02 Smoking and Smoking Related Diseases


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02 Smoking and Smoking Related Diseases

  1. 1. Smoking and Smoking- related Diseases ALBIO9700/2006JK
  2. 2. There are 69 identified carcinogens in tobacco smoke (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks. Volume 1 and Supplements 1-8, 1972-1999) Carbon monoxide:Tar (a mixture of *Diffuses across thearomatic walls of the alveoli andcompounds): settles into the blood in theon the lining of the lungs. It diffuses intoairways in the lungs red blood cells where itand stimulates a series combines withof changes that may haemoglobin to formlead to obstructive the stable compoundlung diseases and lung carboxyhaemoglobin.cancer *Also damages the lining of the arteries. Nicotine: *drug in tobacco that is absorbed very readily by the blood and travels to the brain within seconds. Stimulates nervous system to reduce diameter of the arterioles and to release the hormone adrenaline from the adrenal glands. *also increases ‘stickiness’ of blood platelets (risk of blood clotting) ALBIO9700/2006JK
  3. 3. Emphysema•difficulty to move air out of the lungs (1.3 dm3air)• rapid breathing rate due to lack ofoxygenation of blood• right side of heart enlarges•people with emphysema develop abarrel-like distended chest• wheezing• breathlessness ALBIO9700/2006JK
  4. 4. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  5. 5. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  6. 6. Chronic Bronchitis• excessive airway mucus secretion leading to apersistent, productive cough• cough and sputum are present on most days for aminimum of 3 months for at least 2 successive years orfor 6 months during 1 year• also may be narrowing of the large and small airwaysmaking it more difficult to move air in and out of thelungs ALBIO9700/2006JK
  7. 7. Lung Cancer The 2004 Surgeon Generals report newly identifies other cancers caused by smoking, including cancers of the stomach, cervix, kidney, and pancreas and acute myeloid leukemia. In 2003, an estimated 22,400 new cases of stomach cancer were diagnosed, and an estimated 12,100 deaths were expected to occur. Former smokers have lower rates of stomach cancer than those who continue to smoke. For women, the risk of cervical cancer increases with the duration of smoking. In 2003, an estimated 31,900 new cases of kidney cancer were diagnosed, and an estimated 11,900 people died from the disease. In 2003, an estimated 30,700 new cases of pancreatic cancer were diagnosed, attributing to 30,000 deaths. The median time from diagnosis to death from pancreatic cancer is about 3 months. In 2003, approximately 10,500 cases of acute myeloid leukemia were diagnosed in adults. Benzene is a known cause of acute myleoid leukemia, and cigarette smoke is a major source of benzene exposure. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  8. 8. Lung Cancer (cont) ALBIO9700/2006JK
  9. 9. Lung Cancer (cont) ALBIO9700/2006JK
  10. 10. Lung Cancer (cont) Coughing up blood as a result of tissue damage Tumours that can be located via:  Bronchoscopy, using an endoscope to allow a direct view of the lining of the bronchi  Chest x-ray  CT scan ALBIO9700/2006JK
  11. 11. Lung Cancer (cont) ALBIO9700/2006JK
  12. 12. Lung Cancer (cont) ALBIO9700/2006JK
  13. 13. Lung Cancer (cont)
  14. 14. Cardiovascular Diseases Degenerative diseases of the heart and circulatory system ALBIO9700/2006JK
  15. 15. Atherosclerosis Build-up of atheroma, which contains cholesterol, fibres, dead muscle cells and platelets Cholesterol-rich atheroma forms plaques in the lining of the arteries, making them less elastic and restricting the flow of blood ALBIO9700/2006JK
  16. 16. Atherosclerosis (cont) ALBIO9700/2006JK
  17. 17. Coronary heart disease Disease of arteries branching from the aorta (to supply all the muscle of the atria and ventricle) that causes damage to, or malfunction of, the heart 3 forms:  Angina pectoris – shortage of blood to heart muscle causing severe pain but no death of heart tissue  Heart attack (myocardial infarction) – sudden and severe chest pain caused by death of heart muscle due to lack of oxygen  Heart failure – blockage of main coronary artery resulting in gradual damage of heart muscle ALBIO9700/2006JK
  18. 18. Coronary heart disease ALBIO9700/2006JK
  19. 19. Stroke Occurs when an artery in the brain bursts so that blood leaks into brain tissue (brain haemorrhage) When there is a blockage in a brain artery due to atherosclerosis or a thrombus ALBIO9700/2006JK
  20. 20. Stroke (cont) ALBIO9700/2006JK
  21. 21. Where does nicotine and carbon monoxide come in??? ALBIO9700/2006JK