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    • 1. Chapter 4Control Structures http://www.java2all.com
    • 2. Structured Programming “ There is No goto in Java ”• Structured programming: the building blocks• There are 3 different kinds of operations in a program: perform a sequence of actions, perform a selection between alternative actions, or perform a repetition or iteration of the same action. Sequence, Selection, Iteration http://www.java2all.com
    • 3. Structured Programming • Sequence: one thing after another task1 task2 task3 http://www.java2all.com
    • 4. Structured Programming • Selection: making choices YES ? taskAStructured NOprogramming,only one entrance, taskBonly one exit. http://www.java2all.com
    • 5. Structured Programming • Repetition, Part I: doing the same thing again until there’s a reason to stop. TRUE expression taskA ? FALSEDo while: maybe won’t ever do taskA even once.“A while loop repeats as long as a condition is true.” http://www.java2all.com
    • 6. Structured Programming • Repetition, Part II: doing the same thing again until there’s a reason to stop. taskA TRUE ? FALSEDo until: will always do taskA at least once.“A Do Until loop repeats as long as a condition is false.” http://www.java2all.com
    • 7. Structured Programming Procedural Structured Programming • Begin at the top, move to the bottom. • Each program unit has only one entrance and only one exit. http://www.java2all.com
    • 8. Selection in JavaObject Oriented Programming• Within a method, procedural code.• Simple ‘if’ with or without brackets.if( expression ) statement;if( expression ) { statement; } http://www.java2all.com
    • 9. Selection in Java Object Oriented Programming • Simple ‘if’ with or without brackets. if( expression ) statement; if( expression ) { statement; • Within brackets, a “block.” } http://www.java2all.com
    • 10. Selection in Java Object Oriented Programming • Simple ‘if’ / ‘else’ without brackets. if( expression ) statement; else statement;• Without brackets, limit of only one statement per branch. http://www.java2all.com
    • 11. wSelection in Java Object Oriented Programming • Simple ‘if’ / ‘else’ with brackets. if( expression ) { statement; statement; } else { statement; statement; } http://www.java2all.com
    • 12. Selection in Java• Compound ‘if’ / ‘else if’ / ‘else if’ / ‘else’.if( expression ) { statement; }else if( expression ) { statement; }else { statement; } http://www.java2all.com
    • 13. If Statement Syntax • Decision Making• The if exactly mirrors C/C++, and it has three variants: 1.) if( expression ) statement; 2.) if( expression ) statement; else statement; 3.) if( expression ) statement; else if( expression ) statement; else statement; http://www.java2all.com
    • 14. If Statement Syntax• Simple If • The “expression” must be something that uses the comparison operators and resolves to either true or false. if( expression ) if( expression ) { statement; statement1; statement2; } • The statement is executed if the expression is true. • Only one statement can be made conditional withoutbrackets. If you wish to conditionally execute more than one statement, you use brackets to create a block. http://www.java2all.com
    • 15. If Statement Syntax• Simple if/else• If the “expression” is true, the if branch executes, if not, the else branch executes. if( expression ) statement; else statement; http://www.java2all.com
    • 16. If Statement Syntax to label the Don’t bother closing brackets unless• Simple if/else you have a really long if.• If the “expression” is true,Still if branch executes, if not, the you should always line the else branch executes. brackets. up your if( expression ) if( expression ) { { statement1; statement1; statement2; statement2; } } //end of if else { else{ statement3; statement3; statement4; statement4; } } // end of else http://www.java2all.com
    • 17. If Statement Syntax• Compact if/else if/ else • To prevent your nested ‘if’s from marching acrossthe page, you can use this nested if. You can go on nesting them as long as you like, and the last one is just an else. if( expression ) statement; else if( expression ) statement; else statement; http://www.java2all.com
    • 18. Multiple-Selection Structure (switch selection statement)• Once you start nesting many ‘if’s, it becomes a nuisance.• Java—like C and C++ before it—provides the switchstructure, which provides multiple selections.• Unfortunately—in contrast to Visual Basic’s SelectCase and even COBOL’s Evaluate—you cannot useany of type of argument in the switch statement otherthan an integer. http://www.java2all.com
    • 19. Multiple-Selection Structureint x = 0;switch( x ) • The integer expression x is { case 1: evaluated. If x contains a 1, do stuff; then the case 1 branch is break; case 2: performed. Notice the do stuff; ‘break;’ statement. break; case 55: This is required. Without it, do stuff; every line after the match break; case 102: will be executed until it case 299: do stuff okay for both; reaches a break; break; default: if nothing else do this stuff; break; } w http://www.java2all.com
    • 20. Multiple-Selection Structure • The expression within the switch( expression ) section must evaluate to an integer. • Actually, the expression can evaluate to any of these types (all numeric but long): byte short int char but they will be reduced to an integer and that value w will be used in the comparison. http://www.java2all.com
    • 21. Multiple-Selection Structure • The expression after each case statement can only be a constant integral expression —or any combination of character constants and integer constants that evaluate to a constant integer value. http://www.java2all.com
    • 22. Multiple-Selection Structure • The default: is optional. • If you omit the default choice, then it is possible for none of your choices to find a match and that nothing will be executed. • If you omit the break; then the code for every choice after that—except the default!—will be executed. http://www.java2all.com
    • 23. Multiple-Selection Structure • Question: if only integer values can appear in the switch( x ) statement, then how is it possible for a char to be the expression? http://www.java2all.com
    • 24. Counter-Controlled Repetition• Used when you know in advance how many times youwant the loop to be executed.4 Requirements: 1. Variable to count the number of repetitions 2. Starting value of counter 3. Amount in increment the counter each loop 4. The condition that decides when to stop looping. http://www.java2all.com
    • 25. Counter-Controlled Repetition • The for Loop • A common structure called a for loop is specially designed to manage counter-controlled looping. for( int x = 1; x < 10; x++ ) 1.) count variable, 2.) starting value 3.) Increment 4.) condition, final value http://www.java2all.com
    • 26. Counter-Controlled Repetition// ForCounter.javaimport java.awt.Graphics;import javax.swing.JApplet;public class ForCounter extends JApplet{ public void paint( Graphics g ) { 1. 2. 4. 3. for( int counter=1 ; counter <= 10 ; counter++ ) { g.drawLine( 10, 10, 250, counter * 10 ); } }}1.) count variable2.) starting value3.) increment4.) condition, final value • When appropriate, the for is quick and easy. http://www.java2all.com
    • 27. Counter-Controlled Repetition • The for loop is a do-while. • It tests the condition before it executes the loop for the first time. ( • Note: since the variable int counter was declared within the for , it vanishes after the for is finished. ) http://www.java2all.com
    • 28. 1. 2. int counter = 1; TRUE3. counter <= 10 ? { body } FALSE counter++ 4. http://www.java2all.com
    • 29. Counter-Controlled Repetition • All Three Sections are Optional • Effects of Omitting Sections: condition for( int int x = x < 10; x++ ) for( x = 1; 1;; x++ ) • If you omit the condition, Java assumes the statement is true, and you have an infinite loop. http://www.java2all.com
    • 30. Counter-Controlled Repetition • Effects of Omitting Sections: initialization int x = 1; for( int x = 1; x++ ) for(; x < 10; x < 10; x++ ) • You can omit the initialization if you have initialized the control variable someplace else. http://www.java2all.com
    • 31. Counter-Controlled Repetition • Effects of Omitting Sections: increment for( int x x = 1; x < 10;) for( int = 1; x < 10; x++ ) { other stuff x++; } • You can omit the increment of the variable if you are doing so within the body of the loop. http://www.java2all.com
    • 32. Counter-Controlled Repetition • Can Use the while Loop • Although the while is usually used when we don’t know how many times we’re going to loop, it works just fine. • Still must supply the 4 Requirements. http://www.java2all.com
    • 33. Repetition: while Part Iwhile—“the Do While”• The Test is First while( expression ) statement; http://www.java2all.com
    • 34. Repetition: while Part I wwhile—“the Do While”• The Test is First The while { “Do While” } is used when you can’t predict exactly how many times your loop will be executed.while( expression ) { The while may not be executed even once. statement; It executes the loop while the expression is statement; still true. } http://www.java2all.com
    • 35. // WhileTest.java// Since "c" is already false when it reaches the// test, the loop never executes.public class DoWhile{ public static void main( String args[] ) { boolean c = false while( c ) { System.out.println( ”Execute DoWhile while c istrue" ); } System.exit( 0 ); }} http://www.java2all.com
    • 36. Repetition: while Part w IIwhile—“the Do Until”• The Test is Last do { statement; statement; } while( expression ); http://www.java2all.com
    • 37. Repetition: while Part w IIwhile—“the Do Until”• The Test is Last do {This do/while {“Do Until”} is also used when you statement; can’t predict exactly how many times statement; be executed. your loop will } It executes at least once. while( expression ); becomes It executes Until the expression false. http://www.java2all.com
    • 38. // DoUntil.java// Even though "c" begins the loop false,// it still executes at least once.public class DoUntil{ public static void main( String args[] ) { boolean c = false; do { System.out.println( ”Execute DoUntil at least once " ); } while( c ); System.exit( 0 ); }} http://www.java2all.com
    • 39. Statements break; and continue; • Both of these statements alter the flow of control. • The break statement can be executed in a: while do/while for switch • break causes the immediate exit from the structure http://www.java2all.com
    • 40. Statements break; and continue; • After a break exits the “structure”—whatever that is—execution resumes with the first statement following the structure. • If you have nested structures—be they a while, do/while/ for or switch—the break will only exit the innermost nesting. • break will not exit you out of all nests. To do that, you need another break* * There is a variant of the break called a labeled break —but this is similar to a goto and is frowned upon. http://www.java2all.com
    • 41. Statements break; and continue; • The continue statement, when used in a while or do/while or a for, skips the remaining code in the structure and returns up to the condition. • If the condition permits it, the next iteration of the loop is permitted to continue. • So, the continue is a “temporary break.” • The continue is only used in iterative structures, such as the while, do/while and for. http://www.java2all.com
    • 42. Statements break; and continue; • The “Labeled” continue and break statements send execution to the label to continue execution. • Note: using the labeled break and continue is bad code. Avoid using them! stop: for(row = 1; row <= 10; row++) { for(col=1; col <=5; col++) { if( row == 5) { break stop; // jump to stop block } output += “* “; } output += “n”; } http://www.java2all.com