Define Phase

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Define Phase

  1. 1. DEFINE PHASE
  2. 2. Select the champion and identify the process owner <ul><li>Champion: senior manager who is closest to the process </li></ul><ul><li>Process owner: person responsible for the performance of the process and for sustaining the gains achieved through Six Sigma and identifying future opportunities for improving the process </li></ul>
  3. 3. Initiate the Project Charter <ul><li>Establishes the project and the project team </li></ul><ul><li>Sets the objectives for the project, and creates the project rationale or justification </li></ul>
  4. 4. Initiate the Project Charter <ul><li>Important to give the project a title that describes it accurately </li></ul><ul><li>Gives the champion and the project team authority to use organizational resources for the project and forms the basis of communication with stakeholders </li></ul>
  5. 5. Form the Project Team <ul><li>Begins with the black belt who will lead the team </li></ul><ul><li>Black Belts must have sufficient training in Six Sigma, but also facilitation skills and leadership skills </li></ul><ul><li>The team leader selects the other members of the project team </li></ul>
  6. 6. Form the Project Team <ul><li>The team that works with the black belt should be small: 4 to 6 members </li></ul><ul><li>The team should include green belts and employees who know the process and have experience with it. </li></ul><ul><li>The people chosen for a project team must be familiar with Six Sigma and be able to commit some time to the project </li></ul>
  7. 7. Form the Project Team <ul><li>Identify the key stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Build a system chart to show levels of involvement in decisions ( RACI model) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Identify the Customers <ul><li>Customer: any person or organization that receives a product or service from a process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External, if not a part of the organization supplying the product or service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal if part of the organization </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Collect customer data <ul><li>Gather the voice of the customer ( VOC) </li></ul><ul><li>Several means to get the data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer complaints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mail survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus group, in person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus group, online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews, one to one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intercepts ( interviews on the street) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Collect customer data <ul><li>The Master Black Belt should help the black belt develop a survey that will be most appropriate for the project and the customers </li></ul>
  11. 11. Define the Customer CTQ Requirements <ul><li>Take the customer data ( VOC) and translate it from «  customer language » into CTQs, say customer requirements </li></ul><ul><li>One way to identify measures that translate CTQs is the CTQ tree </li></ul><ul><li>To prioritize CTQs, the team can use a CTQ matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Good way to identify the areas that the team needs to improve in order to better satisfy the most CTQs or the most important CTQs. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Determine the Scope of the Project <ul><li>Boundaries within which the Six Sigma team works </li></ul><ul><li>Scoping ensures that the team will be focusing on the biggest problem, the best opportunity for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Necessity to understand where we could gain the greatest financial benefits </li></ul><ul><li>One way to do this is by using a Pareto chart </li></ul>
  13. 13. Define and Map the Core Business Process <ul><li>Simple flow chart that names and defines the process </li></ul><ul><li>Set start and stop points for the process and sketch the basic steps ( usually 4 to 7) insequence </li></ul><ul><li>Useful to label each step in process as critical, major, or minor in terms of the output of the process </li></ul><ul><li>Also indicate the supplier, the inputs and the outputs of the process and of every step, and the customer </li></ul>
  14. 14. Establish the Project Metrics <ul><li>Need to choose the measures by which it will be assesing its progress toward meeting customer requirements, throughout the project and ultimately, at the end of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Project metrics should reflect the VOC but also the voice of the business- mission, goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Metrics are generally according to any of 3 basic dimensions: quality, time ( cycle time or delivery), and money ( cost or price) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Identify the important problems in the process <ul><li>Problems pften identified very qualitatively at first </li></ul><ul><li>But need for defining each problem more specifically, with quantitative data, when possible </li></ul>
  16. 16. Develop the Problem Statement and the Business Case <ul><li>Problem Statement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should include the basic facts, such as the circumstances in which the problem occurs and the extent of the impact of the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should also provide a baseline, set improvement goals, indicate the approach for resolving the problem, sketch a time frame for the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give an estimate of the benefits and financial savings </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Develop the Problem Statement and the Business Case <ul><li>Business Case: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates the need for the project in terms of meeting business objectives </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Focus on the vital Few Factors <ul><li>Made through a Pareto analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pareto analysis: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technique that uses data to assess the relationship between causes and a specific effect and then creates a graphic display of the causes in order of importance and tracks the cumulative effects </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Define the Deliverables for each phase
  20. 20. Determine the Resources necessary <ul><li>Resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative support including ongoing training for the black belt, any green belts, and the other members of the team </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Obtain approval for the project
  22. 22. Start training the Team Members <ul><li>Focuses on the tools and techniques necessary for the steps planned for that specific project </li></ul>
  23. 23. Form a Project Plan <ul><li>The Plan structures the project into steps and schedules milestones, deliverables, and goals for the 5 phases: </li></ul><ul><li>The milestones indicate when and where the team should be in the project </li></ul><ul><li>For each task, the project plan should specify the person with primary responsibility and indicate the start and finish times and duration for each task </li></ul>
  24. 24. Form a Project Plan <ul><li>The black belt, master black belt, and the champion should specify and schedule the training needed by each member of the team </li></ul><ul><li>They should also schedule the five phase-gate reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, the project plan will include a communication plan </li></ul>
  25. 25. Conduct the Define Phase-Gate Review <ul><li>The review provides the members of the executive team an opportunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To ask questions about the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss any obstacles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocate resources as necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that the project team is achieving the project goals according to schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And provide positive reinforcement for the project team </li></ul></ul>

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