NEOCLASSICISM XVIII changes: Population growth. Industrial Revolution. Middle classes growth. Enlightment (Age of Reason)and its ideas.
Enlightment : Science and intellectual interchange vs Superstition, intolerance and abuses by church and state Art must have a social and moral purpose. Against the excess of Baroque (art for the church and royalty)
The Enlightment and the Classic art: Greece and Rome (again) Pompei and Herculaneum are rediscoverd. First archaeological works in Greece.
NEOCLASSIC ARCHITECTUREClassical architecture is the model to copy
Geometric volumes and floor plants. It’s a new Renaissance. The classic temple and its elements are used in churches, public buildings…
Public buildings Museums Libraries. Theaters. Political buildings: Parliaments, Arches of Triumph
ROMANTICISM Partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution Also a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature aprox. 1800 - 1840
ROMANTICISM EMOTION the authentic source of aesthetic experience. Untamed nature Classical ruins A revived medievalism gothic Landscape paintings
Francisco de Goya y Lucientes
Francisco de Goya y Lucientes• Spanish Romantic painter.• The last of the Old Masters and the first of the modern ones.• Court painter to the Spanish Crown.• His works are a mirror of his era.• His revolutionary and imaginative art and his bold handling of paint,provided a model for the work of later generations of artists.
Early life• Was born in Aragón in 1746•At age 14, Goya entered apprenticeship with the painter JoséLuzán in Zaragoza• in Madrid where he studied with Anton Raphael Mengs, apainter who was popular with Spanish royalty.• Back in Zaragoza and painted parts of the cupolas of the Basilicaof the Pillar and the frescoes of San Antonio de la Florida
In his first paintings displays the stereotypes of Late Baroque Catholic religious art
The Frescoes in the Cartuja de Aula Dei (1774) are a cycle of frescoes or mural paintings onthe Life of the Virgin, realised in secco (i.e., painted in oils directly onto the wall surface)
He studied with Francisco Bayeu and married his daugther member of the Royal Academy of Fine Arthelped Goya to procure work as a painter of designs to be woven by RoyalTapestry Factory
Tapestries• He designed about 42patterns; many of them wereused to decorate and insulatethe stone walls of El Escorialand the Palacio Real delPardo.
In these first works: •Color and light •Armonic compositionsEl quitasol
La gallina ciega
Baile en el Manzanares
La maja y los embozados
El ciego de la guitarra
Jugadores de naipes
La ermita de San Isidro
La feria de Madrid
Las mozas del cántaro
1783. The Count of Floridablanca, a favorite of King Carlos III, commissioned Goya to paint his portrait. He also became friends with Crown Prince Don Luis, and spent two summers with him, painting portraits of both the Infante and his family. During the 1780s, his circle of patrons grew to include the King and other notable people of the kingdom. 1786. Goya was given a salaried position as painter to Carlos III. 1789. Goya became a court painter to Charles IV. 1799. Goya was appointed First Court Painter.
Goya’s deafness Between 1792 and 1793, a serious illness, which exact nature is not known, left Goya deaf, and he became withdrawn and introspective. Gestures and facial expressions became vivid and images stayed in his mind
Fast brushstrokeQuasi - Impressionism
María Luisa de Parma.
La marquesa de Pontejos La duquesa de Alba
His portraits are notable because he did not worry to flatter, and in the case of Carlos IV of Spain and His Family, the lack of visual diplomacy is remarkable
King’s brother Don Luis. King’s sister king don Antonio Prince of doña María Josefa. Carlos IV Parma. GOYA Infanta María IsabelCarlos Carlos Fernando,María Luis the heir Queen MaríaIsidro Luisa Infanta Fernando’s King’s sister María future bride doña Carlota Luisa Infante Joaquina Francisco de Paula
Queen María Luisa was thought to have had the real power, which is why she is placed at the center of the group portrait
Gaspar Melchorde Jovellanos
The Duchess of Alba
The Duchess of Alba
Francisco Bayeu Count Fernán Núñez
Don Luis’ family
Duke of Osuna’s family
Goya. La Maja Desnuda 1799-1800óleo sobre lienzo, 97 x 190 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid
(La Maja Vestida) 1800-03óleo sobre lienzo, 97 x 190 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid
PATRIOTIC PAINTINGS 1 808 El dos de Mayo
In historic paintings action is more important than detail
Los fusilamientos del 3 de mayo
Manet. Execution of Emperor Maximilian. 1867.Picasso. Massacre in Korea 1951.
("Deaf Mans House")
BLACK PAINTINGS El coloso 1808-1812. 116 x 105 cm. óleo sobre lienzo. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
Saturn eating his children
La romería de San Isidro (1821-1823)Aquelarre (1821-1823).
Black and grey paint
La pradera de San Isidro (1788).La romería de San Isidro (1821-1823)
DRAWINGS AND ENGRAVINGS El sueño de la razón produce monstruos.