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Cgp lecture1 introduction

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  • The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube containing an electron gun (a source of electrons) and a fluorescent screen, with internal or external means to accelerate and deflect the electron beam, used to create images in the form of light emitted from the fluorescent screen. The image may represent electrical waveforms (oscilloscope), pictures (television, computer monitor), radar targets and others.

Transcript

  • 1. 1 2/15/2014
  • 2. GRADE ? OpenGL oriented programming Grading (100%) 2/15/2014 2 • Assignments (C/C++ based OpenGL projects and WebGL projects) – 40% • MidExam – 10% • FinalProject – 20% • FinalExam – 30%
  • 3. COURSE OUTLINE Introduction • Graphics Standard, API • Introduction to OpenGL • 2D, 3D transformation • Color Lighting • Viewing • Clipping • Hidden Surface Elimination • Line Drawing Algorithms • Texture mapping • OpenGL Texture Mapping 2/15/2014 3 •
  • 4. 2/15/2014 4 JAVKHLAN.R
  • 5. OVERVIEW • What is Computer Graphics • Basic graphics system • History of Computer Graphics • Graphics pipeline • Application areas 2/15/2014 5 • Computer Graphics Programming course
  • 6. WHAT IS GRAPHICS? Graphics: from the Greek language → Handwriting 2/15/2014 6 • Historical meaning: general terms of handwritings, manuscripts and reproduction techniques (copper engraving, etchings) • Current meaning: images, diagrams, illustrations, flow charts, pixel works, business charts, 3D’s, animations, etc
  • 7. WHAT IS COMPUTER GRAPHICS? The term computer graphics has been used in a broad sense to describe "almost everything on computers that is not text or sound“ Typically, the term computer graphics refers to several different things: 2/15/2014 7 • the representation and manipulation of image data by a computer • the various technologies used to create and manipulate images the images so produced, and • the sub-field of computer science which studies methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content
  • 8. RESEARCH FIELDS OF CG Generative CG (1) Design, storage and rendering of graphical models • Object modeling based on basic graphic primitives • Modeling of object behavior • Rendering algorithm • Animation Image recognition (2) Detection of information from images • Recognition of lines, patterns and text • Automated annotation of images • Object reconstruction Image processing (3) Image Description (1) (2) Image Manipulation of images • Photoshop 8 (3) 2/15/2014
  • 9. BASIC GRAPHICS SYSTEM Output device Input devices Image formed in FB
  • 10. INPUT DEVICES 1.Keyboard 2.Mouse 3.Trackball & Spaceball 4.Joysticks 5.Data Glove 6.Digitizer/Graphical Tablet 7.Image Scanners 8.Touch panels 2/15/2014 10 9.Light Pens
  • 11. OUTPUT DEVICES Video Display Devices • Cathode Ray Tubes • Vector scan/Random scan Display • Raster scan Display • color CRT monitors • Flat panel Display • Plasma panel Display • LCD • LED Hard Copy Devices 2/15/2014 11 • printers • Plotters
  • 12. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR INTERACTIVE GRAPHICS Graphics library/package is intermediary between application and display hardware (Graphics System) 2/15/2014 12 Application program maps application objects to views (images) of those objects by calling on graphics library.
  • 13. GRAPHICS DISPLAY HARDWARE • Driven by display commands (move (x, y), char(“A”) , line(x, y)…) • Survives as “scalable vector graphics” 2/15/2014  Raster (TV, bitmap) used in displays and laser printers  Driven by array of pixels (no semantics, lowest form of representation)  Note “jaggies” (aliasing errors) due to sampling continuous primitives 13 Vector (calligraphic, stroke, etc)
  • 14. HISTORY OF CG Ivan Sutherland (1963) – SKETCHPAD 2/15/2014 14 • Using a light pen, key pad and monitor it allowed users create accurate design drawings
  • 15. DISPLAY HARDWARE vector displays • 1963 – modified oscilloscope • 1974 – Evans and Sutherland Picture System raster displays • 1975 – Evans and Sutherland frame buffer • 1980s – cheap frame buffers bit-mapped personal computers • 1990s – liquid-crystal displays laptops • 2000s – micro-mirror projectors digital cinema other • head-mounted displays • autostereoscopic displays
  • 16. RENDERING 1960s - the visibility problem • Roberts (1963), Appel (1967) - hidden-line algorithms • Warnock (1969), Watkins (1970) - hidden-surface algorithms • Sutherland (1974) - visibility = sorting
  • 17. 1960s - the visibility problem • Roberts (1963), Appel (1967) - hidden-line algorithms • Warnock (1969), Watkins (1970) - hidden-surface algorithms • Sutherland (1974) - visibility = sorting 1970s - raster graphics • • • • • Gouraud (1971) - diffuse lighting Phong (1974) - specular lighting Blinn (1974) - curved surfaces, texture Catmull (1974) - Z-buffer hidden-surface algorithm Crow (1977) - anti-aliasing
  • 18. 1960s - the visibility problem • Roberts (1963), Appel (1967) - hidden-line algorithms • Warnock (1969), Watkins (1970) - hidden-surface algorithms • Sutherland (1974) - visibility = sorting 1970s - raster graphics • • • • • Gouraud (1971) - diffuse lighting Phong (1974) - specular lighting Blinn (1974) - curved surfaces, texture Catmull (1974) - Z-buffer hidden-surface algorithm Crow (1977) - anti-aliasing
  • 19. early 1980s - global illumination • Whitted (1980) - ray tracing • Goral, Torrance et al. (1984), Cohen (1985) - radiosity • Kajiya (1986) - the rendering equation
  • 20. early 1980s - global illumination • Whitted (1980) - ray tracing • Goral, Torrance et al. (1984), Cohen (1985) - radiosity • Kajiya (1986) - the rendering equation late 1980s - photorealism • Cook (1984) - shade trees • Perlin (1985) - shading languages • Hanrahan and Lawson (1990) - RenderMan
  • 21. early 1990s - non-photorealistic rendering • • • • Drebin et al. (1988), Levoy (1988) - volume rendering Haeberli (1990) - impressionistic paint programs Salesin et al. (1994-) - automatic pen-and-ink illustration Meier (1996) - painterly rendering
  • 22. early 1990s - non-photorealistic rendering • • • • Drebin et al. (1988), Levoy (1988) - volume rendering Haeberli (1990) - impressionistic paint programs Salesin et al. (1994-) - automatic pen-and-ink illustration Meier (1996) - painterly rendering
  • 23. GRAPHICS PIPELINE Geometry Modelling Transformation  Transform into 3D world coordinate system Lighting  Simulate illumination and reflectance Viewing Transformation  Transform into 3D camera coordinate Clipping  Clip primitives outside camera’s view Scan Conversion 2/15/2014 Image  Transform into 2D camera coordinate system  Draw pixels (incl. texturing, hidden surface…) 23 Projection system
  • 24. GRAPHICS PIPELINE Geometry Modelling Transformation Lighting  3D models defined in their own coordinate system (object space)  Modeling transforms orient the Viewing Transformation models within a common coordinate frame (world space) Clipping Projection 2/15/2014 Image 24 Scan Conversion
  • 25. GRAPHICS PIPELINE Geometry Modelling Transformation Lighting Viewing Transformation  Vertices lit (shaded) according to material properties, surface properties (normal) and light sources  Local lighting model (Diffuse, Ambient, etc.) Clipping Projection 2/15/2014 Image 25 Scan Conversion
  • 26. GRAPHICS PIPELINE Geometry Modelling Transformation  Maps world space to eye space  Viewing position is transformed Lighting to origin & direction is oriented along some axis (usually z) Viewing Transformation Clipping Projection 2/15/2014 Image 26 Scan Conversion
  • 27. GRAPHICS PIPELINE Geometry Modelling Transformation Lighting  Portions of the object outside the view volume (view frustum) are removed Viewing Transformation Clipping Projection 2/15/2014 Image 27 Scan Conversion
  • 28. GRAPHICS PIPELINE Geometry Modelling Transformation Lighting  The objects are projected to the 2D image place (screen space) Viewing Transformation Clipping Projection 2/15/2014 Image 28 Scan Conversion
  • 29. GRAPHICS PIPELINE Geometry Modelling Transformation Lighting Viewing Transformation  Rasterizes objects into pixels  Interpolate values as we go (color, depth, etc.) Clipping Projection 2/15/2014 Image 29 Scan Conversion
  • 30. MODELING AND RENDERING Modeling • • • • • Create models Apply materials to models Place models around scene Place lights in scene Place the camera Rendering • Take “picture” with camera Point Light Spot Light Directional Light Ambient Light
  • 31. CG VS. REAL … to the streets of London 2/15/2014 31 From video game… (Gran Turismo 5, PS)
  • 32. SOME APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS Some of the application areas which make heavy use of computer graphics are: 2/15/2014 32 • Computer aided design • Scientific visualisation • Films • Games • Virtual/Augmented Reality NOTE: There are lots more and there is huge overlap between these different areas
  • 33. COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN
  • 34. SCIENTIFIC VISUALISATION
  • 35. FILMS
  • 36. GAMES
  • 37. VIRTUAL/AUGMENTED REALITY