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Measure Phase



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  • 2. Purposes of the Measure Phase
    • To focus the improvement effort by gathering information about the current situation
    • To define one or more CTQ characteristics ( dependent variables),map the process in detail, evaluate the measurement systems, assess the current level of process performance to establish a baseline capability, the short and long term process sigma capabilities, and quantify the problem
  • 3. Measure Phase Activities
    • Most important tools used in the Measure Phase
      • Process mapping
      • YX diagrams
      • Failure modes and effects analysis ( FMEA)
      • Measurement systems analysis ( MSA)
      • Capability analysis
  • 4. Measure Phase Activities
    • Map the process in detail
      • Process mapping helps a project team do the following:
        • Describe how activities are being done
        • Understand the big picture
        • Identify how, when, or where a process should be measured
        • Investigate where problems might occur
        • Identify where modifications might best be made
  • 5. Measure Phase Activities
    • Map the process in detail
      • A process map consists of flowcharts of the steps in a process– operations, decision points, delays, movements, handoffs, rework loops, and control or inspections
      • Mapping a process in detail should be an iterative process, as the team learns more about the process
  • 6. Measure Phase Activities
    • Map the process in detail
      • Process maps must identify forms of waste
        • All wastes are influenced by and related to process bottlenecks and the inability of the process to flow smoothly
  • 7. Measure Phase Activities
    • A process map is a graphical representation of a process that is used to identify the following:
      • All steps as value-added and non-value added
      • Key process inputs ( X’s)
      • Key process outputs ( Y’s)
      • Data collection points
      • First X’s to put into a FMEA
      • Cycle time per step
  • 8. Create a YX Matrix
    • Takes information first identified in the process-mapping exercise and then documented through brainstorming methods like the cause and effect diagram
    • Method for quantifying and prioritizing the strength of the relationships between the input variables( X’s) and the output variables ( Y’s)
  • 9. Create a YX Matrix
    • Helps start thinking analytically about the process and facilitates buy-in for the solutions later
    • Key success factor in the use of the tool: team make-up
  • 10. Create a YX Matrix
    • Steps for creating a YX diagram:
      • 1- Call a team meeting and introduce the concepts of the YX diagram and assemble the list of potential X’s from the 3 sources: process mapping, brainstorming and preliminary data analysis
      • 2- Enter the process name and revision date in the matrix information section
  • 11. Create a YX Matrix
    • Steps for creating a YX diagram:
      • 3- Enter the Y’s deemed important by the team and/or customer
      • 4- Score each Y from 1 to 10
      • 5- Enter all potential X’s felt to impact Y
      • 6- Score the impact of each X on each Y
      • 7- Analyze the results
  • 12. Create a YX Matrix
    • YX Diagram: Priority compass to indicate where to start looking for the practical factors causing the defect
  • 13. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
    • Technique allowing to study all possible problems in a process, the potential impact of each problem, and how to deal with each problem
    • FMEA starts with tribal knowledge, known defects, and current data collection
    • FMEA is not a tool to resolve the X’s that cause Y’s and eliminate X’s
  • 14. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
    • Main steps for conducting an FMEA:
      • List process functions ( steps)
      • List potential failure modes
      • List potential failure effects
      • Assign severity of each effect
      • List potential failure causes
      • Assign occurrence level to each cause
  • 15. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
    • Main steps for conducting an FMEA:
      • List current process controls for the prevention / detection of failure modes
      • Assign detection levels to failure modes
      • Calculate the risk priority number
      • Specify recommended actions
      • Assign responsibility
      • Assign actions to be taken
      • Recalculate the risk priority number
  • 16. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
    • Description of some terms:
      • SEV rating ( severity) ( 1 to 10): seriousness of the falure mode
      • OCC rating ( occurrence) ( 1 to 10): probability that failure mode will occur
      • DET rating ( 1 to 10): ability of controls to find the failure mode
      • RPN ( risk priority number): overall rating calculated by multiplying the 3 ratings: SEV, OCC and DET
  • 17. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
    • Practical rules for using an FMEA:
      • An RPN greater than 80 is an indicator of a critical need for immediate action
      • A severity rating greater than 5 starts into safety-related defects
      • A high RPN with a low probability of detection P(DET) is likely to result in defects escaping internal tests and reaching customers
      • A high probability of occurrence is an indicator of poor capability
  • 18. Conduct a Measurement System Analysis
    • If variation due to the process use of statistical process control to identify the sources and reducing that variation as much as possible
  • 19. Conduct a Measurement System Analysis
    • If variation due to the measurement system, errors can be classified into two categories:
      • Accuracy: difference between recorded measurements and actual value for the parts measured
      • Precision: variation in measurements when a device is used to measure the same part repeatedly
  • 20. Conduct a Measurement System Analysis
    • Accuracy: 3 components
      • Stability: freedom from special cause variation over time
      • Bias: influence of any factor that causes the sample data to appear different from what it actually is
      • Linearity: statistical consistency in measurements over the full range of expected values
  • 21. Conduct a Measurement System Analysis
    • Precision: 2 components
      • Reproducibility: variation due to the measurement system
      • Repeatability: variation due to the measuring device
  • 22. Conduct a Measurement System Analysis
    • Reproducibility and repeatability are the object of a specific study called a gauge repeatability and reproducibility study
      • Can be performed on both attribute-based and variable-based measurement systems
        • Attributes data: fit into categories that can be described in terms of words ( such as good or bad, pass or fail,..) and counted
        • Variables data: quantitative data consisting of discrete data that are counted and continuous data that are on a continuum, usually in decimal form
  • 23. Determine the process capability
    • Determine whether a process, given its natural short term variation, has the potential long term capability to meet established customer requirements or specifications
      • A short term capability study covers a relatively short period of time and consists of 30 to 50 data points
        • It measures the potential ( short term) capability of the process
        • This method of estimating sigma considers the variation within a subgroup
        • Does not consider the shift and drift between or among subgroups
  • 24. Determine the process capability
      • A long term capability study covers a relatively long period of time and consists of 100-200 data points
        • Measures the actual ( long term) capability of the process
      • Total standard deviation says to estimate sigma considering the variation both within and between or among subgroups
  • 25. Determine the process capability
    • A subgroup is a logical grouping of objects or events that displays only random event-to-event variations
      • The objects or events are grouped to create homogenous groups free of assignable or special causes
      • By virtue of the minimum within-group variability, any change in the central tendency or variance of the universe will be reflected inthe subgroup-to-subgroup variability
  • 26. Conduct the Measure Phase- Gate Review
    • The black belt reports to the executive team on the status of the project
    • To prepare for the review, the black belt and the champion should meet to discuss questions such as the following:
      • What is the main problem?
      • How have you selected critical measures?
      • In what ways have you validated the measurement system?
      • What is the current process capability?