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02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
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02 Organelles in animal and plant cells

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  • 1. Organelles in animal and plant cells ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 2. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 3. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 4. Nucleolus <ul><li>membrane-less organelle within the nucleus that manufactures ribosomes, the cell's protein-producing structures </li></ul><ul><li>after a cell divides, a nucleolus is formed when chromosomes are brought together into nucleolar organizing regions </li></ul><ul><li>during cell division, the nucleolus disappears </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 5. Nucleus <ul><li>a highly specialized organelle that serves as the information processing and administrative center of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>two major functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it stores the cell's hereditary material, or DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction (cell division) </li></ul></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 6. Nuclear Envelope <ul><li>double-layered membrane that encloses the contents of the nucleus during most of the cell's lifecycle </li></ul><ul><li>appears to connect with the rough endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>perforated with tiny holes called nuclear pores </li></ul><ul><li>these pores regulate the passage of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, permitting some to pass through the membrane, but not others. </li></ul><ul><li>during mitosis, or cell division, the nuclear envelope disintegrates, but reforms as the two cells complete their formation and the chromatin begins to unravel and disperse </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 7. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>network of sacs that manufactures, processes, and transports chemical compounds for use inside and outside of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>connected to double-layered nuclear envelope, providing a pipeline between the nucleus and the cytoplasm </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 8. Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>the distribution and shipping department for the cell's chemical products </li></ul><ul><li>modifies proteins and fats built in the endoplasmic reticulum and prepares them for export to the outside of the cell </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 9. Ribosomes <ul><li>tiny organelles composed of approximately 60 percent RNA and 40 percent protein </li></ul><ul><li>in eukaryotes, ribosomes are made of four strands of RNA </li></ul><ul><li>in prokaryotes, they consist of three strands of RNA </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 10. Mitochondria <ul><li>oblong shaped organelles that are found in the cytoplasm of every eukaryotic cell </li></ul><ul><li>main power generators, converting oxygen and nutrients into energy in animal cells </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 11. Lysosomes <ul><li>main function of these microbodies is digestion </li></ul><ul><li>found in animal cells only </li></ul><ul><li>break down cellular waste products and debris from outside the cell into simple compounds, which are transferred to the cytoplasm as new cell-building materials </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 12. Peroxisomes <ul><li>A major function of the peroxisome is the breakdown of fatty acid molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Contain enzymes that rid the cell of toxic peroxides </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 13. Centrioles <ul><li>self-replicating organelles made up of nine bundles of microtubules and are found only in animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>appear to help in organizing cell division, but aren't essential to the process </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 14. Chloroplasts <ul><li>the most important characteristic of plants is their ability to photosynthesize, in effect, to make their own food by converting light energy into chemical energy </li></ul><ul><li>this process is carried out in specialized organelles called chloroplasts </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 15. Vacuole <ul><li>Each plant cell has a large, single vacuole that stores compounds, helps in plant growth, and plays an important structural role for the plant </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 16. Plasma Membrane <ul><li>In prokaryotes, the membrane is the inner layer of protection surrounded by a rigid cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic animal cells have only the membrane to contain and protect their contents </li></ul><ul><li>These membranes also regulate the passage of molecules in and out of the cells </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 17. Cilia and Flagella <ul><li>for single-celled eukaryotes, cilia and flagella are essential for the locomotion of individual organisms </li></ul><ul><li>in multicellular organisms, cilia function to move fluid or materials past an immobile cell as well as moving a cell or group of cells </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 18. Cell Wall <ul><li>plant cells have a rigid wall surrounding the plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>serves a variety of functions, from protecting the cell to regulating the life cycle of the plant organism </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK

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