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WW1 Battles & Review


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Look at some of the worst and nasty battles that happened during the WW1. Know about the (I,MANIA). VERY IMPORTANT.

Look at some of the worst and nasty battles that happened during the WW1. Know about the (I,MANIA). VERY IMPORTANT.

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  • 1. World War One 1914-18 I, MANIA
  • 2. CAUSES OF WWI 1. INDUSTRIALISM Increased factories and mechanization allowed nations to build weapons at a rapid pace. European nations stockpiled massive amounts of weapons which meant that there would always be a supply of artillery.
  • 3. 2. MILITARISM and the Arms Race  This was a belief by European nations that it was acceptable to solve their disputes by military action. It meant keeping a large scale army that was ready to go to war at any time.
  • 4. Nationalism  Nationalism refers to the act of strongly supporting the rights and interests of one's country. WWI, which was triggered off by the confrontation between Serbs; who wanted to establish a greater Serbia and the Austrian occupation in 1908, saw the start of nationalist movements as different countries sought to protect their interests. It is the strong nationalist elements that led to the re-unification of Italy in 1861 and Germany in 1871.
  • 5. Massive Standing Armies and Reserves in 1914        Russia: 5,900,000 men under arms France: 4,100,000 Britain: 975,000. By 1914 the Royal Navy had 29 dreadnoughts, 10 battle cruisers, 20 town cruisers, 15 scout cruisers, 200 destroyers, 29 battleships (pre-dreadnought design) and 150 cruisers built before 1907 = 453 ships. USA: 200,000 Canada: 3,111 (navy had two cruisers) Germany: 4,500,000, and 48 U-boats (subs) Austria-Hungary: 3,000,000
  • 6. Anglo-German Naval Race: The Dreadnought, the new super-battleship, built in 1906. It had ten 12-inch guns and steamturbine propulsion. By 1914, Britain had 29 Dreadnoughts, and Germany had 17.
  • 7. 3. ALLIANCE SYSTEMS     Before the outbreak of WWI Triple Entente- Britain, France, and Russia Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary & Italy (later replaced by the Ottoman Empire) Rather than discouraging the chance of war, the alliance systems increased the chance of war on a large scale. There could not be a small dispute among competing alliances. Plus, all the European colonies would be at war. The biggest cause of WWI.
  • 8. Allies = green Central Powers = orange Neutral = gray  The world during WWI.
  • 9. 4. NATIONALISM  Europeans felt such pride in their countries that they were willing to fight and die for their homeland. This created tension in Europe because each nation was trying to prove its superiority over other countries.
  • 10. Hitler  “The remarkable picture we have of Hitler as a part of the crowd …in Munich cheering the announcement of war speaks volumes. He is standing in front of one of the front rows, this misfit, without friends, without women in his life, without a job, without a future. And yet his face is ecstatic, radiant. (Ecksteins 306)”
  • 11. 5. IMPERIALISM This was a desire by European nations to expand their borders and control other nations. Land equaled power at this time. This competition for land had the potential to lead to war.
  • 12. Empire Tensions      France wanted Alsace-Lorraine back from Germany (lost in 1870) Austria-Hungary took over Bosnia in 1908 and Serbia wanted it Russia supported Serbia and wanted Turkish land In 1912 Greece, Serbia, Montenegro, and Bulgaria attacked the Ottoman Empire In 1913 Greece, Serbia, Montenegro, and the Ottoman Empire attacked Bulgaria
  • 13. By 1922 the British Empire had 458 million people, around 50 colonies, 1/4 of the world's population, and covered more than 33,700,000 km2, almost 1/4 of the Earth's total land area. After the war, it had taken 6 more colonies.
  • 14. TIMELINE: The Road to War
  • 15. 6. The Trigger- the Assassination of Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of A-H
  • 16. Gavrillo Princip, the assassin (18941918)
  • 17. 2. Austrian Ultimatum to Serbia 3. Serbian Rejection; Russian Guarantee of Support 4. Austria-Hungary invades Serbia 5. Russia mobilizes to threaten Austria-Hungary 6.Germany mobilizes to threaten Russia 7.Germany declares war on Russia but… 8. Germany declares war on France and invades using the Schlieffen Plan 9. Britain signed a treaty with Belgium in 1839 and declares war on Germany
  • 18. The Schlieffen Plan
  • 19. Canada at War!    Canada is a British colony and is automatically at war. However, she has a very small military at first. PM Robert Borden offers help.
  • 20. Valcartier, Quebec
  • 21. Solders were paid $1.10 a day. Pilots got $6.00. Daily Ration for Soldiers Training at Valcartier: Pepper and salt 11/4 pounds bread 1 ounce tea 13 ounce coffee 1 ounce cheese 2 ounces jam 2 ounces beans 2 ounces butter 2 ounces sugar 6 ounces fresh vegetables 1 pound fresh meat 1 pound potatoes 1 ounce oil 1 cubic foot wood Fruit is extra
  • 22. Sam Hughes and the Ross Rifle. The gun would jam if dirty and sometimes the bayonet fell off when the rifle was fired.
  • 23. Infantryman, Canadian Expeditionary Force, France 1915-1916.
  • 24. National Film Board: Canadian Expeditionary Force Footage
  • 25. Trench Life
  • 26. A good day’s hunting
  • 27. Trench Foot
  • 28. Shrapnel Wound Shell Shock
  • 29. Virtual Tour of TrenchesBBC - History - Dug-out Entrance Vitual Tour Simulation game: Over the Top
  • 30. Canadian Battles in World War One 1. Second Battle of Ypres, April, 1915 Canadian troops fought their first battle in the trenches in Belgium. The Germans subject them to a gas attack. The Canadians survive by covering their faces with urine soaked rags. 2,000 Canadians die and 4,000 are wounded. Canada gains a reputation as a strong fighting force.
  • 31. Soldiers using makeshift gas masks during the second battle of Ypres
  • 32. Soldiers loading special gas canisters near the front
  • 33. 2. Battle of the Somme, July 1, 1916     The British had 19,000 killed and 38,000 wounded on July 1, 1916, the worst day in the history of the British army. Canadians were led by British General Haig. He ordered troops openly into no-man’s land. This was the first time tanks were used in battle. Canada had 24,000 casualties during this battle, where they earned the nickname “shock troops”. The battle caused 1.1 million casualties, making it the worst battle in modern history.
  • 34. The Newfoundland Regiment  733 of 801 men in the 1st Newfoundland Regiment were killed or wounded at Beaumont Hamel on July 1, 1916.
  • 35. Smashed German position as a result of artillery barrage.
  • 36. Believed to be the only genuine picture of British troops in action on the 1st of July, 1916
  • 37. British dead awaiting burial after July 1
  • 38. Exploring a WWI Mark 1 Tank
  • 39. 3. Vimy Ridge, April, 1917 •100,000 Canadian troops, led by General Arthur Currie, fought for the first time as a single unit. •British Prime Minister David Lloyd George claimed to his biographer that had the war continued into 1919, he would have sought to replace General Douglas Haig with Arthur Currie, as Allied Supreme Commander. Experience Vimy
  • 40. Vimy and Currie    Currie built a full-scale model of the Ridge. He built underground tunnels and light railways to move troops and supplies. He also used the “creeping barrage”, to surprise and defeat the Germans.
  • 41. Huge Canadian Victory • The Canadians won the battle in only four days. • Allied countries applauded Canada’s success. • This was a defining moment in Canadian independence. • However, Canada had 3,600 dead and 7,000 wounded.
  • 42. A photograph of a position at Vimy Ridge
  • 43. Trenches at Vimy Ridge
  • 44. Grange Tunnels Dug Under the Battlefield at Vimy Grange Tunnel - Veterans Affairs Canada
  • 45. 29th Infantry Battalion advancing over "No Man's Land" during the battle of Vimy Ridge. This was a part of the creeping barrage.
  • 46. Canadian soldiers celebrating victory after taking Vimy
  • 47. Present-day view of shell holes left from the Vimy battle
  • 48. 4. Passchendaele, October, 1917 •This offensive in Flanders was launched by British commander Sir Douglas Haig to break through the front and destroy the German submarine bases on the coast of Belgium. •Canadian troops were assigned this mud-filled ridge after three years of fighting here. •Conditions were terrible and many lives were lost in this victory. The land had little significance. •Very muddy.
  • 49. Battle of Passchendaele Summary:      The initial barrage of Allied artillery warned the Germans and created a mass of craters, potholes and dust in the battlefield. Heavy rains turned the field into a bog of thick mud that severely limited mobility. When the Canadian Corps was ordered to relieve the Anzac forces in October, Canadian Lieutenant-General Arthur Currie objected but was overruled. The Canadians began a series of attacks on October 26. By November 6 when reinforcements arrived, the village of Passchendaele was taken. The Canadians suffered 16,000 casualties.
  • 50. Battlefield at Passchendaele
  • 51. 5. The Last Hundred Days, AugustNovember, 1918 Canadian troops, led by Arthur Currie, fought in several battles forcing the Germans to retreat. They suffer 46,000 casualties in these battles but defeat a quarter of the entire German army. The fighting ends at 11:00 am on November 11, 1918. The war was over.
  • 52. German prisoners after the Battle of Amiens
  • 53. Canadians crossing the Rhine into Germany
  • 54. THE RESULTS OF WWI Leaders of the four major victorious powers—Britain's Prime Minister David Lloyd George, Italy's Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando, President Georges Clemenceau of France, and President Woodrow Wilson of the United States—met in 1919 at the Paris Peace Conference to settle the issues raised by World War I.
  • 55. Paris Peace Conference, 1919 The Allied (victorious) countries met to discuss the settlement of WWI. Some of the issues that needed to be resolved included: how to punish the losing countries, who was ‘guilty’ for causing the war? And, how would peace be maintained in the world. Canada participates here as an independent nation and becomes a member of the League of Nations. Paris 1919 Film Clip
  • 56. Official Flag of the League of Nations
  • 57. The Treaty of Versailles, 1919 This treaty was the result of the peace conference and it formally ended the war. It demanded that Germany: •Accept blame for the war (War Guilt Clause) •Significantly reduce the army and navy •Give back the land it had conquered •Pay reparations amounting to approx. $30 billion •Allow Allied troops to be stationed on it’s territory This treaty was extremely harsh on Germany and many acknowledged that it would simply lead to the outbreak of another war. Germany signed it under protest. Germany would be burdened by the terms of this treaty until Hitler takes power in the 1930’s.
  • 58. Go To Movies, Chapter 6: Injury andShellshockBBC - History - World War One Movies