MARS. Mars, known sometimes as the Red Planet, is the fourth planet in the Solar System. It is part of the so-called terrestrial planets (rocky nature, like the Earth) and is the farthest inner planet from the Sun is in many ways the most like Earth. Tycho Brahe measured with great accuracy the motion of Mars in the sky. Data on the apparent retrograde motion ("bonds") Note 1 allowed Kepler find the elliptical nature of its orbit and determine the laws of planetary motion known as Keplers laws.
FEATURES polar caps. the polar caps are composed of a very thin layer of CO2 ice ("dry ice") and may bebelow the southern cap of water ice. One hundred years of observation the south polar cap has disappeared completely twice, while the North has not done before.
CLIMATOLOGY The surface temperature depends on latitude and shows seasonal variations. Theaverage surface temperature is about 218 K (-55 ° C). Diurnal variation in temperature is very high as befits an atmosphere so thin. The daytime maximum inEcuador and in summer can reach 20 ° C or more, while nighttime lows can easily reach -80 ° C. In the polar caps, winter temperatures can drop to -130 ° C.
SATELLITES. natural satellites See also: Satellites of Mars Phobos and Deimos (size comparison) Mars has two small moons, called Phobos and Deimos. Its orbit is very close to the planet. It is believed that two captured asteroids. Both satellites were discovered in 1877 by Asaph Hall. Their names were placed in honor of the characters from Greek mythology who accompanied Ares (Mars in Roman mythology).
OBSERVING SOLAR ECLIPSES The spacecrafts cameras captured the Opportunity March 10, 2004 partial solareclipse caused by the satellite Phobos. The satellite will cover much of the sun because that is larger than Deimos and orbit much closer to Mars. The eclipse ofDeimos captured on March 4, 2004 is comparable to a transit of a planet.
ORIGIN OF THE NAME OF MARS Mars was the Roman god of war and its Greek equivalent was called Ares. The redplanet Mars, associated with blood, favored to be considered since ancient times as a symbol of the god of war. Sometimes referred to as the Red Planet Mars. The star Antares, near the ecliptic in the constellation deScorpio, is named as a rival(Ant-) of Mars, their brightness being similar in some of their approaches.