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  • 1. A BRIEF JOURNEY ON RENEWABLE ENERGY IN GERMANY JS Arora
  • 2. MAP OF GERMANY JS Arora
  • 3. GERMANY AT A GLANCE Location: Central Europe Area: 357,104 km² (about 1/9 of India) 3,287,263 km² Neighboring countries: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland Climate: Average annual temperature: 9 °C Rivers are navigable: Rhine 865 km, Elbe 700 km, Danube 647 km JS Arora
  • 4. GERMANY AT A GLANCE Population 2008: 82.2 million (India 1150 million) Population density: 230 per km² ( India 336 per km² ) Political System State system: Democratic-parliamentary federal state Capital city: Berlin Head of state: Prof. Dr. Horst Köhler JS Arora
  • 5. GERMANY AT A GLANCE Currency: 1 euro = 100 cents (~ Rs. 80) Gross domestic product (GDP) 2008: EUR 2,489.40 billion (India 762.5 billion euro) GDP growth 2008: +1.3 % GDP per person (2008):EUR 30,310 Shares in the GDP: Services 50.9 %, industry and construction 30.4 %, trade 17.9 %, agriculture 0.9 % JS Arora
  • 6. World Electricity Growth Projections JS Arora
  • 7. World Electric Power Generation Growth JS Arora
  • 8. World Electricity Data JS Arora
  • 9. JS Arora
  • 10. Power Generation in Germany JS Arora
  • 11. Germany 2009 : Total Generation=616 BKwH JS Arora
  • 12. Germany Electricity Data 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Install 120400 120800 120800 126700 130000 capacity MW Generation 579.7 594.8 594.8 594.6 616 (Billon Kwh) Consumption 545.8 549.1 549.1 551 551 (Billon Kwh) JS Arora
  • 13. Germany Electricity Policy The 1935 Energy Industry Act amended in 1996, provided for an immediate and full market opening without transitional arrangements. JS Arora
  • 14. Germany Electricity Policy The 1991 Act on Feeding Electricity from Renewable Energies into the Public Grid which sought to promote the production of electricity from renewable energy sources had to be adapted to the liberalized electricity market. Adequate measures had not been taken to achieve the government's climate protection goals: namely, a 25% reduction of CO2 in the period 1990 to 2005. JS Arora
  • 15. Germany Electricity Policy The focus of energy policy 1998 to 2002 Ending the use of nuclear energy – On June 11, 2001, the federal government and the operators of nuclear power plants signed the agreement that serves as a basis for the orderly termination of the use of nuclear power in Germany. JS Arora
  • 16. Germany Electricity Policy The focus of energy policy 1998 to 2002 Renewable energies – EU directive on the promotion of electricity from renewable energies in the internal market for electricity. For Germany, a doubling to 12.5% by the year 2010 is aimed, and for the EU as a whole to 22%. – The law on renewable sources on energy (Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz, EEG) requires grid operators to purchase electricity from renewable sources at fixed prices. Covering, wind, geothermal, photovoltaics, small hydro (below 5 MW), biomass and certain forms of waste – Purchase from Co-generation plants at pre-determined prices. JS Arora
  • 17. Germany Electricity Policy The focus of energy policy 1998 to 2002 Climate protection – In October 2000 the German government adopted a climate protection program to achieve the national target of a 25% lowering of CO2 emissions by 2005 from 1990 levels. – On November 9, 2000 German industry and the federal government concluded a voluntary commitment agreement for climate protection. By 2005, CO2 emissions are to be lowered by 28% and by 2012 the greenhouse gases named in the Kyoto Protocol are to be lowered by 35% (each relative to 1990 levels). JS Arora
  • 18. Germany Electricity Policy Summary Pre-liberalisation (over 1000 mixed private and state-owned companies, 9 large vertically integrated firms, regional/local monopolies) 1996 Directive 96/92/EC (market opening, accounting unbundling, different options for network access) 1998 Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz, EEG(100% market opening), 2003 Directive 2003/54/EC (legal unbundling, regulator required) 2005 Bundesnetzagentur (regulator for electricity and gas) JS Arora
  • 19. Renewable Electricity Generation in Germany JS Arora
  • 20. Renewable Energy Sources Act 1991: Energy Feed-In Law (StrEG) 2000: Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) 2004: Optimised new EEG (Amended) 2009: Optimised new EEG (Amended) JS Arora
  • 21. What is a Feed-In Tariff? Feed-in Tariff s (FITs) aim to support the market development of renewable energy technologies, specifically for electricity generation. Fits put a legal obligation on utilities and energy companies to purchase electricity from renewable energy producers at a favourable price per unit, and this price is usually guaranteed over a certain time period. Tariff rates are usually determined for each renewable technology in order to take account of their differing generation costs, and to ensure profitability. Therefore, the FIT rate set by a particular government for solar, wind or geothermal generated electricity may vary depending on the costs associated with each of these technologies. The guaranteed access to the grid, favorable rate per unit and the tariff term. JS Arora
  • 22. The Feed-in- Tariff : German Success story The German FIT has been a huge success – and is generally regarded as the best example of an effective FIT law. The first real Feed-In Law in Germany was the Stromeinspeisungsgesetz (StrEG) introduced in 1991, otherwise known as the Electricity Feed-In-Law. This took the form of a simple one-page bill for assisting producers of electricity from small hydro stations and wind energy installations. JS Arora
  • 23. Renewable Energy Sources Act, main features Term of the contracts: maximum 20 years Planning and investment reliability by guaranteed fixed prices for RE-power Returns of 7% taken as the basis for the calculations Annual decrease of the tariffs RE-priority for grid access, transmission and distribution Equalization of additional costs for electricity from RES between all grid operators and electricity suppliers; Costs paid by all consumers All different types of RES are considered JS Arora
  • 24. The German Success story The StrEG was modified in several ways in April 1998 with the adoption of the Energy Supply Industry Act, and in 2000, the Erneuerbare- Energien-Gesetz (EEG), otherwise known as the 2000 Renewable Energy Sources Act, was introduced in response to deregulation of the German electricity market in 1998, and a number of other problems with the StrEG. The EEG represented an update, refinement and replacement of German renewable energy policy. JS Arora
  • 25. The German Success story The EEG Amendment in 2004 committed Germany to increase the share of renewable energy in the country’s total electricity supply to 12.5% by 2010, and to at least 20% by 2020. The tariff rates in the 2004 Amendment ranged from €0.0539 per kWh for electricity generated from wind, to €0.5953 for solar electricity from small facade systems. The rates at which the guaranteed tariff would reduce each year (annual digression rates) were also set fairly high in the amendment, ranging from 1%-6.5% annually depending on the technology. JS Arora
  • 26. Success of the German Renewable Energy Sources Act Creation of a large internal market Creation of more than 250,000 new jobs in Germany Series of innovative developments in RE technologies Costs for market introduction of RE considerably lower than in other countries Renewable Energy Sources Act is a cost effective stimulus package JS Arora
  • 27. The German Success story As of 2009, feed-in tariff policies have been enacted in 63 countries around the world, including in Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Israel, Italy, the Republic of Korea, the Netherlands, Portugal, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and in some states in the United States. JS Arora
  • 28. History of the Renewable Energy Sources Act JS Arora
  • 29. Germany Renewable Energy JS Arora
  • 30. R.E. sources as a share of gross electricity consumption in Germany JS Arora
  • 31. JS Arora
  • 32. Wind Energy in Germany JS Arora
  • 33. JS Arora
  • 34. JS Arora
  • 35. The EEG – basis of success for German wind energy For wind energy an ‘initial tariff’ is fixed for at least 5 and up to 20 years. It is reduced to a ‘basic tariff’ depending on how local wind conditions compare to a so called ‘reference yield’. Wind installations on very good sites (reference yield of 150 %) receive the initial tariff for example for five years, while for turbines on lesser sites this period can be extended. The tariffs are altogether paid for 20 years. JS Arora
  • 36. The EEG – basis of success for German wind energy As of 1 January 2009 the initial tariff for onshore wind energy was increased to 9.2 cent/kWh. The basic tariff is set at 5.02 cent/kWh. There will be an annual degression of 1 % for new installations every year. The tariff for offshore wind energy got increased to 13 cent/kWh plus an additional ‘sprinter bonus’ of 2 cents/kWh for projects which will come into operation before the end of 2015. The initial 15 cents/kWh will be paid for a period of 12 years. After that, the tariff will decrease to 3.5 cents/kWh. Offshore tariffs will annually decrease at 5 % for new installations starting from 2015. JS Arora
  • 37. The EEG – basis of success for German wind energy Grid operators are obliged to feed in electricity produced from renewable energy and buy it at a minimum price within their supply area. Furthermore, the new EEG requires of grid operators not only that they extend the grid, but also that they optimise and enhance the existing grid. Failure to comply with this can lead to claims for damages by anyone willing (but unable) to feed in. JS Arora
  • 38. JS Arora
  • 39. JS Arora
  • 40. JS Arora
  • 41. Wind Energy Technology What works & what doesn’t JS Arora
  • 42. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS Wind Energy in Germany by 2020 The domestic market has been very stable in recent years and will even rise again once the administrative hurdles such as general distance regulations and height limits have been overcome and construction can continue. This is mainly a political issue. National and Federal State targets for renewable electricity require a growing contribution of wind energy in Germany. According to calculations from BWE the overall German onshore capacity could be at 45,000 MW, with an additional 10,000 MW offshore wind. With a generation of approximately 150 TWh/year wind energy could deliver 25 % of the German electricity consumption by this time. Future challenges include a speedy grid expansion with also using underground cable in critical areas. JS Arora
  • 43. JS Arora
  • 44. Wind industry gears up for high level participation in Copenhagen climate talks “Wind power will play a key role in combating climate change, but we need a clear framework and a price on carbon for the sector to reach its full potential,” “All analyses show that the largest contribution to solving the climate issue must come from the private sector, and we stand ready to contribute, but we need a clear, robust and legally binding international framework to do so.” Industry scenarios demonstrate that wind energy can save as much as 10 bn tons of CO2 by 2020. Steve Sawyer, GWEC Secretary General. JS Arora
  • 45. Solar Energy JS Arora
  • 46. Source: Aleo Why do we need Photovoltaics? Source: Solarwatt PV is the most fascinating way to produce electricity Advantages PV can be used everywhere worldwide PV can be used grid connected and off- grid PV can be used in every size Source: Phönix PV needs only one initial investment PV does not harm the environment PV has the biggest potential among all RES Source: SMA Solar Markets Germany, September 15, 2009, Athens JS Arora 46
  • 47. Why do we need Photovoltaics? Challenge: Today, PV is often the most expensive way to produce electricity using RES However: PV has the highest cost reduction potential PV has to be developed today in order to have (1) enough solar capacity available in one decade (2) at a competitive price JS Arora
  • 48. Solar Photo Voltaic Solar photovoltaics (PVs) are arrays of cells containing a material that converts solar radiation into direct current electricity. Materials presently used for photovoltaics include amorphous silicon, polycrystalline silicon, microcrystalline silicon, cadmium telluride, Photovoltaic production has been doubling every 2 years, increasing by an average of 48 percent each year since 2002, making it the world’s fastest-growing energy technology. Solar PV power stations today have capacities ranging from 10-60 MW although proposed solar PV power stations will have a capacity of 150 MW or more JS Arora
  • 49. Solar PV Advantages The 89 petawatts of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface is plentiful - almost 6,000 times more than the 15 terawatts of average electrical power consumed by humans. This natural resource can be utilised by by using Solar PV Solar power is pollution-free during use. Production end-wastes and emissions are manageable using existing pollution controls. End-of- use recycling technologies are under development. PV installations can operate for many years with little maintenance or intervention after their initial set-up, so after the initial capital cost of building any solar power plant, operating costs are extremely low compared to existing power technologies. Solar electric generation is economically superior where grid connection or fuel transport is difficult, costly or impossible. Long- standing examples include satellites, island communities, remote JS Arora locations and ocean vessels.
  • 50. Solar PV Advantages When grid-connected, solar electric generation replaces some or all of the highest-cost electricity used during times of peak demand (in most climatic regions). This can reduce grid loading, and can eliminate the need for local battery power to provide for use in times of darkness. These features are enabled by net metering. Time-of- use net metering can be highly favorable, but requires newer electronic metering, which may still be impractical for some users. Grid-connected solar electricity can be used locally thus reducing transmission/distribution losses (transmission losses in the US were approximately 7.2% in 1995). Compared to fossil and nuclear energy sources, very little research money has been invested in the development of solar cells, so there is considerable room for improvement. Nevertheless, experimental high efficiency solar cells already have efficiencies of over 40% and efficiencies are rapidly rising while mass-production costs are rapidly falling. JS Arora
  • 51. Solar PV Disadvantages Photovoltaics are costly to install. While the modules are often warranted for upwards of 20 years, much of the investment in a home-mounted system may be lost if the home-owner moves and the buyer puts less value on the system than the seller. Solar electricity is not available at night and is less available in cloudy weather conditions from conventional silicon based- technologies. Therefore, a storage or complementary power system is required. Apart from their own efficiency figures, PV systems work within the limited power density of their location's insolation. Solar cells produce DC which must be converted to AC (using a grid tie inverter) when used in current existing distribution grids. This incurs an energy loss of 4-12% JS Arora
  • 52. Solar power in Germany Germany is the world's top photovoltaics (PV) installer, accounting for almost half of the global solar power market in 2007. Out of the 20 biggest photovoltaic plants, 15 are in Germany, Germans installed about 1,300 megawatts of new PV capacity in 2007, up from 850 megawatts in 2006, for a cumulative total exceeding 3,830 megawatts. JS Arora
  • 53. Solar power in Germany Germany added a further 2 GW in 2008 and 2.5 GW in 2009 taking the total to 8.3 GW by end of 2009. As capacity has risen, installed PV system costs have been cut in half between 1997 and 2007. Solar power now meets about 1 percent of Germany's electricity demand, a share that some market analysts expect could reach 25 percent by 2050. The country has a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity, which requires utilities to pay customers a guaranteed rate for any solar power they feed into the grid. JS Arora
  • 54. Germany's largest photovoltaic (PV) power plants DC Peak Location Description MW Hr per Power year 40 MW Muldentalkreis 550,000 thin-film 40,000 modules 12 MW Arnstein 1408 SOLON mover 14,000 10 MW Pocking 57,912 Solar madules 11,500 6.3 MW Muenhausen 57,600 solar modules 6,750 5 MW Buerstadt 30,000 BP Solar 4,200 modules 5 MW Espenhain 33,500 Shell Solar 5,000 Modules JS Arora
  • 55. Germany's largest photovoltaic (PV) power plants DC Peak Location Description MW Hr per year Power 4 MW Merseburg 25,000 BP Solar modules 3,400 4 MW Gottleborn 50,000 solar modules 8,200 4 MW Hemaau 32,740 solar modules 3,900 3.3 MW Dingolfing Solara Sharp solar modules 3,050 1.9 MW Guenching Sharp solar modules - 1.9 MW Minihof Sharp solar modules - JS Arora
  • 56. Why Germany is adding large Solar Power capacities The reason is not a breakthrough in the economics or technology of solar power but a law adopted in 2000. It requires the country's huge old-line utility companies to subsidize the solar upstarts by buying their electricity at marked-up rates that make it easy for the newcomers to turn a profit. Their cleanly created power enters the utilities' grids for sale to consumers. The law was part of a broader measure adopted by the German government to boost production of renewable energy sources, including wind power and biofuels. As the world's sixth-biggest producer of carbon-dioxide emissions, Germany is trying to slash its output of greenhouse gases and wants renewable sources to supply a quarter of its energy needs by 2020. JS Arora
  • 57. Solar Energy : Installed capacity In the Year 2000 Install Capacity was 44 MW In 2003 Some 20,000 solar electricity systems yielding an output of about 145 Megawatts (MW) were installed. Germany saw slow growth in 2006, but still remains by far the largest PV market in the world. 968 MW of PV were installed in Germany in 2006. In 2008 total Capacity is 5351 MW. JS Arora
  • 58. German Solar Energy Germans installed about 1,300 megawatts of new PV capacity in 2007, up from 968 megawatts in 2006, for a cumulative total exceeding 3,830 megawatts. Germany added a further 1.5 GW in 2008 and 2.5 GW in 2009 taking the total to 8.0 GW by end of 2009. As capacity has risen, installed PV system costs have been cut in half between 1997 and 2007. Solar power now meets about 1 percent of Germany's electricity demand, a share that some market analysts expect could reach 25 percent by 2050. JS Arora
  • 59. Photovoltaic World Market addition during 2008 Italy France 220 MWp; 4% 150 MWp; 3% Portugal 42 MWp; 0.7% New installed Belgium PV Power 20 MWp; 0.3% 2006: 1600 MWp Czech Republic 20 MWp; 0.3% Spain RO Europe 2007: 2650 MWp 2600 MWp; 43% 53 MWp; 0.9% (+66%) USA 2008: 6000 MWp USA Canada 500 MWp; 8% 342 MW 20 MWp; 0.3% (+126%) Japan 230 MWp; 4% China Red Letters: 50 MWp; 0.8% Countries with Germany 1500 MWp; 25% South Korea Feed-in tariff 290 MWp; 5% schemes India 70 MWp; 1.2% RO World Australia Source: Preliminary figures of 195 MWp; 3% 40 MWp; 0.7% National PV Associations, Stryi-Hipp, Feb 26th 2009 Solar Markets Germany, September 15, 2009, Athens JS Arora 59 © BSW-Solar 2009
  • 60. World Largest Thin-Film PV Waldpolenz Solar Park, which is the world’s largest thin-film photovoltaic (PV) power system, was built by German developer and operator at a former military air base to the east of Leipzig in Germany. The power plant is a 40 MW solar power system using state-of-the-art thin film technology, and was fully operational by the end of 2008. 550,000 First Solar thin-film modules are being used, which supply about 40,000 MWh of electricity per year. The installation is located in the Muldentalkreis district in the state of Saxony in eastern Germany, built on half of the location’s 220 hectares in the townships of Brandis and Bennewitz. The investment costs for the Waldpolenz solar park amount to some Euro 130 million. JS Arora
  • 61. World Largest Thin-Film PV JS Arora
  • 62. Development of the German PV market 1500 5500 Total installed PV power in MWp PV Market Data 2008 5000 Newly installed power 1 500 MWp Total installed power 5 334 MWp 1100 4500 No. of total systems installed 500 000 4000 Turnover 2008 6 Bln € / 8.1 Bln $ 850 850 3500 Employees 45 000 3000 Milestones 600 2500 1991: First Feed-in Law (FIT with low tariffs) 2000 1991-1995: 1 000 roofs program (grants) estimation 1500 1999-2003: 100 000 roofs program (loans) 2000: Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) (FIT) 1000 150 2004: Amendment of EEG (FIT) 78 80 500 10 12 40 3 3 3 3 4 7 12 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 annually installed PV power in MWp total installed PV power in MWp Solar Markets Germany, September 15, 2009, Athens JS Arora 62 © BSW-Solar 2009
  • 63. The differentiation of tariffs create different market segments in Germany. 2. Size of 3 main PV market segments PV installation 1. Retail market > > Feed-in < 30 > 30 100 1000 tariff kWp kWp 2. Project kWp kWp market € € 3. BIPV 46.75 44.48 € 43.99 ct market On ct ct PV installation 1. Location of buildings -8% -10% -25% € € € € 43.01 40.91 39.58 33.00 ct ct ct ct Free land / ground € 35.49ct -10% € 31.94ct mounted JS Arora Solar Markets Germany, September 15, 2009, Athens 63
  • 64. Germany: Market Segments of on-grid PV Systems Image: Sharp Image: Sharp Effort of mounting BIPV <1% Image: Schüco Image: Grammer residential homes 1-10 kWp multi family houses, public + Large and very large social buildings, farms, commercial > 100 kWp Roof top commercial plants 10-100 kWp 37% 55% Image: Solarwatt Image: Solarwatt Image: BP mounted Ground Est. market shares 8% in 2010 Size of the system Image: Geosol Image: Geosol Solar Markets Germany, September 15, 2009, Athens JS Arora 64 © BSW-Solar 2009
  • 65. Amendment of the EEG from June 2008: Feed-in Tariffs for PV will be reduced faster as of 2009 2500 Degression rate of feed-in tariffs +1% 2250 annually installed PV power in MWp Up to 2008: 5% / 6.5% (roof top/ground) +1% 2009/2010: 8% / 10% (< / >100 kWp) 1900 2000 2011/2012: 9% +1% Below/above corridor: -1%/+1% 1700 1750 1500 9% 9% 1500 1350 8%/ est 8%/ 10% 1250 1100 10% 1200 1000 1100 850 850 1000 -1% 750 600 -1% -1% 500 Degression rate 5%/6.5% 250 150 80 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 annually installed PV power in MWp upper limit lower limit Solar Markets Germany, September 15, 2009, Athens JS Arora 65 © BSW-Solar 2009
  • 66. PV Solar in Some EU Country Consumption 2005 2006 2007 2008 W/capita PV(MW) PV(MW) PV(MW) PV(MW) (2008) Germany 65 1910 3063 3846 5351 Spain 75 58 118 733 3405 Luxexbour 50 24 24 24 24 g Belgium 6.7 2 4 22 71 France 1.4 26 33 47 91 UK 0.4 11 14 19 22 JS Arora
  • 67. Solar PV Photovoltaics has a great potential worldwide – but it is necessary to build up market and industry today The German PV market is growing continously Driver of the market is the feed-in tariff system (EEG) There are already more than 40.000 jobs created in the PV sector in Germany Prices for PV modules were reduced significantly in the last 6 months, therefore investments in PV systems are much more attractive today Solar Markets Germany, September 15, 2009, Athens JS Arora 67
  • 68. Solar Thermal Solar heating is the usage of solar energy to provide space or water heating. Worldwide the use was 88 GW thermal (2005). Growth potential is enormous. At present the EU is second after China in the installations. If all EU countries used solar thermal as enthusiastically as the Austrians, the EU’s installed capacity would already be 91 GWth In 2005 solar heating in the EU was equivalent to more than 686,000 tons of oil. JS Arora
  • 69. Solar Thermal Solar thermal applications cover 0.6 % of the total heating demand in Germany in 2010 and 2.6 % in 2020. In 2008, the solar thermal share was 0.4 %. The forecast predicts an increase in the installed collector area per year to more than 6 million m2 by 2020 - three times the amount of 2008. JS Arora
  • 70. Functions of Solar Thermal In the simplest solar thermal application, a discrete solar collector gathers solar radiation to heat air or water for domestic, commercial or industrial use. The solar panel is usually a flat plate collector that consists of a metal box with a glass or plastic cover and a black absorber plate at the bottom. Absorber plates are usually painted with selective coatings that absorb and retain heat better than ordinary black paint. They are normally made of metal, typically copper or aluminium, because it is a good conductor of heat. Copper is more expensive, but it is a better conductor and is less prone to corrosion than aluminium. The sides and bottom of the collector are usually insulated to minimize heat loss. In locations with average available solar energy, flat plate collectors are sized at approximately 0.5 to 1 square foot per gallon of daily hot water use. Evacuated tube collectors have absorber plates that are metal strips running down the center of each tube. Convective heat losses are reduced by virtue of the vacuum in the tube. For swimming pool heating, plastic or rubber are used to make low- temperature absorber plates. JS Arora
  • 71. When will solar power become competitive? From 2018, solar power will be cheaper than conventional power The German renewable energy sources act envisages a reduction of 5-6.5% per annum in refunds for solar power fed into the grid. The average price of one kilowatt-hour (kWh) of solar power will decrease nominally at 5% per annum from 49 cents today to 23 cents in 2020. Conventional power on the other hand will become dearer. At a minor increase of 2.5% per annum, the price of power will rise for the private consumer from 19.6 cents/kWh today to 28 cents/kWh in 2020. This way, solar power for the private customer will be cheaper from 2018 than obtaining conventional power. Solar power systems today are more than 60% cheaper than 1990 The theory of the learning curve shows that every doubling of photovoltaic output leads to a 20% fall in price. This has also been confirmed in Germany: since 1990 the price of photovoltaic systems has fallen over 60% from EUR 13,500 to about EUR 5,000 today. Between 1999 and 2003, the fall in price was 25% in the 100,000-roofs scheme. By way of international comparison, prices of solar power modules show a continual downward JS Arora
  • 72. Solid Biomass Solid biomass as energy source: – long tradition in Germany – German companies are the world leaders a) Heating systems b) Combined Heat & Power plants Market facts Germany: (CHP): Heat and Electricity – 160 electricity plants (960 MW) Solid biomass: – 1.000 biomass heating plants – 70.000 pallet boilers and ovens in – agricultural and forestry produce homes – in Germany: wood pellet – Potential in EAGA: residues from agriculture / forestry ! JS Arora
  • 73. Biogas Biogas industry in Germany – Power generation from gaseous biomass is Facts: greatly expanding in 650 new systems Germany – clear trend towards larger, installed Electrical high-capacity systems capacity: 1.100 MW – German companies offer a agricultural residues wide range of building, and energy plants operating and maintaining services/products applicable JS Arora
  • 74. Geothermic Power “Geothermal sources could supply Germany's electricity needs 600 times over” – 2007: 130.000 heat Construction boom of GP pumps and 4 geothermal plants due to a new energy electricity plants installed law in Germany – investments of 4 BN Euro – geothermic electricity in 150 geothermal power is supported by the projects government – heat and electricity generation JS Arora
  • 75. Emissions for Electricity Generation in Germany (Grams per MWh) Generation type SO2 NOx Particulates CO2 Nuclear 32 70 7 19,700 Coal 326 560 182 815,000 Gas 3 277 18 362,000 Oil 1,611 985 67 935,000 Wind 15 20 4.6 6,460 PV (Home Application) 104 99 6.1 53,300 JS Arora
  • 76. No. of Players in the Market Contribution to Total Electricity Generation (%) 10% 10% 80% 850 Municipal Utilities 6 Supra regional companies 80 Regional companies JS Arora
  • 77. No. of Players in the Market (cont) 6 Largest co. % of 80% of market E.on (VIAG &VEBA) 4%3% REW AG (RWE & 9% VEW) 37% EnBW/EdF 13% VEAG HEW 34% BEWAG JS Arora
  • 78. Orientation Turbines can be categorized into two overarching classes based on the orientation of the rotor Vertical Axis Horizontal Axis JS Arora
  • 79. Vertical Axis Turbines Disadvantages Advantages Rotors generally near ground Omnidirectional where wind poorer – Accepts wind from any Centrifugal force stresses angle blades Components can be Poor self-starting capabilities mounted at ground level Requires support at top of – Ease of service turbine rotor – Lighter weight towers Requires entire rotor to be removed to replace bearings Can theoretically use less Overall poor performance and materials to capture the reliability same amount of wind Have never been commercially successful JS Arora
  • 80. Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines Rotors are usually Up-wind of tower Some machines have down-wind rotors, but only commercially available ones are small turbines JS Arora
  • 81. JS Arora
  • 82. Active vs. Passive Yaw Active Yaw (all medium & large turbines produced today, & some small turbines from Europe) – Anemometer on nacelle tells controller which way to point rotor into the wind – Yaw drive turns gears to point rotor into wind Passive Yaw (Most small turbines) – Wind forces alone direct rotor Tail vanes Downwind turbines JS Arora
  • 83. Number of Blades – One Rotor must move more rapidly to capture same amount of wind – Gearbox ratio reduced – Added weight of counterbalance negates some benefits of lighter design – Higher speed means more noise, visual, and wildlife impacts Blades easier to install because entire rotor can be assembled on ground Captures 10% less energy than two blade design Ultimately provide no cost savings JS Arora
  • 84. Number of Blades - Two Advantages & disadvantages similar to one blade Need teetering hub and or shock absorbers because of gyroscopic imbalances Capture 5% less energy than three blade designs JS Arora
  • 85. Number of Blades - Three Balance of gyroscopic forces Slower rotation – increases gearbox & transmission costs – More aesthetic, less noise, fewer bird strikes JS Arora
  • 86. Blade Composition Wood Wood – Strong, light weight, cheap, abundant, flexible – Popular on do-it yourself turbines Solid plank Laminates Veneers Composites JS Arora
  • 87. Blade Composition Metal Steel – Heavy & expensive Aluminum – Lighter-weight and easy to work with – Expensive – Subject to metal fatigue JS Arora
  • 88. Blade Construction Fiberglass Lightweight, strong, inexpensive, good fatigue characteristics Variety of manufacturing processes – Cloth over frame – Pultrusion – Filament winding to produce spars Most modern large turbines use fiberglass JS Arora
  • 89. Hubs The hub holds the rotor together and transmits motion to nacelle Three important aspects How blades are attached – Nearly all have cantilevered hubs (supported only at hub) – Struts & Stays haven’t proved worthwhile Fixed or Variable Pitch? Flexible or Rigid Attachment – Most are rigid – Some two bladed designs use teetering hubs JS Arora
  • 90. Towers Monopole (Nearly all large turbines) – Tubular Steel or Concrete Lattice (many Medium turbines) – 20 ft. sections Guyed – Lattice or monopole 3 guys minimum – Tilt-up 4 guys Tilt-up monopole JS Arora
  • 91. THANK YOU Ex Director HRD Damodar Valley Coporation (DVC) JS Arora