Solid and Hazardous Waste By Dr. Md. Shafiqur Rahman UMK
Waste ManagementWaste can be defined assomething which the originalowner or user no longer values,and has been discarded ordischarged by the original owneror user.
Waste ManagementWaste can be categorised differently, but one way of categorising waste is into the following:Domestic wasteCommercial wasteIndustrial wasteMine wasteHazardous wasteHealth care wasteAgricultural waste
Waste ManagementWaste is usually found in solid or liquid form. Solid waste is any waste that is hard orsolid and not water-like or liquid, for example; broken glass, used plastic bags, left over food and food remains, torn cloth, yard sweepings, etc. are all called solid waste.
Waste ManagementGood Practice in Solid Waste Management is the collection and proper disposal ofsolid waste in a systematic manner, regularly and in time. Proper disposal includes:recycling, composting, treatment, and regulated dumping.
Waste ManagementUncontrolled burning of waste pollutes the air. It may produce poisonous gases that might cause diseases like cancer. Also, certain kinds of waste like spraying cans can explode when burn.
Waste ManagementUncontrolled burying of waste can pollute the ground water and in turn the water you drink. This also may produce poisonous gases that might cause diseases like cancer, or produce gases which might burst into flames.Uncollected piles of garbage attract animals and insects that can be harmful and can spread diseases.
How to Deal With Solid Waste?There are three global options for dealing with waste.1. The first option is to collect the waste and transport it to a legal and wellprotected dumpsite, where it can be disposed off. In this case waste remains as waste.
How to Deal With Solid Waste2. The second option is to re-use waste, or recycle it. This includes composting of any waste that can rot. In this option waste becomes something useful again.
How to Deal With Solid Waste3. The third option is the treatment of waste. This includes controlled burning and controlled burying of waste. In this case waste can become a source of useful energy for example in the form of heat or gas for cooking.
Waste ManagementThe waste problem is also growing as:more people means more waste production,increase in industrial activities and advancement in technology, means more waste is produced, and a larger part of this waste is hazardous,
Waste ManagementA hazardous waste is defined as solid waste or a combination of solid wastes which, because of its quantity, concentration, or physical, chemical, or infectious characteristics, may pose a substantial hazard to human health or the environment if improperly managed.
Waste ManagementThe disposal options for hazardous waste are very limited. No hazardous waste may be placed in a landfill. Hazardous waste may not be burned except as part of a treatment process at a regulated incinerator. Burying hazardous waste on private or public property is also prohibited. Hazardous wastes may not be placed into septic tanks, sewer systems, or surface or groundwater.
Waste ManagementHazardous waste is defined as liquid, solid, contained gas, or sludge wastes that contain properties that are dangerous or potentially harmful to human health or the environment. Learn how to properly manage and dispose of hazardous waste.
Solid Wastes Solid waste is useless, unwanted, and discarded material lacking sufficient liquid content to be free- flowing.
waste is primarily produced by farm animals, slaughterhouses, and crop harvesting. The mining industry is another major producer of solid waste, generating over 2 billion tons a year. Its solid waste comes from the extraction, beneficiation (preparation for smelting), and processing of ores and minerals.
Solid waste management, which involves the storage, collection, transportation, processin g, recovery, and disposal of solid waste, has been a daunting task.
Under the RCRA, the administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to publish guidelines for the collection, storage, transportation, treatment, and disposal of solid waste.
What are the restrictions on burning pesticide containers?Waste pesticide containers may be burned by the following people: crop owners employees of crop owners commercial pesticide applicators hired by crop owners or their employees.
Sustainable waste managementKnowing and reducing the lifecycle impacts across the supply chain;Using less material inputs (reduce, reuse, recycle);Using less toxic and more renewable materials; andConsidering whether services can be substituted for products.
Acute Hazardous Wastes (P-Listed Wastes)Certain hazardous wastes are subject to higher levels of regulation. These are acute hazardous or “P-listed” wastes. With the exception of a few pesticides, laboratories are usually the only activities on a campus that will generate these wastes. Examples include arsenic compounds, azides, cyanides, and osmium tetroxide. The complete P-list is in 40 CFR 261.33.
Hazardous Waste DeterminationA hazardous waste determination is the decision that something is a waste, followed by the decision that the regulations consider it hazardous waste or simply a solid waste.
GeneratorThe “generator” is the entity that creates the waste. The vast majority of the liability associated with hazardous waste lies with the generator.. Generators may be required to obtain a generator identification number from EPA, using a specific notification form.
Site, Onsite, and Contiguous PropertyEPA regulates generators geographically by site, and this will factor into the determination of generator status. In most cases, the EPA definition of a “site” is a contiguous property bounded by public roads.
NotificationEPA requires that generators of hazardous waste perform a one-time notification. This notification uses a standard form that requires description of the site and hazardous waste codes generated at that site.
Waste MinimizationWaste minimization is any measure that reduces the volume or toxicity of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act–regulated waste. It may include environmentally sound recycling, reuse, or reclamation.
Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Chemicals (PBT Chemicals)EPA defines the PBT chemical list It includes mercury and pesticides such as Aldrin and DDT.
Source ReductionSource reduction is the practice of making changes in operations that reduce the amount of contaminants that enter a waste stream or the environment prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal while reducing the hazards to health and the environment.
Health impacts of solid wasteWaste that is not properly managed, especially excreta and other liquid and solid waste from households and the community, are a serious health hazard and lead to the spread of infectious diseases
Health impacts of solid wasteUnattended waste lying around attracts flies, rats, and other creatures that in turn spread disease. Normally it is the wet waste that decomposes and releases a bad odour. This leads to unhygienic conditions and thereby to a rise in the health problems.
Chronic diseasesIncineration operators are at risk of chronicrespiratory diseases, including cancersresulting from exposure to dust andhazardous compounds.
AccidentsBone and muscle disorders resulting from the handling of heavy containers. Infecting wounds resulting from contact with sharp objects. Poisoning and chemical burns resulting from contact with small amounts of hazardous chemical waste mixed with general waste. Source - Adapted from UNEP report, 1996
Impacts of solid waste on healthThe group at risk from the unscientific disposal of solid waste include – the population in areas where there is no proper waste disposal method, especially the pre-school children; waste workers; and workers in facilities producing toxic and infectious material.
Social and economic problemsPeople can get seriously sick from badly managed waste problems. If they have to leave the community to spend time in hospital, the patient and their families can be badly affected by the separation.If waste is managed well, the cost of fixing problems does not become a burden.
Why waste management is importantWaste that is not properly managed can create serious health or social problems in a community
Pests and diseaseFood waste attracts pests and vermin, like feral pigs and rats. These pests and vermin can start or spread disease in the community. Piles of old garden waste and pieces of old furniture left in yards can shelter vermin and help them to breed. Dengue fever can be spread by mosquitoes that breed in anything that can hold water, like inside old car tyres, litter and even old palm fronds lying on the ground
Poison and pollutionIllegally dumped pesticides, motor oil and other chemicals can contaminate land, creeks, and water supplies. People drinking or swimming in polluted water can get sick. Councils are required by law to clean up land contaminated with chemicals that they dispose of. Chemical clean-ups can be very.
Human waste and diseasesIt is very important to keep human waste out of water supplies. Human waste (faeces, poo, kuma, urine, wee) contains diseases that make people sick. Human waste can get into the local water supplies from leaking septic tanks, releasing contaminated water from sewerage treatment plants, dirty nappies, leaking sewerage pipes and people using local creeks as a toilet