By: José Javier Salinas Z Esteban Lemus Diana Granados Julio Guerra
"The social psychology of this century reveals a major lesson: often it is not so much the kind of person a man is as the kind of situation in which he finds himself that determines how he will act." –Stanley Milgram, 1974
INTRODUCTION He examined justifications for acts of genocide offered by those accused at the World War II, Nuremberg War Criminal trials. Their defense often was based on "obedience" - that they were just following orders of their superiors.
In Milgram´s 1974 book Obedience to Authority, Milgram posed the question, "Could it be that Eichmann and his million accomplices in the Holocaust were just following orders? Could we call them all accomplices?"
Milgram was interested in researching how far people would go in obeying an instruction if it involved harming another person.
THE EXPERIMENT The participants in the Milgram experiment were 40 men recruited using newspaper ads. These participants took a roll of a teacher, applying electric shocks to another person that had took the roll of an student.
The experiment take place in to separate rooms:
When the teacher refused to administer a shock and turned to the experimenter for guidance, he was given the standard instruction /order (consisting of 4 prods), two of them are: Prod 1: please continue. Prod 2: the experiment requires you to continue.
RESULTS The level of shock that the participant was willing to deliver was used as the measure of obedience.65% of theparticipants in 65%Milgram’s study 35%delivered themaximum shocks.
Milgram later surveyed the participants and found that 84% were glad to have participated, while only 1% regretted their involvement.
CONCLUSIONOrdinary people are likely to follow orders given by an authority figure, even to the extent of killing an innocent human being.
DISSCUSION While Milgram’s research raised serious ethical questions about the use of human subjects in psychology experiments, his results have also been consistently replicated in further experiments.
VARIABLES The Milgram experiment was carried out many times whereby Milgram varied the basic procedure. By doing this miligram could identify what factors affected obidience. These factors were: 1 Status of location 2 Personal Responsability 3 Legitimacy of Authority Figure 4 Status of Authority Figure 5 Peer Support 6 Proximity of Authority Figure
A BIASED EXPERIMENTThe participants in Milgrams study were all male. Do the findings transfer to females?
ETHICAL ISSUESDeception Protection of participants
EXPERIMENT VALUEMilgram’s experiment has become a classic in psychology, demonstrating the dangers of obedience.