ErrorAnalysisReferences:Douglas Brown, Principlesof language learning andteaching.
SOME MISTAKES CONCEPTS LEARNING IS A PROCESS THAT INVOLVES THE MAKING OF MISTAKES FIRST MISTAKES OF A LEARNING PROCESS ARE BIG ONES, GRADUALLY DISAPPEAR AS YOU LEARN FROM MAKING THOSE MISTAKES. SUCESS COMES BY PROFITING FROM MISTAKES , BY USING THEM TO OBTAIN FEEDBACK FROM THE ENVIRONMENT
ARE THEY USEFULL?Mistakes provide information and evidenceabout: How language is learnt. What strategies or procedures the learner is employing. What strength and weakness learners have.For these reasons mistakvs need to beanalyzed carefully.
MISTAKES AND ERRORSMistakes refers to a performance error that is either arandom guess or a Errors are the «slip». They are the result of one‟s result of some systematicimperfection in the competence(the process of learner‟s system isproducing speech. incorrect).
ERROR ANALYSISIt is the examination of errors attributable toall possible sources: Interlingual errors of interference form the native language. Intralingual errors within the target language. The sociolinguistic context of communication. Psycholinguistic or cognitive strategies.
ERRORS IN ERROR ANALYSISTeacher can become Strategy of Avoidance so preoccupied with noticing errors that: A student who for somv reason avoids a particular sound,The correct utterances in the L2 word, structure; may be go unnoticed. assumed incorrectly to have no difficulty. We must beware of placing Error analysis can keep usequal attention of the learner‟s focused on specific languages progress and development. rather than universal aspects of language.
IDENTIFYING AND DESCRIBING ERRORSVariation or instability of learner‟s system. • Are • Are grammatically Overtly erroneous utterances Covertly erroneous utterances • Repeated unquestiona well formed at observation of ble the sentence a learner will ungrammati level but are not often reveal cal at the interpretable apparently sentence within the unpredictable level. context of or even communication. contradictory • «I‟m fine, thank data • «does john can sing?» you»
CATEGORIZING ERRORS Errorsof addition, omission, subtitution and ordering. Phonology or orthography errors. Global errors and local errors. Domain errors and extent errors.
ERRORS •GLOBALERRORS MESSAGE IS NO CLEAR FOE THE HEARER. •LOCAL ERRORS THE HEARER O READER CAN GUESS THE MESSAGE.
SOURCES OF ERROR INTERLINGUAL TRANSFER INTRALINGUAL TRANSFER
CONTEXT OF LEARNINGContext refers , for example, to the classroom with its teacher and its materials in the case of school learning or in a social situation in the case of untutored second language learning.
Classroom context Teacher textbook Can lead the student to make faulty hypotheses about the language Richards (1971) called “false concepts‟‟ Stenson (1974) induced “errors „‟ Students often make errors:• Misleading explanation from the teacher.• Faulty presentation of a structure or word in a textbook.• Teacher may provide incorrect information. (misleading definition, word, grammatical generalization)• A pattern that was memorized improperly.
STAGES OF LEARNERSLANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Terms of four stages, based on observations of what the learner does in terms of errors alone. 1.RANDOM ERRORSin which the learner is making rather wild guessesat what to write.Inconsistencies like “john cans sing‟‟, “john can tosing‟‟, and “john can singing‟‟. 2. EMERGENTstage of learner language finds the learner growingin consistency in linguistic production.
For Example: this is a conversation between a learner (L) and a native speaker (ns)of English: L: I go New York. NS: you’re going to New York? L: (doesn’t understand) what? NS: you will go to New York ? L: yes. NS: when? L:1972 NS: Oh, you went to new york in 1972. L: Yes, I go 1972.Learner is still, at this stage, unable to correct errors whenthey are pointed out by someone else.
3.SYSTEMATICstage in which the learner is now able to manifestmore consistency in producing the secondlanguage. While those rules that are stored in thelearner‟s brain are till not all well formed. for example:L: many fish are in the lake. these fish areserving in the restaurants near the lake.NS: (laughing) the fish are serving?L: (laughing) oh, no, the fish are being served inthe restaurants!Learner in this stage has ability of correcting theirerrors when they are pointed out.
4.STABILIZATIONIn this stage the learner has few errors and hasmastered , this four stage is characterize by thelearner‟s ability to self correct.Learners pay attention to these few errors.they correct them, without waiting for feedbackfrom someone else.
VARIATION IN LEARNER LANGUAGE Tarone (1988) focused her research on contextual variability, that is, the extent to which both linguistic and situational contexts may help to systematically describe what appear simply as unexplained variation. Tarone suggested four categories of variation: 1. Linguistic context 2. Psychological processing factors 3. Social context 4. Language function
FOSSILIZATION OR STABILIZATION Fossilization is a normal and natural stage for many learners. The relatively permanent incorporation of incorrect linguistic forms into a person’s second language competence has been referred to as fossilization.
Fossilization can be seen as consistentreinforcement, need, motivation, self-determination , and others. Vigil and Oller ( 1976) provided a formal account of fossilization as a factor of positive and negative affective and cognitive feedback.
There are two kinds of information transmitted beween : Learners ( sources) Effective relationship audiences Facts Cognitive information Suppositions Beliefs
Effective information Cognitive information Means of linguistic kinesic Gestures devices Tone of voice Facial expressions Sounds Phrases Structures discourse
The feedback learners get from audience Affective Feedback Cognitive feedbackPositive: keep talking; I‟m Positive: I understan your massage;listening. it‟s clear.Neutral: I‟m not sure I want to Neutral: I‟m not sure if I correctlymaintain this conversation. understan you or not.Negative: This conversation is Negative: I don‟t understan whatover you are saying; it‟s not clear
Errors in the classroomVigil and Ollers (1976) communicative feedback model Abort Recycle ( ) X ( 0) Continue Continue (+ ) Cognitive Affective feedback feedback Figure 9.2 Affective and cognitive feedback
The task of teacher is to discern theoptimal tension between positive andnegative cognitive feedback. Hendrickson (1980) advised teachers to try to discern the diference beween global and local errors.
A learner of English language was describing a quain old hotelin Europe and he said: 1 “There is a French widow in every bedroom.” 2 “The different city is another one in the another two.”
The matter of how to correct errors was,historically, and still is, exceedinglycomplex. Williams, Jessica, 2005; Doughty, 2003.It seemed quite clear students in theclassroom generally want and experterrors to be corrected.Cathcart & Olsen, (1976)
In “natural” untutored enviroments,nonnative speakers are usuallycorrected by native speakers on only asmall percentage of errors that theymake. Chun, Day,Chenoweth,& Luppescu,(1982)
CATEGORIES OF ERROR TREATMENTTYPES OF FEEDBACK:Recast: implicit corrective feedback.L: I lost my road.T: Oh, yeah, I see, you lost your way. And then what happened?
Clarification Request:L: I want practice today, today. (grammar error)T: I am sorry? (clarificatin request).
Metalinguistic feedback: comments, information or questions.L: I am here since january.T: well, okay, but remember we talked about the present perfect tense?
Elicitation: prompts the learner to self-correct.L: (to another student) What means this word?.T: uh, luis, how do we say thet in english? What does ….?L: ah, what does this word mean?
Explicit correction:L: when I have 12 years old….T: no, not have, you mean, “when I was 12 years old…”
Repetition:L: when I have 12 years old….T: “when I was 12 years old…”
Responses to feedbackUptake: it is general term that can have a number of manifestations.L: (to another student) What means this word?.T: uh, luis, how do we say thet in english? What does ….?L: ah, what does this word mean?Repair: Repetition:
Effectiveness of FFIOvergeneralization seems to summarize the findings on FFI, however it is reasonable to consider the following assertions. Most of reaserch of the last three dacades sujest that “exposure to communicative language instructions in general incease learners’ level attainment. The rate of acquisition and level in a language is enhanced by instructions.
Errortreatment and focus on language forms appear to be more effective when it is into a communicative, learner-centered, and least effective when error trearment is a dominant pedagogical feature “neardenthal” practice occupying the focal attention of the students. Few reasearch identify which learners are more ready to internalize FFI.
Explicit instructions result more appropriate for easily stated grammar rules and implicit instructions result more successful for more complex rules. Certain learners clearly benefit more than others from FFI. Analitic, field-dependent, left-brain-oriented learners internalize explicit FFI better than relational, field- dependent, right-brain-oriented learners.
Theteacher needs to develop the intuition, through experience and solid eclectic theoretical foundations, for ascertaining what kind of corrective feedback is appropriate at a given moment, and what kind of uptake should be expected.
TO DISCUSS Should a teacher interrupt learners in the middle of an attempt to communicate? Should a teacher choose, say, a recast over an elicitation? Should beginning learners be given less corrective feedback than advanced?