The biological basis of the  oestrogen/progesterone contraceptive pill• Known as the ‘combined oral contraceptive pill’ @ ...
ALBIO9700/2006JK
Contraception• Means taking action to avoid conception• Some contraception result in the early death of embryos• Biologica...
Social issues:   – ‘Family planning’   – Availability of contraception means that it is easier to     choose when to have ...
Ethical issues:   – The science of morals, the study of right and wrong   – Use of contraception is interference with a na...
In vitro fertilisation (IVF)•   Test tube baby technique•   In vitro = in glass (outside the body)•   Treatment for certai...
• Preliminary test and counselling• Ovarian stimulation: Woman daily injected with hormone (FSH) –  stimulates growth of m...
ALBIO9700/2006JK
ALBIO9700/2006JK
• Factors which can influence success rate  include age of the patient, quality of eggs  and sperm and health of the uteru...
• Ethical implications of IVF:   – Bypassing the natural method of conception and making     pregnancy into a technologica...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

03 Controlling Human Reproduction

871 views
793 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
871
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
194
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

03 Controlling Human Reproduction

  1. 1. The biological basis of the oestrogen/progesterone contraceptive pill• Known as the ‘combined oral contraceptive pill’ @ ‘the pill’• Works by changing the hormone balance of the body – ovulation does not occur• High levels of oestrogen and progesterone inhibit release of FSH and LH (mimics luteal phase of the menstrual cycle)• Causes mucus made by cervix to thicken (‘mucus plug’) - difficult for sperm to get through• Makes lining of uterus thinner – unlikely that fertilised egg could implant• Can be administered orally, by injections or by slow release skin patches ALBIO9700/2006JK
  2. 2. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  3. 3. Contraception• Means taking action to avoid conception• Some contraception result in the early death of embryos• Biological issues: – Mainly related to oestrogen/progesterone pills – Reduces risk of developing certain ovarian cysts, developing cancer of the ovary or uterus and pelvic infection (the mucus plug may prevent bacteria getting into the uterus) – Menstruation is more regular and it may help to relieve pre- menstrual tension – Some women may develop nausea and head aches – Tiredness and mood changes – Rise in blood pressure – Increased risk of thrombosis (may cause a stroke or a blood clot in the lungs) – Small increased risk of breast cancer ALBIO9700/2006JK
  4. 4. Social issues: – ‘Family planning’ – Availability of contraception means that it is easier to choose when to have children or to choose not to have children – Possible to plan families around careers and other considerations, such as financial circumstances – In some countries, the population size has not increased to the extent that it would have done in the absence of contraception (concern of too few children born to sustain population in the future) – In countries where contraception is not freely available, there continue to be problems of overpopulation and the implications that this has for supply of food, water and other resources ALBIO9700/2006JK
  5. 5. Ethical issues: – The science of morals, the study of right and wrong – Use of contraception is interference with a natural process of procreation which should be left to the will of God (enjoyment of sex should not be separated from the purpose of creation) – Should more advice about contraception be given to young people? At what age? By whom? – Should contraceptives be made more easily available? – Should methods which prevent implantation be avoided since a potential human life is destroyed? – Some contraceptives may be associated with long- term health risks (e.g. pill and RU486 – anti- progesterone drug which aborts fetus) – Should research into male contraception be given a higher priority? Should men be encouraged to take more responsibility? ALBIO9700/2006JK
  6. 6. In vitro fertilisation (IVF)• Test tube baby technique• In vitro = in glass (outside the body)• Treatment for certain forms of infertility – mainly blocked or damaged oviducts – Failure to produce eggs – Male has low sperm counts or poor sperm mobility – Woman’s cervical mucus is ‘hostile’, killing or preventing the passage of sperm – Woman previously sterilised• Also used to screen embryos for genetic defects before allowing pregnancy to proceed ALBIO9700/2006JK
  7. 7. • Preliminary test and counselling• Ovarian stimulation: Woman daily injected with hormone (FSH) – stimulates growth of many eggs• Ultrasound scanning• Oocyte retrieval: human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) - ‘ripe’ eggs collected via laparoscopy (GA)• Male partner produces sperm and special technique is used to collect the most mobile sperm• Eggs are matured in incubator for 4-24 hours in special sterile culture medium• Sperm added and left for 24 hours for fertilisation• Help for fertilisation: – Zona pellucida deliberately damaged to allow easier access to egg – Micro-injected sperm through zona pellucida (subzonal insemination or SUZI) or into the cytoplasm of egg• Embryo transfer: 2-3 days later, embryos that have formed are examined and maximum of 3 suitable embryos are transferred into the uterus using a soft tube inserted through the vagina and cervix• Fate of remaining embryos decided during perliminary counselling ALBIO9700/2006JK
  8. 8. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  9. 9. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  10. 10. • Factors which can influence success rate include age of the patient, quality of eggs and sperm and health of the uterus• Complications of IVF: possibility of multiple births – due to practice of transferring several embryos to the uterus at the same time• Possibility of birth defects is a controversial subject in IVF treatment• Advantage of freezing embryos in liquid nitrogen: if patient failed to conceive frozen embryos can be used ALBIO9700/2006JK
  11. 11. • Ethical implications of IVF: – Bypassing the natural method of conception and making pregnancy into a technological/medical process – Expensive so unavailable for many people and may reduce life-chances of children who cost more to create than through natural conception – Fertilising more embryos than will be needed and then discarding unwanted embryos – Freezing and long-term storage of embryos with unknown potential effects – The potential to create embryos for research or to grow tissues and organs for transplant – The potential to select and modify embryos – IVF allows babies to be created away from the traditional mother-father model – Permits selection of embryos that do not contain lethal alleles of key genes (Huntington’s disease) – Usurping the role of God in bringing into the world the children that He wants ALBIO9700/2006JK

×