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Blood, Tissue Fluid and        Lymph                      ALBIO9700/2006JK
Blood plasma   Pale yellow liquid consisting of a variety of    substances (10%) dissolved in water (90%)                ...
Tissue fluid   Almost identical in    composition to blood    plasma except fewer    protein molecules, no    red blood c...
Tissue fluid (cont)   Importance:    – Exchanges of materials between cells and the blood    – Provides optimum environme...
Lymph   10% of tissue fluid are collected and returned to blood    system through lymph vessels and lymphatics   Lymphat...
Oedema         ALBIO9700/2006JK
Lymph (cont)               ALBIO9700/2006JK
Largestlymph vessel               ALBIO9700/2006JK
Red blood cells (erythrocytes)   Red colour caused by the pigment haemoglobin    (globular protein)   Haemoglobin – tran...
ALBIO9700/2006JK
Red blood cells (cont)   The structure is unusual in 3 ways:    i) Red blood cells are very small    (diameter=7μm) – hae...
White blood cells (leucocytes)   Made in bone marrow   Distinguished from red blood cells:    – White blood cells all ha...
White blood cells   Phagocytes – cells that destroy invading    microorganisms by phagocytosis (lobed    nuclei and granu...
White blood cells                    ALBIO9700/2006JK
Types of WBCs:i) granular white blood cells include:   – neutrophils (50 - 70% of WBCs) - phagocytosis (bacteria &     cel...
ALBIO9700/2006JK
   Thrombocytes (platelets) - bits of broken up    blood cells that help clot the blood when we cut    ourselves and blee...
Some related diseases   Anemia   Lymphatic filariasis   Hemophilia   AIDS   Leukemia   Thalassemia                  ...
Haemoglobin   Oxygen is transported around the body    inside red blood cells in combination with    the protein haemoglo...
ALBIO9700/2006JK
 85% CO2 is transported by the blood  through hydrogencarbonate ions, HCO3-,  after dissociation of dissolved CO2 5% CO2...
The haemoglobin dissociation curve   Haemoglobin performs the task of picking up    and releasing oxygen very well   Inv...
The percentage saturation of each sample    can be plotted against the partial pressure         of oxygen to obtain the cu...
The Bohr shift   Amount of oxygen that haemoglobin carries is affected    not only by the partial pressure of oxygen, but...
   By removing the hydrogen ions from solution,    haemoglobin helps to maintain the pH of the    blood close to neutral ...
Fetal haemoglobin The partial pressure of oxygen in the  fetus’ blood is only a little lower than that  in its mother’s b...
Myoglobin   Red pigment which combines reversibly with oxygen   Found inside cells in some tissues of the body (muscle  ...
ALBIO9700/2006JK
ALBIO9700/2006JK
High altitude   At sea level:    –   Partial pressure of O2 in atmosphere = 20kPa    –   Partial pressure of O2 in an alv...
High altitude                ALBIO9700/2006JK
   Changes that take place as body    acclimatises:     – Number of red blood cells       increases (40-50% to 50-70%)  ...
Carbon monoxide   CO combines with the haem groups in the    haemoglobin molecules forming    carboxyhaemoglobin   Haemo...
ALBIO9700/2006JK
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02 Blood, Tissue Fluid and Lymph

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  1. 1. Blood, Tissue Fluid and Lymph ALBIO9700/2006JK
  2. 2. Blood plasma Pale yellow liquid consisting of a variety of substances (10%) dissolved in water (90%) ALBIO9700/2006JK
  3. 3. Tissue fluid Almost identical in composition to blood plasma except fewer protein molecules, no red blood cells and some white blood cell The amount depends on 2 opposing pressures – Blood pressure at arterial end of capillary – osmosis ALBIO9700/2006JK
  4. 4. Tissue fluid (cont) Importance: – Exchanges of materials between cells and the blood – Provides optimum environment in which cells can work – Homeostasis – maintenance of a constant internal environment (regulation of glucose concentration, water, pH, metabolic wastes and temperature)/takes place to maintain the composition of tissue fluid at a constant level ALBIO9700/2006JK
  5. 5. Lymph 10% of tissue fluid are collected and returned to blood system through lymph vessels and lymphatics Lymphatics – tiny, blind-ending vessels with valves (wide enough to allow large protein molecules to pass through), found in almost all tissues Oedema – build up of tissue fluid due to imbalance of protein and rate of loss from plasma with concentration and rate of loss from tissue fluid Lymph – fluid inside lymphatics identical to tissue fluid Lymph nodes – intervals along lymph vessels which is involved in protection against disease ALBIO9700/2006JK
  6. 6. Oedema ALBIO9700/2006JK
  7. 7. Lymph (cont) ALBIO9700/2006JK
  8. 8. Largestlymph vessel ALBIO9700/2006JK
  9. 9. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) Red colour caused by the pigment haemoglobin (globular protein) Haemoglobin – transports oxygen from lungs to respiring tissues Formed in bone marrow (liver; humerus, femur; skull, ribs, pelvis, vertebrae) Eventually rupture within some ‘tight spot’ in the circulatory system, often inside the spleen ALBIO9700/2006JK
  10. 10. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  11. 11. Red blood cells (cont) The structure is unusual in 3 ways: i) Red blood cells are very small (diameter=7μm) – haemoglobin/capillaries ii) Red blood cells are shaped like a biconcave disc – surface area to volume ratio iii) Red blood cells have no nucleus, no mitochondria and no endoplasmic reticulum – more haemoglobin ALBIO9700/2006JK
  12. 12. White blood cells (leucocytes) Made in bone marrow Distinguished from red blood cells: – White blood cells all have nucleus – White blood cells are mostly larger (except lymphocytes) – White blood cells are either spherical or irregular in shape ALBIO9700/2006JK
  13. 13. White blood cells Phagocytes – cells that destroy invading microorganisms by phagocytosis (lobed nuclei and granular cytoplasm) Lymphocytes – destroy microorganisms by secreting chemicals called antibodies which attach to and destroy the invading cells (smaller, large round nucleus and small amount of cytoplasm) ALBIO9700/2006JK
  14. 14. White blood cells ALBIO9700/2006JK
  15. 15. Types of WBCs:i) granular white blood cells include: – neutrophils (50 - 70% of WBCs) - phagocytosis (bacteria & cellular debris); very important in inflammation – eosinophils (1 - 4%) - help break down blood clots & kill parasites – basophils (less than 1%) - synthesize & store histamine (a substance released during inflammation) & heparin (an anticoagulant); functions(s) remain unclearii) agranular (or non-granular) white blood cells include: – lymphocytes (25 - 40%) - immune response (including production of antibodies) – monocytes (2 - 8%) - phagocytosis (typically as macrophages in tissues of the liver, spleen, lungs, & lymph nodes) ALBIO9700/2006JK
  16. 16. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  17. 17.  Thrombocytes (platelets) - bits of broken up blood cells that help clot the blood when we cut ourselves and bleed. When we bleed, platelets, chemicals and substances called clotting proteins (prothrombin) help to form an insoluble plug to seal off the bleeding point. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  18. 18. Some related diseases Anemia Lymphatic filariasis Hemophilia AIDS Leukemia Thalassemia ALBIO9700/2006JK
  19. 19. Haemoglobin Oxygen is transported around the body inside red blood cells in combination with the protein haemoglobin Hb + 4O2 HbO8 haemoglobin oxygen oxyhaemoglobin ALBIO9700/2006JK
  20. 20. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  21. 21.  85% CO2 is transported by the blood through hydrogencarbonate ions, HCO3-, after dissociation of dissolved CO2 5% CO2 dissolve in blood plasma without dissociation 10% CO2 diffuse into red blood cells, combining directly with the terminal amine groups (-NH2) of some of the haemoglobin molecules (carbamino-haemoglobin) When blood reaches lungs, the reactions go into reverse ALBIO9700/2006JK
  22. 22. The haemoglobin dissociation curve Haemoglobin performs the task of picking up and releasing oxygen very well Investigate how haemoglobin behaves: – Samples extracted from blood and exposed to different concentrations (partial pressures) of oxygen – Amount of oxygen that combines with each sample of haemoglobin is measured – Maximum amount of oxygen given a value of 100% (saturated) – Amounts at lower oxygen partial pressures are expressed as a percentage of the maximum value ALBIO9700/2006JK
  23. 23. The percentage saturation of each sample can be plotted against the partial pressure of oxygen to obtain the curve The shape of the haemoglobin dissociation curve can be explained by the behaviour of a haemoglobin molecule as it combines with or loses oxygen molecules ALBIO9700/2006JK
  24. 24. The Bohr shift Amount of oxygen that haemoglobin carries is affected not only by the partial pressure of oxygen, but also by the partial pressure of carbon dioxide carbonic anhydrase CO2 + H2O H2CO3 carbon dioxide water carbonic acid The carbonic acid dissociates: H2CO3 H+ + HCO3- carbonic acid hydrogen ion hydrogencarbonate ion Haemoglobin readily combines with these hydrogen ions, forming haemoglobinic acid, HHb (releasing oxygen) ALBIO9700/2006JK
  25. 25.  By removing the hydrogen ions from solution, haemoglobin helps to maintain the pH of the blood close to neutral (buffer) Bohr effect – the presence of high partial pressure of carbon dioxide causes haemoglobin to release oxygen ALBIO9700/2006JK
  26. 26. Fetal haemoglobin The partial pressure of oxygen in the fetus’ blood is only a little lower than that in its mother’s blood Fetal haemoglobin combines more readily with oxygen than adult haemoglobin (higher affinity for oxygen) Dissociation curve lies above the curve for adult haemoglobin ALBIO9700/2006JK
  27. 27. Myoglobin Red pigment which combines reversibly with oxygen Found inside cells in some tissues of the body (muscle cells) Made up of only 1 polypeptide, 1 haem group and can combine with 1 oxygen molecule The oxymyoglobin molecule is very stable and will not release its oxygen unless partial pressure of oxygen around it is very low Myoglobin has a higher percentage of saturation with oxygen than haemoglobin Acts as an oxygen storage The oxygen held by the myoglobin is a reserve, to be used up only in conditions of particularly great oxygen demand ALBIO9700/2006JK
  28. 28. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  29. 29. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  30. 30. High altitude At sea level: – Partial pressure of O2 in atmosphere = 20kPa – Partial pressure of O2 in an alveolus = 13kPa – Haemoglobin almost completely saturated with oxygen At 6500m: – Partial pressure of O2 in atmosphere = 10kPa – Partial pressure of O2 in an alveolus = 5.3kPa – Haemoglobin only about 70% saturated in lungs Altitude sickness: – Increase in the rate and depth of breathing – General feeling of dizziness and weakness (nausea) – Arterioles in the brains dilate (fluids begins to leak into brain tissues causing disorientation and into lungs) ALBIO9700/2006JK
  31. 31. High altitude ALBIO9700/2006JK
  32. 32.  Changes that take place as body acclimatises: – Number of red blood cells increases (40-50% to 50-70%) Adaptations to low-oxygen environments: – Broad chests (larger lung capacities) – Larger hearts (especially right side that pumps blood to the lungs) – More haemoglobin in blood (increasing efficiency of oxygen transport) ALBIO9700/2006JK
  33. 33. Carbon monoxide CO combines with the haem groups in the haemoglobin molecules forming carboxyhaemoglobin Haemoglobin combines with CO 250 times more readily than it does with O2 Carboxyhaemoglobin is a very stable compound Low concentrations of CO (0.1%) in the air can cause death by asphyxiation Treatment: administration of a mixture of pure oxygen and carbon dioxide ALBIO9700/2006JK
  34. 34. ALBIO9700/2006JK
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