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02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
 

02 Organelles in animal and plant cells

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    02 Organelles in animal and plant cells 02 Organelles in animal and plant cells Presentation Transcript

    • Organelles in animal and plant cells ALBIO9700/2006JK
    • ALBIO9700/2006JK
    • ALBIO9700/2006JK
    • Nucleolus
      • membrane-less organelle within the nucleus that manufactures ribosomes, the cell's protein-producing structures
      • after a cell divides, a nucleolus is formed when chromosomes are brought together into nucleolar organizing regions
      • during cell division, the nucleolus disappears
      ALBIO9700/2006JK
    • Nucleus
      • a highly specialized organelle that serves as the information processing and administrative center of the cell
      • two major functions:
        • it stores the cell's hereditary material, or DNA
        • it coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction (cell division)
      ALBIO9700/2006JK
    • Nuclear Envelope
      • double-layered membrane that encloses the contents of the nucleus during most of the cell's lifecycle
      • appears to connect with the rough endoplasmic reticulum
      • perforated with tiny holes called nuclear pores
      • these pores regulate the passage of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, permitting some to pass through the membrane, but not others.
      • during mitosis, or cell division, the nuclear envelope disintegrates, but reforms as the two cells complete their formation and the chromatin begins to unravel and disperse
      ALBIO9700/2006JK
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • network of sacs that manufactures, processes, and transports chemical compounds for use inside and outside of the cell
      • connected to double-layered nuclear envelope, providing a pipeline between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
      ALBIO9700/2006JK
    • Golgi Apparatus
      • the distribution and shipping department for the cell's chemical products
      • modifies proteins and fats built in the endoplasmic reticulum and prepares them for export to the outside of the cell
      ALBIO9700/2006JK
    • Ribosomes
      • tiny organelles composed of approximately 60 percent RNA and 40 percent protein
      • in eukaryotes, ribosomes are made of four strands of RNA
      • in prokaryotes, they consist of three strands of RNA
      ALBIO9700/2006JK
    • Mitochondria
      • oblong shaped organelles that are found in the cytoplasm of every eukaryotic cell
      • main power generators, converting oxygen and nutrients into energy in animal cells
      ALBIO9700/2006JK
    • Lysosomes
      • main function of these microbodies is digestion
      • found in animal cells only
      • break down cellular waste products and debris from outside the cell into simple compounds, which are transferred to the cytoplasm as new cell-building materials
      ALBIO9700/2006JK
    • Peroxisomes
      • A major function of the peroxisome is the breakdown of fatty acid molecules
      • Contain enzymes that rid the cell of toxic peroxides
      ALBIO9700/2006JK
    • Centrioles
      • self-replicating organelles made up of nine bundles of microtubules and are found only in animal cells
      • appear to help in organizing cell division, but aren't essential to the process
      ALBIO9700/2006JK
    • Chloroplasts
      • the most important characteristic of plants is their ability to photosynthesize, in effect, to make their own food by converting light energy into chemical energy
      • this process is carried out in specialized organelles called chloroplasts
      ALBIO9700/2006JK
    • Vacuole
      • Each plant cell has a large, single vacuole that stores compounds, helps in plant growth, and plays an important structural role for the plant
      ALBIO9700/2006JK
    • Plasma Membrane
      • In prokaryotes, the membrane is the inner layer of protection surrounded by a rigid cell wall
      • Eukaryotic animal cells have only the membrane to contain and protect their contents
      • These membranes also regulate the passage of molecules in and out of the cells
      ALBIO9700/2006JK
    • Cilia and Flagella
      • for single-celled eukaryotes, cilia and flagella are essential for the locomotion of individual organisms
      • in multicellular organisms, cilia function to move fluid or materials past an immobile cell as well as moving a cell or group of cells
      ALBIO9700/2006JK
    • Cell Wall
      • plant cells have a rigid wall surrounding the plasma membrane
      • serves a variety of functions, from protecting the cell to regulating the life cycle of the plant organism
      ALBIO9700/2006JK