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Biodiversity Of Coastal Karnataka
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Biodiversity Of Coastal Karnataka

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Information on status of biodiversity of india, Western Ghats and Coastal karnataka, mangroves of Karnataka, sacred groves of Karnataka, peoples biodiversity registers, etc.

Information on status of biodiversity of india, Western Ghats and Coastal karnataka, mangroves of Karnataka, sacred groves of Karnataka, peoples biodiversity registers, etc.

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  • 1. BIODIVERSITY with special reference to COASTAL KARNATAKA Dr. M. Jayakara Bhandary Selection Grade Lecturer in Botany G. A. S. College, Karwar Email:jaikarb@yahoo.com © Jayakara Bhandary
  • 2. TOTAL WEALTH OF LIFE ON EARTH…… PLANTS+ANIMALS+MICROORGANISMS. GENES – GENETIC DIVERSITY SPECIES – SPECIES DIVERSITY ECOSYSTEMS - ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY
  • 3. ENCASHING DIVERSITY….. FUTURE POWERFUL TECHNOLOGIES GENE BASED. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL WORLD – BIODIVERSITY IS BASE THE BIODIVERSITY DIVIDE… DEVELOPED COUNTRIES TECHNOLOGY + ECONOMY. WANT EASY, CHEAP ACCESS TO BIODIVERSITY RESOURCES AND RELATED KNOWLEDGE CONCENTRATED IN TROPICAL DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES RIGHTS + RETURNS.
  • 4. INTERNATIONAL EFFORTS….. CONVENTION ON BIODIVERSITY (CBD) – 1992 More than 170 signatories Objectives: Biodiversity conservation, Sustainable exploitation & Equitable sharing of profits. 2002 December – Biodiversity Act of India SOVEREIGN RIGHTTS OVER BIODIVERSITY ESTABLISHED Biodiversity management responsibilities - National B.D. Authority – National Authority State B. D. Boards – at State levels & Local B. D. Management committees – at Local body levels
  • 5. BIODIVERSITY LOSS…. •20% in next 30 years? •50% by end of 21st century ? REASONS….. © Jayakara Bhandary •Natural extinction •Habitat destruction •Overexploitation ….. © Jayakara Bhandary
  • 6. WHY SHOULD WE WORRY ? MATERIAL RESOURCES (Food, medicine, material needs…) ECOSYSTEM SERVICES (Climate, Water , soil….) © Jayakara Bhandary ETHICS, AESTHETICS © Jayakara Bhandary
  • 7. Traditional varieties, Wild species ….. – Ecosystem people’s survival © Jayakara Bhandary base © Jayakara Bhandary
  • 8. MEDICINAL PLANTS…. © Jayakara Bhandary Sarpagandha © Jayakara Bhandary © Jayakara Bhandary © Jayakara Bhandary Akanayaka Nela nelli
  • 9. ESTIMATES…. GLOBAL APPROXIMATION - 80 – 120 LAKH SPECIES INDIA DISCOVERED & 2.2% LAND AREA DESCRIBED SO FAR – 7.5% SPECIES 16 LAKH ONLY (1.2 LAKH SPECIES) ONE OF THE 12 MEGADIVERSITY NATIONS
  • 10. SPECIES DIVERSITY…. GROUP GLOBAL INDIA ENDEMI DIVERSITY CS Prokaryotes 4,800 850 - Fungi 69,000 23,000 - Algae 26,900 2,500 - Angiosperms 2,50,000 17,500 5,750 Insects 8,00,000 60,000 - Molluscs 50,000 5,050 - Fishes 23,000 2,500 - Amphibia 4,200 204 110 Reptiles 6,300 446 187 Birds 9,000 1,250 70 Mammals 4,000 372 44
  • 11. RICH in ENDEMIC SPECIES Species restricted only to narrow regions 30% of Plants (5725 Species ?) • 400 higher vertebrates, 44 mammals • 70 Birds, 187 reptiles, 110 amphibia ….. Eastern Himalaya & The Western Ghats Treasures of Endemics under serious threats TWO among the 25 GLOBAL HOTSPOTS
  • 12. INDIAN CENTRES OF ENDEMISM… GROUP Eastern Western Andaman & Himalaya Ghats Nicobar Islands Angiosperms 3,500 1, 720 144 Reptiles 20 91 23 Amphibia 25 84 2 Mammals - 7 -
  • 13. The Western Ghats 1700 plants, 84 amphibia, 16 birds, 7 mammals – Found nowhere else! © Jayakara Bhandary
  • 14. ANASHI - DANDELI © Jayakara Bhandary
  • 15. Sharavathy Valley…. © Jayakara Bhandary
  • 16. KARNATAKA… Diverse Ecosystems (Forests, Grasslands, wetlands, © Jayakara Bhandary Mangroves, agri fields, etc.) …Biologically Rich 22,000 species ? 4,500 plants, 500 birds, 800 fishes, 160 reptiles, 160 mammals, 70 amphibians …
  • 17. MANGROVES- HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE, FRAGILE ECOSYSTEM © Jayakara Bhandary © Jayakara Bhandary SACRED GROVES – TRADITIONAL CONSERVATION SITES
  • 18. ESTUARIES-Highly productive ecosystems © Jayakara Bhandary Aghanashini….. Shell fish – 5 crores Shell mining-5000 tonnes 14 rivers… Lowland rice – 3.5 crores
  • 19. Mangrove trees fringing the river bank MANGROVES •ECOLOGICALLY UNIQUE PLANTS • SHORE PROTECTION • BREEDING GROUND FOR FISHERY RESOURCES • NUTRITION • LOCAL NEEDS Aerial roots of mangroves
  • 20. Estuarine/Mangrove Flora Acrstichum aureum, Avicennia spp. Aegiceros corniculatum, Acanthus ilicifolius Bruguiera spp. Cerbera odollum Excoecaria agallocha, Kandelia candel Lumnitzera racemosa, Sonneratia spp. Rhizophora spp. , Clerodendrum inerme Calophyllum inophyllum, Derris spp. Thespesia populnea, Pandanus spp. Vitex negundo
  • 21. Mangrove diversity….. Excoecaria agallocha © Jayakara Bhandary © Jayakara Bhandary © Jayakara Bhandary Aegiceras corniculatum © Jayakara Bhandary © Jayakara Bhandary Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Acrostichum aureum Lumnitzera racemosa (Mangrove fern)
  • 22. Mangrove associates Derris spp. © Jayakara Bhandary Clerodendrum sp. Premna sp. Dolichandrone spathaceae Pongamia sp. Cyperus sp. Canavalia sp. Dalbergia sp. © Jayakara Bhandary Caesalpina crista
  • 23. Estuarine/marine fauna…… Prawns – 80 spp. Crabs/Lobsters – 15 spp. © Jayakara Bhandary Bivalves – 20 spp. Scillago sp. (Kane) Cephalopods – 8 spp. Gastropods – 15 spp. Sea cucumbers – 12 sp. Fin fish – 200 spp. Sharks – 60 spp. Skates – 10 spp. Rays – 20 spp.
  • 24. THREATS…… Deforestation / Private ownership Sand/Shell mining Prawn Farming / Ghazni conversion Tourism activities © Jayakara Bhandary
  • 25. Scrub forest species….. Syzygium caryophyllatum, Sapium insigne Carissa congesta, Catunaregam spinosa Ixora coccinea, Tabernaemontana heyneana Terminalia paniculata, Hemidesmus indicus, Elephantopus scaber, Ziziphus spp. Calycopteris floribunda, Jasminum malabaricum ………
  • 26. REPTILES….. Olive Ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) Hook nosed sea snake (Enhydrina sohistosa) Sea snakes (Laticauda colubrine, Hydrophis sp.) Water monitor (Varanus salvator) Common monitor (Veranus benghalensis) Estuarine crocodile (Crocodilus porosus)
  • 27. Important coastal plants…. © Jayakara Bhandary Ipomea pes-caprae – Calophyllum sand binder inophyllum- honne
  • 28. Exotic weed invasion…. Ipomoea carnea Eichornia crassipes from S. America
  • 29. Birds: 135 spp. Cormorants – 3spp. Herons/Egrets – 12 spp. Storks – 6 spp. Ducks – 8spp. Eagles/Kites – 7spp. Rails/Coots – 10 spp. Jacana/Stilts/Crab plovers – 10spp. Plovers – 10 spp. Sandpipers/Curlews – 30spp. Gulls/Terns – 20 spp. Kingfishers/Passerins – 20spp.
  • 30. Olive ridley turtle – breeding in the coast of Karnataka – Threatened!
  • 31. UNIQUE ECOSYSTEMS, PLANTS, ANIMALS……
  • 32. © Jayakara Bhandary MYRISTICA SWAMPS…only habitats for Myristica fatua, Gymnacranthera canarica, & Semicarpus kathalekanensis (New species)
  • 33. Semecarpus anacardium Restricted to the Myristica swamps of Uttara Kannada Only 250plants allover the world © Jayakara Bhandary
  • 34. Paracautleya bhatii – new species from Manipal, Udupi District. ISACHNE WENDLANDII – NEW GRASS
  • 35. Nyctibatrachus hussaini Ornithoctonus gadgilli New frog from KUDREMUKH New spider species Parabatasio sharavatiensis – new fish from Sharavathi river
  • 36. ISLANDS, BEACHES, SAND DUNES
  • 37. PAST…… ‘Reserpine’ from Rauvolfia serpentina. Pattambi rice – Gene to Brown plant hopper. …..Worth several crores. Indian resource. No share in economic returns! FUTURE …. May not be the same.
  • 38. PBR’s – essential for local monitoring By Local BD management commitees. Network of PBR’s - National Picture. (Computerised ?) LOCAL BODIES, LOCAL EXPERTISE, LOCAL PEOPLE…. – MAJOR ROLES IN PBR PREPARATION. AWARENESS……. BASIS TO ACT.
  • 39. PEOPLE’S BIODIVERSITY REGISTERS Biodiversity records at Panchayath levels prepared with local’s participation List of species,, status, changes, Benefits, Traditional Knowledge, conservation needs, Local aspirations, participatory mapping………
  • 40. Some Medicinal species commonly found in sacred groves of Coastal Karnataka………
  • 41. Some Endemic species found in SG’s of Coastal Karnataka….
  • 42. Flower watching as a hobby………?
  • 43. © Jayakara Bhandary
  • 44. © Jayakara Bhandary
  • 45. © Jayakara Bhandary
  • 46. © Jayakara Bhandary
  • 47. © Jayakara Bhandary
  • 48. When the last tree is cut When the last river is dry When the last fish is caught Then we realise that Money just can’t be eaten