Phrases and clauses 2

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Phrases and clauses 2

  1. 1. C. Putnam L. Raney
  2. 2.  Clause – a group of words that have a subject and a verb that must always agree  Phrase – a noun, verb, or preposition with all its modifiers - does NOT have a subject and verb which agree
  3. 3.  Noun phrases  Verb phrases  Prepositional phrases  Appositive phrases
  4. 4. Definition: -A noun with all its modifiers -A complete subject is always classified as a noun phrase. Example: The frustrated, irritated teachers...  Noun: teachers  Modifiers:  the, frustrated, irritated
  5. 5. Defined as a verb with all of its modifiers EXAMPLE: …completely frightened the seventh grade students. Verb - frightened Modifier - completely EXAMPLE: …would like to improve her grammar skills. Verb phrase - would like to improve
  6. 6.  Gerunds – verbs that end in “ing” but DO NOT function as a verb - function as nouns - example: One teacher enjoys frightening new seventh graders. (noun as a direct object)  Infinitives - verbs that begin with “to” - function as a nouns, adjectives, or adverbs - example: The language arts classroom is a place students do not want to enter.  Participles - verbs that function as an adjective - example: The screeching teacher frightened the students.
  7. 7.  Defined as the preposition, the object of the preposition (preposition who or what), and all its modifiers  Example: The frustrated, irritated teachers enrolled in Mr. Ruff’s “ Grammar for Dummies” class. preposition - in object of the preposition - class modifiers – Mr. Ruff’s, “Grammar for Dummies”
  8. 8.  Definition: A noun phrase that renames the noun it follows.  Also known as a parenthetical phrase  Example:  Brad Ruff, the grammar guru, empowers teachers. Appositive phrase? - the grammar guru
  9. 9.  Definition: Words that contain a subject and a verb which must always agree. Two types of clauses:  Independent Clause  Dependent Clause
  10. 10.  An independent clause MUST HAVE a subject and a verb which agree. Example: The frustrated, irritated teachers finally understood the basic grammar concepts.  All the words in an independent clause can act alone as a sentence.  They are a complete thought.
  11. 11.  The subject and verb agree, but the words CANNOT stand alone as a complete sentence.  also known as subordinate clause or relative clause  Examples:  since the teachers seek proficiency in grammar  which sheltered the children from the storm
  12. 12.  Clauses can be joined with: 1. Coordinating conjunctions (join two independent clauses) - AKA “FANBOYS” for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 2. Subordinating conjunctions (join dependent clause to independent clause) Some examples: - if, since, because, with, when, whether, while 3. Relative Pronouns - who, whose, whom, which, that - NOTE: If a relative pronoun is used to begin a dependent clause, that pronoun also has a function within the dependent clause. It will also have an antecedent in the independent clause.
  13. 13.  coordinating conjunction: - The busses lumbered along the boulevard, and the children eagerly looked for the first sight of Disneyland. subordinating conjunction: - The busses lumbered along the boulevard while the children eagerly looked for the first sight of Disneyland. Relative pronoun: - The busses, which were slowly lumbering along the boulevard, were filled with eager children looking for their first sight of Disneyland.
  14. 14.  WHO OR WHOM?  WHO – used as the subject of a clause  WHOM – used as an object  Direct object  Indirect objects  Object of a preposition  Example: Because the wind violently sliced through the branches, the toddler, who/whom was terrified, joined its howling. - antecedent?
  15. 15.  While the frustrated teachers were industriously taking notes, they relaxed, and the light bulbs went off in their brains, which indicated miraculous understanding of the grammar concepts.
  16. 16. Type of Sentence -Simple Sentence -Compound Sentence - Complex Sentence -Compound/Complex Sentence # of # of Independent Clauses Dependent Clauses 1 0 2+ 0 1 1+ 2+ 1+

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