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Embedded systems Embedded systems Presentation Transcript

  • Embedded Systems Microcontrollers & Embedded Processors An Overview By: Ramtin Raji Kermani Junior student of Computer Hardware Eng. Spring 2005 May 16, 2005 Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University “ In the name of God” Scientific Group of CSE Presents :
  • Embedded Systems
    • What is an Embedded System?
    • Where are Embedded Systems used?
    • Typical Embedded Systems Hardware
    • Embedded OS and Software
    • Microcontrollers
    • The 8051 Microcontroller
    • A simple project using AT89C51
    • References
    Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • What is and Embedded System?
    • A specialized computer system that is part of a larger system or machine. Typically, an embedded system is housed on a single microprocessor board with the programs stored in ROM. Virtually all appliances that have a digital interface -- watches, microwaves, VCRs, cars -- utilize embedded systems. Some embedded systems include an operating system, but many are so specialized that the entire logic can be implemented as a single program. (Definition from wikipedia.com)
    Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • What is and Embedded System? Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • ES, Other definitions
    • A special purpose computer built into a larger device .
      • Special purpose:
        • - Embedded systems have a (more or less) well-defined purpose
        • - Contrast with: general purpose computers (PCs etc)
        • - Both hardware and software is tailored to application(s), which are well defined
        • - However, re-programmability is a requirement
      • Built into a larger device:
        • ESs are (usually) part of a larger device, augmenting its capabilities
    Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • ES, Other definitions
    • Any device that includes a programmable computer but is not itself a general-purpose computer.
    • Anything that uses a computer but does not look like one.
    • The microprocessor in an embedded system is like an electric motor in a washing machine.
    Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • ES Types & Characteristics
    • Types of Processing unit:
      • Hardwired logic
      • Programmable units
    • ES Characteristics:
      • Efficiently
      • Cost effective
      • Power efficiently
      • Real-time
      • Predictability
    Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • ES: History and Solutions
    • A very little history: ;)
      • The first Embedded System: Apollo Guidance Computer.
    • Embedded Systems Solutions:
      • Microcontrollers
      • Embedded Processors
      • Digital Signal processors
    Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • Where are Embedded Systems used? Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • Where are Embedded Systems used?
    • Signal processing systems
      • Real-time video, DVD players, Medical equipment.
    • Distributed control
      • Network routers, switches, firewalls, mass transit systems, Elevators
    • “ Small” systems
      • Mobile phones, pagers, home appliances, toys, smartcards, MP3 players, PDAs, digital cameras, sensors, pc keyboard & mouse
    • Modern cars: Up to 100 or more processors
      • Engine control unit
      • ABS systems (Anti Lock Brake systems)
      • Emissions control
      • Diagnostics and Security systems
      • Accessories (doors, windows etc)
    Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • Typical Embedded Systems Hardware
    • Commercial off-the-shelf components (COTS)
      • e.g. wireless radios, sensors, I/O devices
      • Cheap
    • Application-Specific ICs (ASICs)
      • ICs tailored to meet application needs
      • Good performance for their intended task(s)
      • Original ESs were ASICs only
    • Domain-specific processors
      • DSPs
      • Microcontrollers
    • Microprocessors
      • General Purpose Processors
    Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • New trends in ES HW
    • Systems-on-chip
      • Usual (or desired) specs:
        • 32-bit RISC CPU
        • Built-in interfaces to RAM and ROM
        • Built-in DMA, interrupt and timing controllers
        • Built-in interfaces to disk or flash memory
        • Built-in Ethernet/802.11 interfaces
        • Built-in LCD/CRT interfaces
      • New SOCs appearing almost every week!
    • Examples
      • Intel StrongARM SA-1110
      • Motorola PowerPC MPC823e
      • NEC VR4181
      • Many, many more
    Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • Embedded OS and Software
    • Principal role: ‘Not transformation of data but interaction with physical world’
    • Acquires properties of physical world
      • Takes time
      • Consumes power
      • Does not terminate (unless it fails)
    Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • Embedded Operating Systems:
    • Office-style OSes
      • PalmOS
      • WindowsCE
    • RTOSes
      • VxWorks
      • QNX
    • Linux
      • Linux is already ubiquitous
        • Hundreds of different devices are using it
        • http://www.linuxdevices.com/articles/AT4936596231.html
      • Numerous commercial + open source products
    • Mobile OS
      • Symbian
    • Others
      • TinyOS
    Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • What is a Microcontroller?
    • A microcontroller is an entire computer manufactured on a single chip.
    • They have a high concentration of on-chip facilities such as serial ports, parallel input/output ports, timers, counters, interrupt control, analog-to-digital converters, random access memory, read only memory, etc.
    Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • The 8051 Microcontroller:
    • The 8051 is the first microcontroller of the MCS-51 family introduced by Intel Corporation at the end of the 1970’s.
    • The 8051 family characteristics:
      • 4K Bytes ROM
      • 128 Bytes RAM
      • two timer/counters (16 bit)
      • A serial port
      • 4 general purpose parallel input/output port
      • Interrupt controller
      • The 8051 can address 64K of external data memory and 64K of External program memory.
    Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • Microcontroller 8051 internal Architecture Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • 8051 pin description
    • 8051 other family members:
      • 8751 (has EPROM)
      • 8951 (has EEPROM)
    Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • A simple project using AT89C51
    • Here we’ve designed, built and programmed a digital BCD counter that counts from 0 to 9 on a 7Segment display.
    • We use register A as Accumulator, in each delayed cycle the accumulator increments by one and result is showed on the 7segment display.
    Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • A simple project using AT89C51 Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • References
    • Web References:
      • www.google.com
      • http://www.embedded.com
      • http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embedded_system
      • http://www.linuxdevices.com
      • Mani Srivastava’s EE202A class
        • http://nesl.ee.ucla.edu/courses/ee202a/2002f
      • Edward Lee, “Embedded Software”
        • http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/497408.html
    • Books:
      • The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems: Mazidi, M.A.
      • Microprocessors: Uffenbeck, john.
    Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005
  • At the End …
    • Thanks for your Attention … ;)
      • Ramtin Raji Kermani
      • Spring 2005
    Department of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Shiraz University May 16, 2005