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Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
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Biodiesel

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  • 1. Producing Biodiesel from Feather Meal<br />Jayanthi G<br />II MSc bioinformatics<br />
  • 2. Authors:<br />NARASIMHARAO KONDAMUDI,<br />JASON STRULL,<br />MANO MISRA,<br />SUSANTA K. MOHAPATRA<br />Received January 14, 2009. <br />Revised manuscript received June 12, 2009.<br />Accepted June 17, 2009.<br />
  • 3. Contents <br /><ul><li>Introduction
  • 4. Materials
  • 5. Methods
  • 6. Result and discussion
  • 7. Conclusion </li></li></ul><li>Introduction <br />Biodiesel is a fuel comprised of monoalkyl esters of long chain fatty acids that are derived from vegetable oils or animal fats.<br />In the United States, soy, corn, canola, and cotton seed oil are the primary sources for biodiesel production.<br />A successful biofuel industry will not be based on digestible starch from staple crops such as corn<br />4<br />
  • 8. Cont…<br />According to the U.S. Census Bureau, feather meal (hydrolyzed poultry feathers) is defined as “the product resulting from the treatment under pressure of clean, undecomposed feathers from slaughtered poultry”.<br />Main problem the biodiesel industry frequently faces is the availability of cheap and abundant, high-quality feedstock.<br />Thus, finding alternative, nonfood, feedstock such as waste vegetable oil, grease, and animal fats is necessary for the industry.<br />5<br />
  • 9. Preparation of feather meal <br />Feather meal is prepared by rendering the feathers with other waste materials such as blood and offal from the poultry industry using high pressures.<br />The rendering process involves the hydrolysis of polypeptide chains of feather proteins using supercritical water.<br />The hydrolysis process converts high-molecular weight, non digestible proteins of the feather, such as keratins, into small and digestible proteins.<br />6<br />
  • 10. Cont..,<br />The molecular weight and the nutritional values of the newly formed proteins or polypeptides depend on the time, temperature, and pressure of the supercritical hydrolysis process.<br />These feather meal samples contain certain amounts of fat.<br />The fat content of the feather meal varies from 2 to 12% depending upon the type of feathers used.<br />7<br />
  • 11. Cont..,<br />Chicken feathers contain approximately 11%.<br />Turkey and duck feathers contain approximately 6.7%fat content.<br />8<br />
  • 12. Foster Farms supplied the feather meal samples (chicken feather).<br />Fatty acid methyl esters (99% purity),<br />anhydrous methanol (HPLC grade), <br />tannic acid (ACS grade),<br />potassium hydroxide (KOH, 86% assays)<br />Materials <br />9<br />
  • 13. METHODS<br />Step 1: Extraction and Purification of Fat from Feather Meal.<br />Step 2: Transesterification of Fat from Feather Meal.<br />Step 3: Purification and Characterization of Biodiesel.<br />10<br />
  • 14. Schematic representation of biodiesel production from poultry waste<br />11<br />
  • 15. Step 1: Extraction and Purification of Fat from Feather Meal.<br />The feather meal sample (100 g) was stirred with 300 mL of water at 70 C for 20min.<br />The adsorbed fat on the protein content of the feather meal was melted and floated on the surface of the water layer.<br />The top layerwas decanted and centrifuged for 10 min to collect the fat content (7.5 g) of the feather meal.<br />12<br />
  • 16. Cont..,<br />The collected fat was mixed with a basic solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) to remove the free fatty acids (FFA) in the form of soap.<br />The soap was separated from the fat content by centrifugation.<br />The purified fat (6.9 g) was processed to the next step, transesterification.<br />13<br />
  • 17. Step 2: Transesterification of Fat from Feather Meal.<br />Transesterification was conducted to convert the triglycerides to biodiesel.<br />In this process, the recovered fat content was preheated to 100 C and cooled to room temperature to remove the traces of water present.<br />A solution of methanol (1:9 molar ratios) and 1 wt % KOH (as a catalyst) were added to the fat.<br />The reaction mixture was refluxed at 70 C for 1 h.<br />The reaction time was monitored via high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).<br />14<br />
  • 18. Step 3: Purification and Characterization of Biodiesel.<br />After the transesterification process, the reaction mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature overnight.<br />The bottom layer, glycerin, was separatedfrom the biodiesel.<br />The top layer was then washed twice with warm water (40- 45 C) and with acidified water (0.5 wt% tannic acid) to remove the excess methanol and the traces of catalyst.<br />15<br />
  • 19. Cont..,<br />The purified biodiesel was characterized using a Shimadzu gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectroscope (GC-MS) and with a Shimadzu LC solution HPLC system.<br />16<br />
  • 20. A total of 6.9%of the fat was extracted using water as a solvent with stirring for 20 min.<br />Complete transesterification was further confirmed by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)<br />Complete transesterification was observed within the first 15 min.<br />RESULTS AND DISCUSSION<br />17<br />
  • 21. Cont..,<br />18<br />
  • 22. Cont..,<br />The major composition of feather meal biodiesel consists of methyl esters of palmitic (C16:0), steric (C18:0), linoleic (C18:2), and oleic (C18:1) acids.<br />19<br />
  • 23. Cont..,<br />Biodiesel containing compounds with carbon chain lengths of >=15 produces superior-quality fuel.<br />The presence of saturated fatty acids (∼40 wt %) gave a good oxidative stability to biodiesel.<br />To further evaluate the quality of the biodiesel, they have conducted ASTM analysis of the produced biodiesel.<br />Fuel must pass the entire battery of tests to be marketed as a fuel for use in diesel engines and to comply with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards.<br />20<br />
  • 24. Cont..,<br />The complete ASTM analysis showed that it has good cetane number and high oxidation stability, which are good qualities in a biofuel for commercialization.<br />21<br />
  • 25. Conclusion <br />The removal of the fat content from feather meal produces<br />a better food source for animals and <br />Good fertilizer for agriculture.<br />Considering the total U.S. and world production of poultry waste,<br />U.S.-------139 million gallons.<br />World-------593.2 billion gallons <br />of biodiesel per year, respectively<br />22<br />
  • 26. “food for hunger and waste for fuel”<br />
  • 27. 24<br />
  • 28. Defn:<br />A supercritical fluid possesses the characteristics of both fluid and gaseous substances: the fluid behavior of dissolving soluble materials, and the gaseous behavior of excellent diffusibility.<br /> transesterification is the process of exchanging the organic group R″ of an ester with the organic group R′ of analcohol. <br />Cetane number or CN is actually a measure of a fuel's ignition delay;<br />25<br />

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