ICT and Sustainability
– Issues beyond Climate Change –
Prof. Dr. Lorenz M. Hilty
Technology and Society Lab
Empa Material...
2Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
3Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Overview
1. Some Facts about ICT
1. A ...
4Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Some Facts about ICT
The ICT sector is...
5Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Some Facts about ICT
ICT is a driver o...
6Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Some Facts about ICT
Source: Behrendt ...
7Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Some Facts about ICT » Manual Recyclin...
8Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Some Facts about ICT » Manual Recyclin...
9Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Some Facts about ICT » Manual Recyclin...
10Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Some Facts about ICT » Manual Recycli...
11Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Some Facts about ICT » Manual Recycli...
12Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Overview
1. Some Facts about ICT
1. A...
13Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
A Life Cycle Perspective
14Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
A Life Cycle Perspective » PC Example...
15Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
A Life Cycle Perspective » How to Int...
16Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
A Life Cycle Perspective » Linked Lif...
17Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Overview
1. Some Facts about ICT
1. A...
18Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Towards a Conceptual Framework
ICT as...
19Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Towards a Conceptual Framework
ICT as...
20Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Towards a Conceptual Framework » Stru...
21Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Towards a Conceptual Framework » Stru...
22Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Towards a Conceptual Framework » Stru...
23Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Towards a Conceptual Framework » Stru...
24Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Towards a Conceptual Framework » Stru...
25Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Towards a Conceptual Framework » Rebo...
26Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Towards a Conceptual Framework » Rebo...
27Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Towards a Conceptual Framework » Rebo...
28Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Towards a Conceptual Framework » Rebo...
29Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Towards a Conceptual Framework » Rebo...
30Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Towards a Conceptual Framework » Rebo...
31Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Towards a Conceptual Framework
ICT as...
32Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
Conclusions
We need more than a low-c...
Bibliography
Arnfalk, P.; Erdmann, L.; Goodman, J.; Hilty, L. M. (2004): The future impact of ICT on
environmental sustain...
Hilty, L. M.: Das Vorsorgeprinzip in der Informationsgesellschaft – Technologiefolgenabschätzung
für Pervasive Computing. ...
Scharnhorst, W; Hilty, L. M.; Jolliet, O.: Life Cycle Assessment of Second Generation (2G) and
Third Generation (3G) Mobil...
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2009 09 28_lorenz_hilty_informatik_gi_luebeck_ict_sustainability_beyond_climate_change

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2009 09 28_lorenz_hilty_informatik_gi_luebeck_ict_sustainability_beyond_climate_change

  1. 1. ICT and Sustainability – Issues beyond Climate Change – Prof. Dr. Lorenz M. Hilty Technology and Society Lab Empa Materials Science and Technology St.Gallen, Switzerland
  2. 2. 2Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch
  3. 3. 3Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Overview 1. Some Facts about ICT 1. A Life Cycle Perspective 2. Towards a Conceptual Framework 3. Conclusion
  4. 4. 4Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Some Facts about ICT The ICT sector is responsible for 2 % of global GHG emissions. ICT is an enabler to improve the energy efficiency of all other sectors and thus to reduce the remaining 98 %. The energy consumption of ICT is growing much faster than that of other sectors: 2005-2020 in EU-27: +84 % (ICT) as compared to +15 % (all sectors) Energy demand of Data centers in Germany Progress in computing power per electric power Source: Mattern 2005 Source: Borderstep Institut 2009 ?
  5. 5. 5Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Some Facts about ICT ICT is a driver of development: Digital infrastructure overtakes other infrastructures. ICT is the first technology which depends on more than half of the periodic table. “We are too poor not to invest in ICT.” Meles Zenawi Asres, Prime Minister of Ethiopia Source: AFP
  6. 6. 6Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Some Facts about ICT Source: Behrendt et al. (2007) and Empa Input to hardware production: 12 57 metals in 25 years Financed civil war in Kongo We may need it for photvoltaics In future Welcome to the Club! Backyard recycling (urban mining) in poor countries
  7. 7. 7Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Some Facts about ICT » Manual Recycling in Poor Countries Hardware Recycling in South Africa Source: Empa
  8. 8. 8Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Some Facts about ICT » Manual Recycling in Poor Countries Source: Empa Source: Empa Source: Empa Source: EmpaSource: Empa HardwarerecyclinginGuiyu(China)
  9. 9. 9Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Some Facts about ICT » Manual Recycling in Poor Countries HardwarerecyclinginDelhi,India Source: Empa Source: Empa Source: EmpaSource: Empa
  10. 10. 10Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Some Facts about ICT » Manual Recycling in Poor Countries Manual extraction of copper from printed wiring boards in a typical backyard company with 12 workers in Delhi, India. Yield: 1-2 tons/month Source: Empa
  11. 11. 11Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Some Facts about ICT » Manual Recycling in Poor Countries Manual extraction of gold from electronic waste
  12. 12. 12Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Overview 1. Some Facts about ICT 1. A Life Cycle Perspective 2. Towards a Conceptual Framework 3. Conclusion
  13. 13. 13Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch A Life Cycle Perspective
  14. 14. 14Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch A Life Cycle Perspective » PC Example Example: Environmental Impacts over the life cycle of a desktop PC Calculated in Eco-Indicator Points (EIP) with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology Source: Eugster, M., Hischier, R., Huabo, D.: Key Environmental Impacts of the Chinese EEE-Industry – A Life Cycle Assessment Study. Empa and Tsinghua University, St.Gallen and Bejing (2007) -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 P ro d u c tio n T ra n sp o rta tio n U se C H (3 ye a rs) R e c yc lin g C H A v o id e d b u rd e n Eco-IndicatorPoints Production Transport Use Industrial Avoided (3 years) recycling burden China Switzerland
  15. 15. 15Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch A Life Cycle Perspective » How to Integrate Effects of ICT Application? Terminology from research on impacts of ICT on traffic: Optimization effect: ICT optimizes traffic processes. Substitution effect: ICT-based processes replace traffic (e.g. virtual meetings). Induction effect: ICT creates traffic demand. Generalize this terminology to other application fields of ICT
  16. 16. 16Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch A Life Cycle Perspective » Linked Life Cycle Approach Optimization 1 Substitution (demand ▼) Induction (demand ▲) Optimization 2 Optimization 3 Optimization 4 Second-order Effects of ICT (Effects of ICT Application) First-order Effects of ICT (ICT Hardware Life Cycle)
  17. 17. 17Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Overview 1. Some Facts about ICT 1. A Life Cycle Perspective 2. Towards a Conceptual Framework 3. Conclusion
  18. 18. 18Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Towards a Conceptual Framework ICT as part of the solution Technology Application Societal change Optimization effects Substitution effects Making more from less Deep structural change toward a dematerialized economy 3rd order effects [systemic] 2nd order effects [indirect] 1st order effects [direct] enables enables Production Use End-of-life treatment Life cycle of ICT hardware ICT as part of the problem Induction effects Rebound effects New critical infrastructure
  19. 19. 19Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Towards a Conceptual Framework ICT as part of the solution Technology Application Societal change Optimization effects Substitution effects Making more from less Deep structural change toward a dematerialized economy 3rd order effects [systemic] 2nd order effects [indirect] 1st order effects [direct] enables enables Production Use End-of-life treatment Life cycle of ICT hardware ICT as part of the problem Induction effects Rebound effects New critical infrastructure
  20. 20. 20Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Towards a Conceptual Framework » Structural Change yesterday (before the industrial revolution) today Resource flow per capita Labour demand per capita
  21. 21. 21Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Towards a Conceptual Framework » Structural Change Source: Marina Fischer-Kowalski, R‘09 Congress and World Resources Forum Davos 2009, www.worldresourcesforum.org Metabolic rates of agrarian vs. industrial societies
  22. 22. 22Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Towards a Conceptual Framework » Structural Change Labour per capita Information flow per capita Resource flow per capita tomorrow yesterday today ? Sustainable Information Society Unsustainable Information Society
  23. 23. 23Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Towards a Conceptual Framework » Structural Change » Statistics Global trend in the use of Metal ores Fossile energy carriers Biomass Non-metallic minerals Source: OECD, Measuring Material Flows and Resource Productivity. Synthesis Report, 2008, p. 37
  24. 24. 24Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Towards a Conceptual Framework » Structural Change » Statistics Global materials and energy use per capita
  25. 25. 25Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Towards a Conceptual Framework » Rebound Effects ICT as part of the solution Technology Application Societal change Optimization effects Substitution effects Making more from less Deep structural change toward a dematerialized economy 3rd order effects [systemic] 2nd order effects [indirect] 1st order effects [direct] enables enables Production Use End-of-life treatment Life cycle of ICT hardware ICT as part of the problem Induction effects Rebound effects New critical infrastructure
  26. 26. 26Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Towards a Conceptual Framework » Rebound Effects Resource efficiency does not always lead to less resource use (also known as the Jeavons paradox) activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 … n cost of activity [€] resource intensity of activity [t/€] incometotal resource use for the set of activities 1…n [t]
  27. 27. 27Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Towards a Conceptual Framework » Rebound Effects Resource efficiency does not always lead to less resource use (also known as the Jevons paradox) activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 … n cost of activity [€] resource intensity of activity [t/€] incometotal resource use for the set of activities 1…n [t] case 1: less resource intensive and not cheaper no rebound effect
  28. 28. 28Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Towards a Conceptual Framework » Rebound Effects Resource efficiency does not always lead to less resource use (also known as the Jevons paradox) activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 … n cost of activity [€] resource intensity of activity [t/€] incometotal resource use for the set of activities 1…n [t] case 2: price of activity decreases proportional to resource demand (constant resource intensity) direct rebound effect: saved money spent for more of activity 2 OR indirect rebound effect: saved money spent for any other activity
  29. 29. 29Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Towards a Conceptual Framework » Rebound Effects Resource efficiency does not always lead to less resource use (also known as the Jevons paradox) activity 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 … n cost of activity [€] resource intensity of activity [t/€] incometotal resource use for the set of activities 1…n [t] if more money is spent for an activity with a relatively low resource intensity, total resource use will decrase.
  30. 30. 30Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Towards a Conceptual Framework » Rebound Effects This works at any level (household or whole economy, in the latter case replace income by GDP) The time needed to consume an activity should be integrated in its cost (opportunity cost of time). Result: The safest way to reduce total resource use is not to increase resource efficiency, but to bring people to spend more time or money on relatively resource efficient activities, e.g. by making these more attractive, more useful (but not cheaper). This is the most viable way to create sustainable ICT applications. Example: Car sharing companies boomed after Web-based booking was introduced – this just made car-sharing more attractive. In addition to Material Flow Analysis (MFA), we need Payment Flow Analysis (PFA) to identify sustainable applications of ICT.
  31. 31. 31Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Towards a Conceptual Framework ICT as part of the solution Technology Application Societal change Optimization effects Substitution effects Making more from less Deep structural change toward a dematerialized economy 3rd order effects [systemic] 2nd order effects [indirect] 1st order effects [direct] enables enables Production Use End-of-life treatment Life cycle of ICT hardware ICT as part of the problem Induction effects Rebound effects New critical infrastructure
  32. 32. 32Lorenz M. Hilty, Informatik 2009, Lübeck, September 28, 2009, lorenz.hilty@empa.ch Conclusions We need more than a low-carbon economy: a deep structural change towards a dematerialized information society We need ICT as an enabling technology for this transition. The transition will not happen by itself – we need policies that maximize the positive and minimize the negative effects of ICT, accounting for all types of ICT effects (including rebound effects.). Techno-optimism Techno-pessimism Techno-realism Thank you for your attention! lorenz.hilty@empa.ch www.empa.ch/TSL ISBN: 978-3-8370-1970-4 http://www.amazon.de/dp/3837019705
  33. 33. Bibliography Arnfalk, P.; Erdmann, L.; Goodman, J.; Hilty, L. M. (2004): The future impact of ICT on environmental sustainability. Proceedings EU-US Scientific Seminar on New Technology Foresight, Forecasting & Assessment Methods, 13-14 May 2004, Seville, Spain Behrendt, S.; Hilty, L. M.; Erdmann, L.: Nachhaltigkeit und Vorsorge – Anforderungen der Digitalisierung an das politische System. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 42, 2003, 13-20 Bullinger, H.-J.; Hilty, L. M.; Rautenstrauch, C.; Rey, U.; Weller, A. (Hrsg.): Betriebliche Umweltinformationssysteme in Produktion und Logistik. Metropolis, Marburg 1998, ISBN: 3- 89518-178-1 Dompke, M.; von Geibler, J. ; Göhring, W. ; Herget, M.; Hilty, L. M.; Isenmann, R. ; Kuhndt, M.; Naumann, S.; Quack, D.; Seifert, E.: Memorandum Nachhaltige Informationsgesellschaft. Fraunhofer IRB Verlag, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN: 3-8167-6446-0 Erdmann, L.; Hilty, L. M.; Goodman, J.; Arnfalk, P.: The future impact of ICT on environmental sustainability. Synthesis Report. Institute for Prospective Technology Studies (IPTS), Sevilla, 2004 Grossmann, G.; Hilty, L. M. (2003): La technologie de lʼinformation: la clé de las durabilité? Securité Environnement 4, 2003, 14-15 Hilty, L. M.; Arnfalk, P.; Erdmann, L.; Goodman, J.; Lehmann, M.; Wäger, P.: The Relevance of Information and Communication Technologies for Environmental Sustainability – A Prospective Simulation Study. Environmental Modelling & Software, 11 (21) 2006, 1618-1629 Hilty, L. M.; Behrendt, S.; Binswanger, M.; Bruinink, A.; Erdmann, L.; Froehlich, J.; Koehler, A.; Kuster, N.; Som, C.; Wuertenberger, F.: The precautionary principle in the information society – effects of pervasive computing on health and environment. Second Revised Edition. Edited by the Swiss Center for Technology Assessment (TA-SWISS), Bern, Switzerland (TA46e/2005) and the Scientific Technology Options Assessment at the European Parliament (STOA 125 EN), 2005 (English translation of report no. 16) Hilty, L. M.; Gilgen, P. W. (eds): Sustainability in the Information Society. Metropolis, Marburg 2001, ISBN: 3-89518-370-9 Hilty, L. M.; Köhler, A.; von Schéele, F.; Zah, R.; Ruddy, T.: Rebound Effects of Progress in Information Technology. Poiesis & Praxis: International Journal of Technology Assessment and Ethics of Science, 1 (4) 2006, 19-38 Hilty, L. M.; Page, B. Hrebicek, J.: Environmental Informatics. Environmental Modelling & Software 11 (21) 2006, 1517-1518 Hilty, L. M.; Page, B.; Radermacher, F. J.; Riekert, W. F. (1995): Environmental Informatics as a New Discipline of Applied Computer Science. In: Avouris, N. (Hrsg.): Environmental Informatics – Methodology and Applications of Environmental Information Processing. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 1995, 1-11 Hilty, L. M.; Ruddy, T.; Schulthess, D.: Resource Intensity and Dematerialization Potential of Information Society Technologies. Olten: Solothurn University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Olten 2000 (Discussion Papers; 2000-01) Hilty, L. M.; Ruddy, T.: The Information Society and Sustainable Development. Olten: Solothurn University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Olten 2000 (Discussion Papers; 2000-03) Hilty, L. M.; Seifert, E.; Treibert, R. (eds): Information Systems for Sustainable Development. Idea Group Publishing, Hershey (PA) 2005, ISBN: 159140342-1 Hilty, L. M.; Som C.; Köhler A.: Assessing the Human, Social and Environmental Risks of Pervasive Computing. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 10 (5) 2004, 853-874 Hilty, L. M.; Wäger, P.; Lehmann, M.; Hischier, R.; Ruddy, T.; Binswanger, M.: The future impact of ICT on environmental sustainability. Fourth Interim Report – Refinement and quantification. Institute for Prospective Technology Studies (IPTS), Sevilla, 2004
  34. 34. Hilty, L. M.: Das Vorsorgeprinzip in der Informationsgesellschaft – Technologiefolgenabschätzung für Pervasive Computing. Soziale Technik, Zeitschrift für sozial- und umweltverträgliche Technikgestaltung 1, 2004, 9-11 Hilty, L. M.: Electronic Waste – An Emerging Risk? Environmental Impact Assessment Review 25 (5) 2005, 431-435 Hilty, L. M.: Informationsgesellschaft und nachhaltige Entwicklung – zwei Visionen ohne Zusammenhang? Neue Technologien und IT in Medizin und Gesundheitswesen, Proceedings eHealhCare.ch 2003, 16-17 Hilty, L. M.: Nachhaltige Informationsgesellschaft – Einfluss moderner Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien. In: Isenmann, R.; Hauff von, M. (Hrsg.): Industrial Ecology: Mit Ökologie zukunftsorientiert wirtschaften. Elsevier, Heidelberg u.a. 2007, 189-205 Hilty, L. M.: Pervasive Computing – A case for the Precautionary Principle? In: Second International Conference on Security in Pervasive Computing (SPC), Boppard, Germany, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3450, 2005, 1-2 Hilty, L. M.: Sustainable Development and the Information Society. In: Brunnstein, K.; Berleur, J. (eds.): Human Choice and Computers – Issues of Choice and Quality of Life in the Information Society. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 2002, 305-315 Hilty, L. M.: The Material Side of Virtualization. In: Marx-Gomez, J.; Sonnenschein, M.; Müller, M.; Welsch, H.; Rautenstrauch, C. (eds.): Information Technologies in Environmental Engineering. Proceedings ITEE 2007 – Third International ICSC Symposium. Springer, Berlin et al. 2007, 5- 6 Hilty, L. M.: Umweltbezogene Informationsverarbeitung. Beiträge der Informatik zu einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung. Habilitationsschrift (habilitation thesis). Universität Hamburg, Fachbereich Informatik, Hamburg 1997 Hilty, L. M.: Umweltinformationen strategisch und betriebsübergreifend nutzen. In: Cremers, A. B.; Greve, K. (Hrsg.): Umweltinformation für Planung, Politik und Öffentlichkeit. Umweltinformatik aktuell, Bd. 26, Metropolis, Marburg, 2000, 716-722 Hischier, R.; Hilty, L. M.: Environmental Impacts of an International Conference. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 22 (5) 2002, 543-557 Kräuchi, Ph.; Wäger, P.; Eugster, M.; Grossmann, G.; Hilty, L. M.: End-of-life Impacts of Pervasive Computing. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 24 (1) 2005, 45-53 Krivtsov, V.; Wager, P. A.; Dacombe, P.; Gilgen, P. W.; Heaven, S.: Hilty, L. M.; Banks, C.J.: Analysis of energy footprints associated with recycling of glass and plastic - case studies for industrial ecology. Ecological Modelling 174 (1-2) 2004, 175-189 Meyer, R; Hilty, L. M.: Individuenbasierte Verkehrs- und Logistik¬modellierung in Java. In: Hohmann, G. (Hrsg.): Frontiers in Simulation – Simulationstechnik, 13. Sympo¬sium in Weimar, September 1999. Vieweg, Wiesbaden, 1999, 183-188 Mügge, H., Meyer, R., Hilty, L. M., Page, B.: Object-Oriented Specification of Models and Experiments in Traffic Simulation. In: Swayne, D.; Denzer, R.; Schimak, G. (Hrsg.): 2nd International Symposium on Environ¬mental Software Systems (ISESS), Whistler (Canada). New York: Chapman & Hall 1997, 355-342 Oertel, B.; Wölk, M.; Hilty, L. M.; Köhler, A.: Risiken und Chancen des Einsatzes von RFID- Systemen. Trends und Entwicklungen in Technologien, Anwendungen und Sicherheit. Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik, Bonn, 2004 Oertel, B.; Wölk, M.; Hilty, L. M.; Köhler, A.: Security Aspects and prospective Applications of RFID systems. Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik, Bonn, 2005 (English translation of report no. 20) Radermacher, F.-J.; Riekert, W.-F.; Page, B.; Hilty, L. M. (1994): Trends in Environmental Information Processing. IFIP Transactions A: Computer Science and Technology (A-52) 1994, 597-604 Scharnhorst, W; Althaus, H. J., Hilty, L. M.; Jolliet, O.: Environmental assessment of end-of-life treatment options for a GSM 900 antenna rack. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 6 (11), 425-436, doi:10.1065/lca2005.08.216
  35. 35. Scharnhorst, W; Hilty, L. M.; Jolliet, O.: Life Cycle Assessment of Second Generation (2G) and Third Generation (3G) Mobile Phone Networks. Environment International 5 (32) 2006, 656- 675, doi:10.1016/j.envint.2006.03.001 Scharnhorst, W.; Althaus, H.-J.; Classen, M.; Jolliet, O.; Hilty, L. M.: The End-of-life Treatment of Second Generation Mobile Phone Networks: Strategies to Reduce the Environmental Impact. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 25 (5) 2005, 540-566 Scheer, A.-W.; Haasis, H.-D.; Hilty, L. M.; Kraus, M.; Rautenstrauch, C. (Hrsg.): Computergestützte Stoffstrommanagement-Systeme. Metropolis, Marburg 1996, ISBN: 3- 89518-089-0 Som, C.; Hilty, L. M.; Ruddy, T.: The Precautionary Principle in the Information Society. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 10 (5) 2004, 787-799 Wäger, P.; Eugster, M.; Hilty, L. M.; Som, C.: Smart Labels in Municipal Solid Waste – a Case for the Precautionary Principle? Environmental Impact Assessment Review 25 (5) 2005, 567-586 Wäger, P.; Hilty, L. M.; Arnfalk, P.; Erdmann, L.; Goodman, J. (2006) Experience with a System Dynamics model in a prospective study on the future impact of ICT on environmental sustainability In: Proceedings of the iEMSs Third Biennial Meeting, "Summit on Environmental Modelling and Software". Edited by:Alexey Voinov, Anthony J. Jakeman and Andrea E. Rizzoli. International Environmental Modelling and Software Society, Burlington, USA Weiland, U.; Hilty, L. M.: Sustainable Urban Management: Opportunities and Risks of Information Technology. In: Hamm, B.; Muttagi, P. K. (eds.): Sustainable Development and the Future of Cities. Centre for European Studies, Oxford & IBH Publishing, New Delhi 1998, 197-202
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