Phrases and clauses 2
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Phrases and clauses 2 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. C. Putnam L. Raney
  • 2.  Clause – a group of words that have a subject and a verb that must always agree  Phrase – a noun, verb, or preposition with all its modifiers - does NOT have a subject and verb which agree
  • 3.  Noun phrases  Verb phrases  Prepositional phrases  Appositive phrases
  • 4. Definition: -A noun with all its modifiers -A complete subject is always classified as a noun phrase. Example: The frustrated, irritated teachers...  Noun: teachers  Modifiers:  the, frustrated, irritated
  • 5. Defined as a verb with all of its modifiers EXAMPLE: …completely frightened the seventh grade students. Verb - frightened Modifier - completely EXAMPLE: …would like to improve her grammar skills. Verb phrase - would like to improve
  • 6.  Gerunds – verbs that end in “ing” but DO NOT function as a verb - function as nouns - example: One teacher enjoys frightening new seventh graders. (noun as a direct object)  Infinitives - verbs that begin with “to” - function as a nouns, adjectives, or adverbs - example: The language arts classroom is a place students do not want to enter.  Participles - verbs that function as an adjective - example: The screeching teacher frightened the students.
  • 7.  Defined as the preposition, the object of the preposition (preposition who or what), and all its modifiers  Example: The frustrated, irritated teachers enrolled in Mr. Ruff’s “ Grammar for Dummies” class. preposition - in object of the preposition - class modifiers – Mr. Ruff’s, “Grammar for Dummies”
  • 8.  Definition: A noun phrase that renames the noun it follows.  Also known as a parenthetical phrase  Example:  Brad Ruff, the grammar guru, empowers teachers. Appositive phrase? - the grammar guru
  • 9.  Definition: Words that contain a subject and a verb which must always agree. Two types of clauses:  Independent Clause  Dependent Clause
  • 10.  An independent clause MUST HAVE a subject and a verb which agree. Example: The frustrated, irritated teachers finally understood the basic grammar concepts.  All the words in an independent clause can act alone as a sentence.  They are a complete thought.
  • 11.  The subject and verb agree, but the words CANNOT stand alone as a complete sentence.  also known as subordinate clause or relative clause  Examples:  since the teachers seek proficiency in grammar  which sheltered the children from the storm
  • 12.  Clauses can be joined with: 1. Coordinating conjunctions (join two independent clauses) - AKA “FANBOYS” for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 2. Subordinating conjunctions (join dependent clause to independent clause) Some examples: - if, since, because, with, when, whether, while 3. Relative Pronouns - who, whose, whom, which, that - NOTE: If a relative pronoun is used to begin a dependent clause, that pronoun also has a function within the dependent clause. It will also have an antecedent in the independent clause.
  • 13.  coordinating conjunction: - The busses lumbered along the boulevard, and the children eagerly looked for the first sight of Disneyland. subordinating conjunction: - The busses lumbered along the boulevard while the children eagerly looked for the first sight of Disneyland. Relative pronoun: - The busses, which were slowly lumbering along the boulevard, were filled with eager children looking for their first sight of Disneyland.
  • 14.  WHO OR WHOM?  WHO – used as the subject of a clause  WHOM – used as an object  Direct object  Indirect objects  Object of a preposition  Example: Because the wind violently sliced through the branches, the toddler, who/whom was terrified, joined its howling. - antecedent?
  • 15.  While the frustrated teachers were industriously taking notes, they relaxed, and the light bulbs went off in their brains, which indicated miraculous understanding of the grammar concepts.
  • 16. Type of Sentence -Simple Sentence -Compound Sentence - Complex Sentence -Compound/Complex Sentence # of # of Independent Clauses Dependent Clauses 1 0 2+ 0 1 1+ 2+ 1+