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02 Organelles in animal and plant cells
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02 Organelles in animal and plant cells

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  • 1. Organelles in animal and plant cells ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 2. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 3. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 4. Nucleolus
    • membrane-less organelle within the nucleus that manufactures ribosomes, the cell's protein-producing structures
    • after a cell divides, a nucleolus is formed when chromosomes are brought together into nucleolar organizing regions
    • during cell division, the nucleolus disappears
    ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 5. Nucleus
    • a highly specialized organelle that serves as the information processing and administrative center of the cell
    • two major functions:
      • it stores the cell's hereditary material, or DNA
      • it coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction (cell division)
    ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 6. Nuclear Envelope
    • double-layered membrane that encloses the contents of the nucleus during most of the cell's lifecycle
    • appears to connect with the rough endoplasmic reticulum
    • perforated with tiny holes called nuclear pores
    • these pores regulate the passage of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, permitting some to pass through the membrane, but not others.
    • during mitosis, or cell division, the nuclear envelope disintegrates, but reforms as the two cells complete their formation and the chromatin begins to unravel and disperse
    ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 7. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • network of sacs that manufactures, processes, and transports chemical compounds for use inside and outside of the cell
    • connected to double-layered nuclear envelope, providing a pipeline between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
    ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 8. Golgi Apparatus
    • the distribution and shipping department for the cell's chemical products
    • modifies proteins and fats built in the endoplasmic reticulum and prepares them for export to the outside of the cell
    ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 9. Ribosomes
    • tiny organelles composed of approximately 60 percent RNA and 40 percent protein
    • in eukaryotes, ribosomes are made of four strands of RNA
    • in prokaryotes, they consist of three strands of RNA
    ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 10. Mitochondria
    • oblong shaped organelles that are found in the cytoplasm of every eukaryotic cell
    • main power generators, converting oxygen and nutrients into energy in animal cells
    ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 11. Lysosomes
    • main function of these microbodies is digestion
    • found in animal cells only
    • break down cellular waste products and debris from outside the cell into simple compounds, which are transferred to the cytoplasm as new cell-building materials
    ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 12. Peroxisomes
    • A major function of the peroxisome is the breakdown of fatty acid molecules
    • Contain enzymes that rid the cell of toxic peroxides
    ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 13. Centrioles
    • self-replicating organelles made up of nine bundles of microtubules and are found only in animal cells
    • appear to help in organizing cell division, but aren't essential to the process
    ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 14. Chloroplasts
    • the most important characteristic of plants is their ability to photosynthesize, in effect, to make their own food by converting light energy into chemical energy
    • this process is carried out in specialized organelles called chloroplasts
    ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 15. Vacuole
    • Each plant cell has a large, single vacuole that stores compounds, helps in plant growth, and plays an important structural role for the plant
    ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 16. Plasma Membrane
    • In prokaryotes, the membrane is the inner layer of protection surrounded by a rigid cell wall
    • Eukaryotic animal cells have only the membrane to contain and protect their contents
    • These membranes also regulate the passage of molecules in and out of the cells
    ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 17. Cilia and Flagella
    • for single-celled eukaryotes, cilia and flagella are essential for the locomotion of individual organisms
    • in multicellular organisms, cilia function to move fluid or materials past an immobile cell as well as moving a cell or group of cells
    ALBIO9700/2006JK
  • 18. Cell Wall
    • plant cells have a rigid wall surrounding the plasma membrane
    • serves a variety of functions, from protecting the cell to regulating the life cycle of the plant organism
    ALBIO9700/2006JK