The big gulp and water poverty


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The big gulp and water poverty

  1. 1. The Big Gulp and Water PovertyWhere does it come from, why it’s important, water scarcity and sustainability Javed Mohammed A K2Vista Project
  2. 2. Imagine it is hot,you are thirsty,you’re lips areparched, but youcan’t turn the tapon.
  3. 3. Imagine having tocarry water forhours each day foryou and your familytwice a day
  4. 4. Imagine closing your eyesor pinching your nose asyou drink muddy waterand to avoid it’s awfulsmell.
  5. 5. Imagine that as much asyou want to quench yourthirst, this water is goingto makeyou sick
  6. 6. Today 1 Billion, i.e. 1 in 6 people on earth don’t haveaccess to clean water
  7. 7. That’s like all the population of + +US South America Western Europe > 1 Billion
  8. 8. Oceans contain 97.5% of all water
  9. 9. But only 2.5% of water is drinkable
  10. 10. Clean water: It’s not much but it’s all we have Glaciers, Ground Lakes, Snow & water swamps & permafrost 0.075% rivers 1.725% 0.025%
  11. 11. Global Water Usage 80 70% 70 60 50 40 30 22% 20 10 8% 0%wduoseartfl Agriculture Agriculture Domestic Domestic Industry Industry Water uses
  12. 12. Per capita water availability is on decline 16 14 AfricaThousand m3 12 10 8 World 6 Asia 4 2 MEast & NAfrica 0 1960 1990 2025  6
  13. 13. Agua, Maa, Djour, Voda, Shouei,Paani, Woda, Mizu, Eau all mean water
  14. 14. Water = Life• ~2/3s of human body is made of water and we need 1.5 liters/day to drink and sustain it. We in the West use 70 liters just to flush our toilets, the 1.1Billion are lucky to get 5 liters per day. (source the Big Thirst)
  15. 15. Water = Survival• It carries our food and waste in and out of our cells. It keeps our temperature at the right level
  16. 16. Water = Sickness• 90% of wastewater in developing countries is discharged directly into rivers and streams, where they pollute water supply, resulting in 80% of illnesses.
  17. 17. Water = Death• 1.8 Million children die from lack of water or disease every year. That’s one every 15 seconds. 5,000 children a day. 5 Elementary schools of 500 kids each a day.(source the Big Thirst)
  18. 18. Water scarcity is a major problem
  19. 19. Water scarcity= poverty
  20. 20. Water scarcity= climate change
  21. 21. Water scarcity= populationgrowth, 300% increase in 20 century but 700% th increase in water use
  22. 22. Water scarcity= waste Approximately 2Mtons of human waste is released annually into rivers and streams around the globe
  23. 23. The world’s water resources areunder rapidly growing pressure
  24. 24. Stress on World’s River Basins Europe North America Asia Africa South America Australia Stress High None
  25. 25. Major rivers including the Indus, Nile, Colorado, RioGrande, and Yangtze struggle to reach the sea
  26. 26. Inland Seas and Lakes are drying upAral Sea (Central Asia) has 60% less water than 1975Lake Chad (West Africa) is 1/20th its 1970s size
  27. 27. By 2030, half of the world’speople will be living in areas of acute water shortage (UN)
  28. 28. 27% of the urban population inthe developing world does nothave piped water in its house. Source: UNESCO
  29. 29. 1.8 Billion don’t have access to water intheir homes so they are forced to leave home in search of water
  30. 30. Women and children in developingcountries spend many hours each day walking miles to get water
  31. 31. Carrying heavy water containers is bad for children’s backs, leads to exhaustion, poor attention or absenteeism from school
  32. 32. Without major water investments,many poor economies cannot grow
  33. 33. Present Solutions to Water Scarcity• Bottled Water• Water pumps, Tube wells• Dams• Lined Irrigation Canals• Desalination Plants• Rainwater harvesting• Others
  34. 34. Bottled Water althoughconvenient and portable has many downsides• Bottled water is from 500 -10,000 times more expensive than tap water, so large corporations are profiting from it.• Quality or Safety is not always better especially in developed countries
  35. 35. Bottled Water althoughconvenient and portable has many downsides• As much as 25% of bottled water comes from municipal (tap) water• It causes environmental pollution. Although water bottles are recyclable, only 5% are recycled, the rest fill waterways, landfills etc.• In developing countries there are many scams relating to bottled water
  36. 36. Water pumps allow access to ground water
  37. 37. Tube wellsallow access to ground water. However as the water table lowers,the pumps have to go instead of 10 feet deep, 200 or a 1000 feet down. These are constructed by larger farmers, encouraged by cheap electricity but drain ground water faster than it can be recharged.
  38. 38. Damscan provide control, year round water, flood control and electricity. However, they are expensive, displace communities, lead to deforestation, reduce soil quality,also lose a lot of water to evaporation, silt up, and cause conflicts between nations
  39. 39. Lined irrigation canalsprevent water loss through seepage, but have negative effect the eco-system
  40. 40. Desalination plants take sea water, distill it and provide drinking water to dry regions, howeverthey cost >$ 1Billion and their water can be more expensive that gasoline
  41. 41. Rainwater harvesting makes use of run-off water as mostwater reaches the ground through rain
  42. 42. Water Privatization Some governments addressing issues through WaterPrivatization, eg Cochabamba, Bolivia which was stronglyrejected by the people. Private companies are motivated by profit and have no interest to conserve water nor meet the needs of the poor
  43. 43. Water may replace Oil as next source of conflict and war amongst nations• River Nile: Egypt depends on Nile for irrigation. Ethiopia controls flow upstream.• River Jordan: Israel annexed lands of Golan heights, West bank and controls the Jordan River• River Indus: Lifeblood of Pakistan and breadbasket for the Punjab, but it is sourced, dammed and controlled by India in Kashmir• Tigris and Euphrates rivers: Pass through Jordan, Syria but being dammed upstream by Turkey
  44. 44. Solutions• There are no easy answers, no silver bullets. For many of us in the West, we have taken water for granted. In the West or the East, with demand outstripping the freshwater supply, we have to take a new look at the Eco- system of water and decide what is best and moral for the future of our children and the human race.
  45. 45. Sustainable Water Use Ideas• Use Rainwater Harvesting• Leveling fields with lasers• Irrigating at night to reduce evaporation• Using soil and satellite sensors and computer systems to monitor soil moisture and add water only when necessary• Growing water-efficient crops using drought-resistant and salt tolerant crops varieties• Outside party mediation of water disputes between nations
  46. 46. Sustainable Water Use Ideas• Prevent groundwater contamination• Reuse treated wastewater for irrigation• Work with nature to treat sewage• Practice four Rs of resource use (refuse, reduce, recycle, reuse)• Use drip irrigation• Consumption of clean water must balance natural recharge• Need major water investments, so poor economies can grow
  47. 47. References• Blue Planet Run by Rick Smolan and Jennifer Erwitt• When the Rivers Run Dry by Fred Pearce• The Big Thirst by Charles Fishman All images are from public domain and copyright of respective owners A K2 Vista Project Copyright 2012