Ecology and Biodiversity Of Mangroves

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Biodiversity and ecological significance of mangroves of India

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Ecology and Biodiversity Of Mangroves

  1. 1. MANGROVES FOR COASTAL SUSTAINABILITY Presented inWorkshop on Environmental StabilityThrough Preservation and Restorations of the Ecological BalancePreservation and Restorations of the Ecological Balance Sirsi, Uttara Kannada 29-30 October 2010 KSCST & Forestry College, Sirsi Dr. M. Jayakara Bhandary Department of Botany Government Arts and Science College Karwar – 581301 mbjaikar@gmail.com
  2. 2. Coasts are very important! Coastal Areas of the World - Resource Rich Most inhabited, Exploited Geographical Units Supports 50% Global Population Provides 90% global fish supplyfish supply Sink for 90% of River load/Pollutants Anything that affects the Coastal Ecological Balance affect smajority of People on Earth!
  3. 3. Coastal Rich & Productive Critical &Serene & TourismPotential NeedsProtection& Conservation Demand for Space & Resources Environment Critical & Changing Globally Significant Serene & Beautiful TourismPotential NeedsProtection& Conservation Modified from: Sudarshan et al.,2000, Subtle Issues in Coastal Management, IIRS
  4. 4. Fragile & Prone for Natural Disasters…. Super Cyclone (1999) Winds of 160 mile speed, More than 10,000 deaths, Coast of Orissa washed away! Deadly Tsunami (2004)Deadly Tsunami (2004) Waves of 10 mt height, 10,880 deaths (in India),Total about 2,30,000, 13 countries affected.Worst hit – Indonesia, Thailand, Srilanka & India. Floods…
  5. 5. MangrovesMangrovesMangrovesMangroves were associatedwere associatedwere associatedwere associated withwithwithwith statistically significantstatistically significantstatistically significantstatistically significant reductions in human deathsreductions in human deathsreductions in human deathsreductions in human deaths during theduring theduring theduring the cyclonecyclonecyclonecyclone that struckthat struckthat struckthat struck Post- Disaster Analysis.. Eye Openers on the ecological value of Coastal Ecosystems!? during theduring theduring theduring the cyclonecyclonecyclonecyclone that struckthat struckthat struckthat struck the eastern coast of India inthe eastern coast of India inthe eastern coast of India inthe eastern coast of India in October 1999October 1999October 1999October 1999.... Source: Mangroves protected villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone, Saudamini Das and Jeffrey R.Vincent, 2009 www.pnas.org_cgi_doi_10.1073_pnas.0810440106
  6. 6. Pre-tsunami—Simulation models illustrated that a wide (100 m) belt of dense mangrove trees (referred to as a “greenbelt”) could reduce a tsunami pressure flow by more than 90% (Hiraishi and Harada, 2003).90% (Hiraishi and Harada, 2003). Post tsunami—In an area of S.E. India there was significantly less damage where mangroves had been conserved (Danielsen et al., 2005; Science)
  7. 7. Ecological Value of MANGROVES rediscovered…? What are Mangroves? Mangroves are woody plants that grow along the land‐sea interface, bays, estuaries, lagoons, backwaters, and in the rivers, reaching upstream up to the point where the water still remains saline (Qasim, l998).saline (Qasim, l998). These plants and their associated organisms (microbes, fungi, other plants and animals) constitute the ‘mangrove forest community’ or ‘mangal’. The mangal and its associated abiotic factors constitute the mangrove ecosystem.
  8. 8. Global Distribution…. 120 tropical and Sub tropical Countries. 18.1 milion ha.ha. Source: Spalding et al., 1997,TheWorld Mangrove Atlas
  9. 9. Mangroves of India…. Occurs along the East Coast (80%) and West Coast (20%). 3-4% of Global Extent Area estimates range from 7 lac ha. to 3.6 lac ha. 4,639 Km2 - 20074,639 Km2 - 2007 Sundarbans, Mahanadi Delta, Picchavaram, Cauvery Delta, Godavari- Krishna Estuarine Complex, Andaman-Nicobar Islands – notable mangrove locations.
  10. 10. State-wise mangrove cover -2005 (in sq. km.)
  11. 11. Speciality of Sundarbans……..Speciality of Sundarbans……..Speciality of Sundarbans……..Speciality of Sundarbans…….. ContainsContainsContainsContains 37373737 speciesspeciesspeciesspecies ofofofof 'obligate''obligate''obligate''obligate' mangrovemangrovemangrovemangrove plantsplantsplantsplants stretchedstretchedstretchedstretched overoveroverover anananan areaareaareaarea ofofofof 2222,,,,200200200200 kmkmkmkm2222,,,, thethethethe largestlargestlargestlargest diversitydiversitydiversitydiversity ofofofof mangrovemangrovemangrovemangrove plantsplantsplantsplants onononon thethethethe GlobeGlobeGlobeGlobe.... ThisThisThisThis isisisis alsoalsoalsoalso thethethethe onlyonlyonlyonly mangrovemangrovemangrovemangrove areaareaareaarea onononon earthearthearthearth thatthatthatthat isisisis inhabitedinhabitedinhabitedinhabitedareaareaareaarea onononon earthearthearthearth thatthatthatthat isisisis inhabitedinhabitedinhabitedinhabited bybybyby tigerstigerstigerstigers.... ItItItIt alsoalsoalsoalso containscontainscontainscontains 127127127127 speciesspeciesspeciesspecies ofofofof euryhalineeuryhalineeuryhalineeuryhaline fish,fish,fish,fish, aaaa totaltotaltotaltotal ofofofof 1287128712871287 animalanimalanimalanimal speciesspeciesspeciesspecies comprisingcomprisingcomprisingcomprising 873873873873 invertebrates,invertebrates,invertebrates,invertebrates, oneoneoneone speciesspeciesspeciesspecies ofofofof HemichordataHemichordataHemichordataHemichordata,,,, andandandand 413413413413 speciesspeciesspeciesspecies ofofofof vertebratesvertebratesvertebratesvertebrates....
  12. 12. Mangroves of Karnataka Official Estimates 2 - 3 Km2 - Underestimated! Along estuaries, Fringing TypeFringing Type Kali, Aghanashini, Sharavathi, Kundapura, Nethravathi – main locations Fragmented Patches
  13. 13. Mangroves of Kali Estuary 14 out of 15 True mangrove species of Karnataka grow herehere
  14. 14. Floral Diversity Global – About 90 species India East Coast – 60 species West Coast – 34 species True Mangroves- Exclusive mangrovesmangroves Mangrove Associates –Also found outside mangrove habitats Rhizophoraceae, Avicenniaceae, Sonneratiaceae – Major families
  15. 15. Mangrove diversity….. Aegiceras corniculatum Excoecaria agallocha Aegiceras corniculatum Lumnitzera racemosa Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Acrostichum aureum (Mangrove fern)
  16. 16. Species Diversity
  17. 17. Mangrove associatesMangrove associates Dolichandrone spathaceae Derris spp. Clerodendrum sp. Premna sp. Pongamia sp. Dolichandrone spathaceae Caesalpina crista Pongamia sp. Cyperus sp. Canavalia sp.
  18. 18. Biological Speciality – Highly adapted to mangrove habitats
  19. 19. Vivipary
  20. 20. ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE •Coastal Shore Protection - Bioshields •Breeding Ground for crabs, shrimps, Fishes •Tsunami/Cyclone Protection ? •Nutrient source for marine Food•Nutrient source for marine Food Web •Habitat for Birds, other animals •Source of Firewood and other domestic needs •Carbon Sequestering •Eco-Tourism Spots •Educational/Research materials
  21. 21. mangrove forests sustain more thanmangrove forests sustain more thanmangrove forests sustain more thanmangrove forests sustain more than 70 direct human activities, ranging70 direct human activities, ranging70 direct human activities, ranging70 direct human activities, ranging from fuelfrom fuelfrom fuelfrom fuel‐‐‐‐wood collection to fisherieswood collection to fisherieswood collection to fisherieswood collection to fisheries (Dixon, 1989; Lucy, 2006).(Dixon, 1989; Lucy, 2006).(Dixon, 1989; Lucy, 2006).(Dixon, 1989; Lucy, 2006). Fix greater amounts of CO2 per unitFix greater amounts of CO2 per unitFix greater amounts of CO2 per unitFix greater amounts of CO2 per unit area, than what the phytoplankton doarea, than what the phytoplankton doarea, than what the phytoplankton doarea, than what the phytoplankton do in the tropical oceans (Kathiresan &in the tropical oceans (Kathiresan &in the tropical oceans (Kathiresan &in the tropical oceans (Kathiresan & Bingham, 2001).Bingham, 2001).Bingham, 2001).Bingham, 2001). capable of accumulating and storingcapable of accumulating and storingcapable of accumulating and storingcapable of accumulating and storingcapable of accumulating and storingcapable of accumulating and storingcapable of accumulating and storingcapable of accumulating and storing carbon in the soil in large quantities. Acarbon in the soil in large quantities. Acarbon in the soil in large quantities. Acarbon in the soil in large quantities. A 20202020‐‐‐‐year old plantation of mangrovesyear old plantation of mangrovesyear old plantation of mangrovesyear old plantation of mangroves stores 11.6 kg mstores 11.6 kg mstores 11.6 kg mstores 11.6 kg m‐‐‐‐2 of carbon with C2 of carbon with C2 of carbon with C2 of carbon with C burial rate of 580 g mburial rate of 580 g mburial rate of 580 g mburial rate of 580 g m‐‐‐‐2 yr2 yr2 yr2 yr‐‐‐‐1 (Fujimoto,1 (Fujimoto,1 (Fujimoto,1 (Fujimoto, 2000)2000)2000)2000) support 30% of fish catch and almost 100% of shrimp catch in South-East Asian countries
  22. 22. THREATS……Most threatened!THREATS……Most threatened! Deforestation / Land reclamation Sand/Shell mining Prawn/fish Farming Reduction in Freshwater discharge Tourism activities/ Other coastal developmental Pressures
  23. 23. The planet has lost 35% of its mangrove forests over the last twenty years. The rate of loss of mangroves each year tops the loss of the rainforest at 2.1% The countries that were hit hardest by the tsunami –hardest by the tsunami – Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand – have experienced recent net losses of mangrove cover. Between 1980 – 2000, the total area of mangroves in these four countries was reduced by 28%%, from over 5 million to 3.6 million hectares.
  24. 24. Mangroves sequester carbon but could be climate change’s first victims. Photo: Gertrud & Helmut Denzau/Sanctuary Photolibrary
  25. 25. Conservation Protected Areas – Sundarban, Gulf of Mannar ( BR), Bhitar Kannika (NP), Coringa Sanctuary, etc. About 16, 500 ha Afforestation / Enhancement Afforestation / Enhancement Inventorisation / Survey Public Education / Awareness Local Involvement / Economic Incentives National Programme – MOEF – 1986-87
  26. 26. Thank you…..

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