Research Issues of Grid Resource Brokers
Definition <ul><li>A Grid broker is a tool used for matching Grid resources to users’ requests. </li></ul><ul><li>Many bro...
General View <ul><li>Related Entities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources  (e.g., CPU, storage, applications, etc.) </li></ul>...
Why we need a Grid broker <ul><li>Grid middleware (e.g., GT) generally provide many services, but users do not have a  sin...
Taxonomy of Grid Resource Broker   [1] <ul><li>Grid Middleware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-service based:  GT2,GT3, NorduGri...
Open Issues   [1] <ul><li>Mostly provided by many brokers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grid-Middleware: GT (especially GT2 & GT3)...
Some Existing Grid Resource Brokers <ul><li>JSS RB  [4]: G4-based,  interoperable , WSRF, JSDL, GLUE, WS-Agreement, Advanc...
My Interesting “Economic Grid Brokers” <ul><li>Propose a Grid economic broker framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provider-sid...
My Interesting “Economic Grid Brokers” <ul><li>Propose prediction-based and economic-based scheduling algorithms </li></ul...
References <ul><li>Attila Kertész and Péter Kacsuk,  A Taxonomy of Grid resource Brokers , in Distributed and Parallel Sys...
References <ul><li>Chao-Tung Yang, Po-Chi Shih and Kuan-Ching Li,  A High-Performance Computational Resource Broker for Gr...
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Research Issues on Grid Resource Brokers

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Present research issues in the area of Grid Brokers. [Survey in 2008], by Sivadon Chaisiri

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Research Issues on Grid Resource Brokers

  1. 1. Research Issues of Grid Resource Brokers
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>A Grid broker is a tool used for matching Grid resources to users’ requests. </li></ul><ul><li>Many brokers include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job submission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical storage </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. General View <ul><li>Related Entities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources (e.g., CPU, storage, applications, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Organization = interconnected Grid sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providers : offer resources to VOs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers : utilize resources on VOs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A broker is a coordinator of all entities </li></ul><ul><li>A broker usually is able to run on a specific Grid middleware (e.g., GT2, GT3, UNICORE) </li></ul><ul><li>Users can access the broker by using command-line, Grid portal, and GUI </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why we need a Grid broker <ul><li>Grid middleware (e.g., GT) generally provide many services, but users do not have a single point of services to access resources </li></ul><ul><li>A broker (or brokerage service) is a common gateway to access Grid resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Brokers can give (best) resources to consumers by using a policy-based decision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer-oriented policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provider-oriented policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grid-oriented policy (or VO-oriented policy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy-driven policy </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Taxonomy of Grid Resource Broker [1] <ul><li>Grid Middleware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-service based: GT2,GT3, NorduGrid/ARC, Unicore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service-based: GT4, gLite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job handling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interface (API, Command-line, Services ,GUI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Type (Sequetial/Parallel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Description Languageg (RSL, AJO, JSDL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QoS (Accounting/Billing, SLA, WS-Agreement, Fault Tolerance) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information support (MDS2, MDS3, MDS4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling architecture ( Decentralized / Hierarchical / Centralized ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matchmakinig model (Static / Dynamic: Prediction-based) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling methods (Grid-Oriented, User/Provider oriented) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Open Issues [1] <ul><li>Mostly provided by many brokers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grid-Middleware: GT (especially GT2 & GT3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job handling: command-line, RSL, rescheduling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling: central-scheduling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rarely provided </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grid-Middleware: GT4+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job handling: JSDL, API, advance reservation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Scheduling: economy/market broker, provider-oriented policy, checkpointing, job migration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New trends: Interoperable Broker and Meta-Broker </li></ul>
  7. 7. Some Existing Grid Resource Brokers <ul><li>JSS RB [4]: G4-based, interoperable , WSRF, JSDL, GLUE, WS-Agreement, Advance reservation, benchmark-based scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>GGB [7]: GT3-based, P2P-based resource discovery , SOA-based resources, scheduling (random and round-robin) </li></ul><ul><li>HPC RB [6]: GT2-based, centralized topology, MPI-based oriented applications </li></ul><ul><li>GRIP [9]: UNICORE -based (able to define VO boundaries), Ontology engine (via AJO) </li></ul><ul><li>eNANOS [2]: GT3-based, dynamic policy management, fault tolerance ( reschedule and checkpointing ) </li></ul><ul><li>GRUBER [3]: GT3-based, SLA policies , scheduling (round-robin, least used, last recently used) </li></ul><ul><li>Nimrod/G [5]: economy-driven , interoperable , parameter sweep application oriented </li></ul>
  8. 8. My Interesting “Economic Grid Brokers” <ul><li>Propose a Grid economic broker framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provider-side services/tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specifying providers’ SLA-based policies [3] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Publishing resources to VOs, Monitoring, Accounting, Billing, Trading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decision-support system to define cost of resources based on balancing between supply and demand quantity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers-side services/tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resource discovery by expressing requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job submission (e.g., using WS-GRAM) and job monitoring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advance reservation [4] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting, Billing, Trading (e.g., payment and bidding) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decision-support system to choose a VO and/or providers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VO-side services/tools (managed by Grid committees) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specifying VOs’ SLA-based policies [3] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specifying VOs’ boundaries (or VO formation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring resources located on a VO or VOs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defining a market for trading resources based an economic model [5] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Bank (managed by Grid committees) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. My Interesting “Economic Grid Brokers” <ul><li>Propose prediction-based and economic-based scheduling algorithms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict budget and time to execute a job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict which resources are appropriate to users’ jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tradeoff among fairness, providers’ policies, consumers’ policies, budget, overall Grid utilization, and job deadline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choose a type of brokers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperable-broker [4] / Meta-broker [8] / both </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fault tolerance issues: rescheduling and checkpointing </li></ul><ul><li>Apply standards&services [4](e.g, JSDL, WS-Agreement, WSRF, GLUE, WS-GRAM) </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage accounting/billing modules (e.g., MOGAS, SCMS, SGAS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic usage: monitoring, billing, and reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical data for decision-support-systems / predictions [1, 2, 4] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plug-in and API-support for user-defined applications (e.g., Grid portal), system customization, and adaptability of various middleware/brokers </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce a P2P computing environment to extend the Grid community </li></ul>
  10. 10. References <ul><li>Attila Kertész and Péter Kacsuk, A Taxonomy of Grid resource Brokers , in Distributed and Parallel Systems From Cluster to Grid Computing, Springer US, 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Ivan Rodero, Julita Corbalán, Rosa M. Badia, Jesús Labarta, eNANOS Grid Resource Broker , in European Grid Conference (EGC2005), Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Catalin L. Dumitrescu and Ian Foster, GRUBER: A Grid Resource Usage SLA Broker , in Euro-Par 2005, Spring Berlin Heidelberg, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Eric Elmroth and Johan Tordsson, An Interoperable, Standards-based Grid Resource Broker and Job Submission Service , in Proceedings of the First International Conference on e-Science and Grid Computing (e-Science’05), 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>David Abramson, Rajkumar Buyya, and Jonathan Giddy, A Computational Economy for Grid Computing and its Implementation in the Nimrod-G Resource Broker , in Future Generation Computer Systems (FGCS) Journal, 2002 </li></ul>
  11. 11. References <ul><li>Chao-Tung Yang, Po-Chi Shih and Kuan-Ching Li, A High-Performance Computational Resource Broker for Grid Computing Environments , in the Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Application, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Sonchaya Rojanavipat, Sivadon Chaisiri, and Putchong Uthayopas, A Development to Grid Resource Management using Grid Broker , in the 10th Annual National Symposium on Computational Science and Engineering, Thailand, 200 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Attila Kert´esz and P´eter Kacsuk, META-BROKER for Future Generation Grids: A New Approach for a High-Level Interoperable Resource Management , Grid Middleware and Services Challenges and Solutions, Springer US, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>John M. Brooke and Donal K. Fellows, An Architecture for Distributed Grid Brokering , Euro-Par2005, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2005 </li></ul>

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