Vivipary
  • ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE •Coastal Shore Protection - Bioshields •Breeding Ground for crabs, shrimps, Fishes •Tsunami/Cyclone Protection ? •Nutrient source for marine Food Web •Habitat for Birds, other animals •Source of Firewood and other domestic needs •Carbon Sequestering •Eco-Tourism Spots •Educational/Research materials
  • mangrove forests sustain more than 70 direct human activities, ranging fuel‐ from fuel‐wood collection to fisheries (Dixon, 1989; Lucy, 2006). Fix greater amounts of CO2 per unit area, than what the phytoplankton do in the tropical oceans (Kathiresan & Bingham, 2001). capable of accumulating and storing carbon in the soil in large quantities. A 20‐ 20‐year old plantation of mangroves m‐ stores 11.6 kg m‐2 of carbon with C m‐ yr‐ burial rate of 580 g m‐2 yr‐1 (Fujimoto, 2000) support 30% of fish catch and almost 100% of shrimp catch in South-East Asian countries
  • THREATS……Most threatened! Deforestation / Land reclamation Sand/Shell mining Prawn/fish Farming Reduction in Freshwater discharge Tourism activities/ Other coastal developmental Pressures
  • The planet has lost 35% of its mangrove forests over the last twenty years. The rate of loss of mangroves each year tops the loss of the rainforest at 2.1% The countries that were hit hardest by the tsunami – Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand – have experienced recent net losses of mangrove cover. Between 1980 – 2000, the total area of mangroves in these four countries was reduced by 28%%, from over 5 million to 3.6 million hectares.
  • Photo: Gertrud & Helmut Denzau/Sanctuary Photolibrary Mangroves sequester carbon but could be climate change’s first victims.
  • Conservation Protected Areas – Sundarban, Gulf of Mannar ( BR), Bhitar Kannika (NP), Coringa Sanctuary, etc. About 16, 500 ha Afforestation / Enhancement Inventorisation / Survey Public Education / Awareness Local Involvement / Economic Incentives National Programme – MOEF – 1986-87
  • Thank you…..