MUCH HAS BEEN WRITTEN ON LEADERSHIP OVER A VERY LONG PERIOD OF TIME
NUMEROUS THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP EXIST AND MANY STUDIES EXIST ON LEADERSHIP STYLE AND REQUIRED COMPETENCIES
LEADERSHIP IN BUSINESS, IN GOVERNMENT AND THROUGHOUT SOCIETY IS NOW THE SUBJECT FOR COMMENT.
MANY BOOKS, REPORTS AND PAMPHLETS ON LEADERSHIP ARE NOW PUBLISHED IN A SINGLE YEAR.
THERE ARE MANY THEORIES AND SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT ON LEADERSHIP.
THESE RANGE FROM THOSE WHO ARGUE THAT LEADERS ARE BORN, NOT MADE, TO THOSE WHO ARGUE THAT THE CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIORS OF EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP CAN BE IDENTIFIED, FOSTERED, TAUGHT AND DEVELOPED.
RECENTLY, WE HAVE SEEN THE EMERGENCE, AT THE BEHAVIOURAL END OF THE SPECTRUM, OF THE WORK OF DANIEL GOLEMAN ON EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND PRIMAL LEADERSHIP .
THERE ARE ALSO NOW A NUMBER OF PUBLICATIONS ON WHAT HAS BEEN TERMED AS E-LEADERSHIP FOR THE DIGITAL ELECTRONIC AGE IN WHICH WE NOW WORK.
LEADER EVOKES A HUMAN IMAGE IN OUR THOUGHTS, WHEREAS LEADERSHIP REFERS TO THE ACTION FROM WHICH A DESIRED RESULT HAS TO BE ACHIEVED.
LEADERSHIP IS A QUEST, STARTING FROM THE SELF AND REACHING TO THOSE THAT SURROUND THIS SELF. THEORY OF LEADERSHIP - THE JOURNEY STARTED FROM GREAT MAN THEORY TO TRAIT FACTORS THEORY TO BEHAVIOUR THEORY TO TASK AND RELATIONSHIP FACTORS THEORY AND THEN FINALLY TO SITUATIONAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP NOW I WILL DISCUSS ABOUT THE VARIOUS DEFINITIONS OF LEADERSHIP
“ SUCCESS IN MANAGERIAL JOBS INCREASINGLY REQUIRES LEADERSHIP, NOT JUST GOOD MANAGEMENT. EVEN AT LOWER LEVELS IN FIRMS, THE INABILITY TO LEAD IS HURTING BOTH CORPORATE PERFORMANCE AND INDIVIDUAL CAREERS. ORGANISATIONS THAT STIFLE LEADERSHIP FROM EMPLOYEES ARE NO LONGER WINNING.” ---- BY JOHN P KOTTER “ A LEARINING ORGANIZATION ISN’T ENOUGH. THEY NEED TO BECOME TEACHING. ORGANIZATIONS…TEACHING ORGANIZATIONS DO SHARE WITH LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS THE GOAL THAT EVERYONE CONTINUALLY ACQUIRE NEW KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS. BUT TO THAT THEY ADD THE MORE CRITICAL GOAL THAT EVERYONE PASS THEIR LEARNING ON TO OTHERS.”-- BY NOEL TICHY & ELI COHEN FROM THE ABOVE IT MAY BE SEEN THAT ORGANIZATIONS ARE CHANGING IN DRAMATIC AND FUNDAMENTAL WAYS. THE FLOOD OF NEW COMPUTER AND TELECOMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES, INTRODUCTION OF NEW WORK METHOD RESPONSIVE TO FAST CHANGING MARKET CONDITIONS NEED TO UNDERSTAND AND APPLY THE MOST EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES IN TODAY’S ORGANIZATIONS.
THE POPULAR CONCEPTION OF LEADERSHIP IS FREQUENTLY UNDERSTOOD IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ROLE OF A SINGLE PERSON PERCHED ATOP AN ORGANIZATIONAL PYRAMID. FOR EXAMPLE RECENT IDOLIZATION OF PEOPLE LIKE JACK WELCH OF GENERAL ELECTRIC, MICHEL EISNER OF DISNEY AND RICHARD BRANSON OF VIRGION AIRLINES CONFIRM THIS KIND OF CONCEPTUALIZATION .
LEADERSHIP, FOR EXAMPLE, HAS LITERALLY HUNDREDS OF DEFINITIONS IN BOTH ACADEMIC AND PRACTITIONER CIRCLES IS A CONCEPT THOUGHT TO BE OBVIOUS AND UNDERSTOOD BY ANYONE WHO COMPREHENDS ENGLISH.
THERE ARE AS MANY DEFINITIONS OF LEADERSHIP AS THERE ARE AUTHORS. THAT IS AN UNFORTUNATE CONSEQUENCE OF THE LACK OF AGREEMENT ABOUT WHETHER LEADERSHIP IS A POSITION, A PERSON, A BEHAVIORAL ACT, A STYLE, OR A RELATIONSHIP, AS MUCH AS IT IS DUE TO THE LACK OF AGREEMENT ABOUT EXACTLY WHO OR WHAT WE ARE ACTUALLY REFERRING TO. OBVIOUSLY, IF IT CAN MEAN ANYTHING, IT MEANS NOTHING.
INDIVIDUALS DO INDEED MAKE A BIG DIFFERENCE, THEIR SUCCESSES ARE INTIMATELY RELATED TO THE COOPERATION AND HARD WORK OF A SMALL ARMY OF COLLEAGUES, PEERS, “BOSSESS”, “SUBORDINATES”, MENTORS, AND CUSTOMERS COMBINED WITH GOOD FORTUNE. Contd..
IT IS A TRADITIONAL MODEL WITH BASICALLY TWO FEATURES OF LEADERSHIP. FIRST, IT IS THE MAIN FUNCTION OF THE INDIVIDUAL AT THE TOP TO NAVIGATE THE ORGANIZATION THROUGH A HIGHLY COMPETITIVE GLOBAL MARKETPLACE, CONSTANTLY ADJUSTING THE STRATEGY AND VISION IN ORDER TO SUCCEED. SECOND, THE POSITIONAL LEADER LAYS OUT THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE TO ACCOMPLISH THE WORK. WE HAVE TO ESTABLISH A COMMON FRAME OF REFERENCE WHEN WE DEFINE LEADERSHIP AND THE FOLLOWING OPTION EMERGES. OPTION #1 SOME ORGANIZATIONS EQUATE LEADERSHIP WITH MANAGEMENT OPTION#2 OTHERS EQUATE IT WITH FINANCIAL SUCCESS OPTION#3 FEW OTHERS EQUATE IT WITH GETTING EMPLOYEE COMPLIANCE HOWEVER, LEADERSHIP IS SIMPLY THOUGHT TO MEAN “BEING IN CHARGE” FOR PETER DRUCKER THE LEADER IS “THE PERSON WHO HAS RESPONSIBILITY AND WHO HAS FOLLOWERS” THIS PARTICULAR DEFINITION MATCHES WITH THE LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR OF THOSE AT THE TOP OF THE ORGANIZATIONS. Contd..
FOR AL DUNLOP LEADERSHIP ISN’T AN INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOUR AS IT IS TYPICALLY UNDERSTOOD, IT ISN’T ABOUT RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE LEADER AND FOLLOWER, IT ISN’T EVEN ABOUT A PERSONAL STYLE. IT IS ABOUT ECONOMIC SUCCESS OR FAILURE. HOWEVER, IF LEADERSHIP IS MEASURED BY NOT ONLY PROFITABILITY BUT BY SATISFACTION, THE INTACT SURVIVAL OF THE ORGANIZATION OVERTIME DUNLOP’S THOUGHT ON LEADERSHIP IS NOT USEFUL THERE IS A STORY OF AN AMERICAN AIRLINES, WHICH CREATED THE MOST ENDURING SUCCESS THROUGH COMPASSION, VISION AND HUMAN STRATEGY, WHICH A CENTERED ON - SATISFIED EMPLOYEES ARE WILLING TO DO ANYTHING AND IS AGAINST THE THEORY OF DUNLOP AND THUS THE LEADERSHIP IS AND INTERPERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY BECAUSE THE ORGANIZATION MAKES IT A PRIORITY TO ENABLE, EMPOWER, ENCOURAGE AND INDEED ENNOBLE EACH EMPLOYEE. THUS THE DIFFERENCE OF LEADERSHIP IS EITHER THE MODEL OF TOUGH TASK MASTER WITH A NO NONSENSE APPROACH VERSUS A COMPASSIONATE PEOPLE-ORIENTED APPROACH.
LEADER SHIP LITERATURE JAMES COLLINS AND JERRY PORRAS IN THE BOOK BUILT TO LAST TYPIFY THE IDEA THAT LEADERSHIP IS BASED IN POSITION AND IS DEFINED AS “ TOP EXECUTIVE (S) WHO DISPLAYED HIGH LEVELS OF PERSISTENCE, OVERCAME SIGNIFICANT OBSTACLES, ATTRACTED DEDICATED PEOPLE, INFLUENCED GROUPS OF PEOPLE TOWARD THE ACHIEVEMENT OF GOALS AND PLAYED KEY ROLES IN GUIDING THEIR COMPANIES THROUGH CRUCIAL EPISODE IN THEIR HISTORY.” FOR COLLINS AND PORRAS LEADERS ARE HEROES, JUST AS THEY HAVE ALWAYS BEEN. WARREN BENNIS AND JOAN GOLDSMITH IN THE BOOK LEARNING TO LEAD SIMPLY DESCRIBE WHAT LEADERS DO AS OPPOSED TO WHAT MANAGERS DO AND DEFINE IT AS “ LEADERS ACT WITH INTEGRITY AND COMPETENCE, INTERPRET REALITY, EXPLAIN THE PRESENT AND PAINT A PICTURE OF THE FUTURE, INNOVATE, BUILD TRUST, ARE EFFECTIVE ADVOCATES FOR FOLLOWERS AND CARE ABOUT THEM”. FOR BENNIS AND GOLDSMITH A GOOD MANAGER DOES THINGS RIGHT WHEREAS A LEADER DOES THE RIGHT THINGS. Contd..
PETER NORTHOUSE , DEFINED LEADERSHIP AS “ A PROCESS WHEREBY AN INDIVIDUAL INFLUENCES A GROUP OF INDIVIDUALS TO ACHIEVE A COMMON GOAL” NOEL TICHY AND ELI COHEN REPORT “ LEADERSHIP ISN’T ABOUT AN ALL-KNOWING SUPER PERSON BUT A QUALITY THAT CAN BE DEVELOPED IN EVERYONE - A RESPONSIBILITY THAT CAN BE SPREAD THROUGHOUT AN ORGANIZATION THAT RESULTS IN PERHAPS THE ONLY REAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE” GILL HICKMAN REPORTS “ LEADERSHIP AND FOLLOWERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS ARE PREDICATED LESS ON POSITIONAL AUTHOIRTY AND MORE ON INTERDEPENDENT WORK RELATIONSHIPS CENTERED ON COMMON PURPOSES. PARTICIPANTS ARE ACTIVE, MULTI-FACETED CONTRIBUTORS.” ABB HAS FOLLOWED HICKMAN’S APPROACH AND ACCORDINGLY ITS CEO PERCY BARNEVIK. BARNEVIK REPORTS “ THERE IS TREMENDOUS UNUSED POTENTIAL IN OUR PEOPLE. OUR ORGANISATIONS ENSURE THEY ONLY USE 5 TO 10 PERCENT OF THEIR ABILITIES AT WORK.. WE HAVE TO LEARN HOW TO RECOGNIZE AND EMPLOY THAT UNTAPPED ABILITY THAT EACH INDIVIDUAL BRINGS TO WORK EVERY DAY.” Contd... .
LEADERSHIP IS MUCH MORE THAN MOBILIZING A WORK FORCE TO ACHIEVE OUTPUT OBJECTIVES AS DEFINED BY MAX DEPREE. WHEN JOY AND SHARED PURPOSE ARE OUTCOMES OF THE LEADERS USE OF PEOPLE MANAGEMENT TOOLS AND PERSONAL INFLUENCE, ORGANIZATIONAL SUCCESS IS VIRTUALLY GUARANTEED “ IT IS ABOUT CREATING JOY, EFFICACY AND A SHARED PURPOSE - IN SHORT, A POSITIVE WORKPLACE CULTURE.” SIMPLIFIED DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP LEADERSHIP IS A SPECIFIC SOCIAL PHENOMENON BETWEEN PEOPLE FOR THE PURPOSE OF ACHIEVING MUTUAL OBJECTIVES WHICH ARE INTENDED TO RESULT IN COLLECTIVE EFFECTIVENESS AND PERSONAL ENRICHMENT OVER TIME. THIS HAS BEEN DESCRIBED BY JOSEPH ROST AS PER THE FOLLOWING: “ LEADERSHIP IS AN INFLUENCE RELATIONSHIP AMONG LEADERS AND FOLLOWERS WHO INTEND REAL CHANGES THAT REFLECT THEIR MUTUAL PURPOSES” TILL NOW WE HAVE BUILT UP THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE CONVENTIONAL WISDOM OF LEADERSHIP AS “POSITION SHIP AND LEADERSHIP AS A PROCESS OF MUTUAL INTERACTION, MUTUAL CONSENT AND MUTUAL GAIN BETWEEN LEADER AND FOLLOWER Contd..
BESIDES THE ABOVE A LEADERSHIP INFLUENCE STYLE FOCUSES ON THE MOBILIZATION OF WORK PARTNERS TO ACHIEVE THE ORGANIZATION VISION. THEREFORE, WE NEED TO DISCUSS THE STYLE OF THE LEADER, WHICH IS THE PRODUCT OF NATURE OF THE POWER AND VALUES OF THE LEADER. CHART BELOW DISTINGUISHES SEVERAL FORMS OF INFLUENCE. THESE RESULT IN VARIOUS BEHAVIORAL STYLES USED BY THE POSITION HOLDER FORM OF INFLUENCE
SUMMARY THE LEADERSHIP THEREFORE, MAY BE DEFINED AS FOLLOWS: LEADERSHIP IS TO FACILITATE THE CREATION OF A VISION, A MISSION AND A STRATEGY TO ACHIEVE THEM. IT IS ALSO IMPORTANT FOR LEADERSHIP TO BE DISPERSED THROUGHOUT THE ORGANIZATION IN ORDER TO CRAFT THE ABILITY OF A DIVERSE WORKFORCE TO LIVE THE VISION AND ACHIEVE THE MISION AS ARTICULATED IN THE STRATEGY. LEADERSHIP OF 21ST CENTURY LEADERSHIP IS AN INTERPERSONAL SKILL USED TO INFLUENCE OTHERS. IT IS A SKILL THAT IS DESPERATELY LEFT WANTING IN MOST ORGANIZATIONS BECAUSE TECHNICAL EXPERTISE AND POLITICAL PROWESS HAVE BEEN CONFUSED WITH THE ABILITY, AND THE RIGHT, TO MANAGE. BUT LEADERSHIP, IF CONCEPTUALIZED AS SIMPLY BEING THE BOSS, THE ONE IN CHARGE, HAVING THE RIGHT TO TELL OTHERS WHAT TO DO BECAUSE OF ONE’S POSITION IN THE HIERARCHY, IS SIMPLY NOT ADEQUATE TO DEAL WITH THE CHALLENGES FACING ORGANIZATIONS AT THE DAWN OF THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY. IT IS AN INADEQUATE MODEL FOR OPERATING A COMPLEX HUMAN SYSTEM WHERE PATTERNS OF INFLUENCE AND ACHIEVEMENT ARE DEPENDENT ON A MULTITUDE OF FACTORS BEYOND THE CONTROL OF ANY ONE PERSON REGARDLESS OF ORGANIZATIONAL POSITION OR PERSONAL TALENT.
ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP TODAY, AS MANAGERS REACH SENIOR LEVELS AND ARE EXPECTED TO PRACTISE MORE LEADERSHIP THAN POSITIONSHIP, THE OLD MINDSETS THEY BRING WITH THEM INCREASINGLY DISAPPOINT THEM, INCREASINGLY LEAD TO CONFLICT; BUT THEY ARE AT A LOSS TO UNDERSTAND WHY. IN DESPERATION THEY TOO OFTEN SIMPLY TRY HARDER RATHER THAN SHIFT THEIR THINKING. TRY TO BE MORE HEROIC THAN COLLABORATIVE AND CONTINUE TO FAIL. IN THE KNOWLEDGE ERA, THE EMPHASIS ON WHICH PORTION OR OUR JOBS WILL REQUIRE LEADERSHIP AND WHICH PORTION WILL REQUIRE MANAGEMENT IS LIKELY TO SHIFT TOWARD LEADERSHIP. THIS IS BECAUSE OF SEVERAL REASONS. THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATION REQUIRES MORE INTERPERSONAL NEGOTIATIONS, COLLABORATION BETWEEN PEERS, AND CONSULTATIVE RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHERS IN THE ORGANIZATION WHO ARE NEITHER BOUND TO FULFILL OUR NEEDS NOR TO BE EXPECTED TO COOPERATE AS A MATTER OF COURSE (AND VICE VERSA). THE NETWORK WE INCREASINGLY WORK IN WILL REQUIRE A PROFICIENCY IN INFLUENCING AND INSPIRING OTHERS THAT FEW OF US INHERENTLY POSSESS AND FEW OF US LEARN THROUGH FORMAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING. YET WE WELL NEED THOSE SKILLS IN GREAT ABUNDANCE TO MAKE THE NETWORK WORK WELL AND TO MAKE SURE LEADERSHIP IS PART OF OUR EVERYDAY WORK LIFE RESPONSIBILITIES. Contd..
THERE ARE TWO BROAD SETS OF SKILLS PRIMARILY INTERPERSONAL AND CONCEPTUAL IN NATURE THAT ENABLE AN INDIVIDUAL TO BE EFFECTIVE AS BOTH A MANAGER AND A LEADER BECAUSE LEADERSHIP IS NOT LIKELY TO BE A PERMANENT ROLE ONE PLAYS BUT A FLUID GIVE AND TAKE WHERE ONE WILL LEAD ONE MINUTE AND FOLLOW THE NEXT, LEADERSHIP PRACTICE AND DEVELOPMENT MUST BE A PART OF EVERYONE’S CAPABILITY. SUMMARY SO, THERE IS AN EXCITING FUTURE AHEAD FOR ORGANIZATIONS DEVELOPING A LEADERSHIP CULTURE AS THEY MOVE FROM FOCUSING ON A HERO TO FOCUSING ON THE PROCESS OF LEADING. IT IS IN THE REALM OF BUILDING LEADERSHIP CAPACITY AND HELPING EACH INDIVIDUAL DEVELOP HIS OR HER FULL POTENTIAL THAT CORPORATE EDUCATORS CAN MAKE THE MOST SIGNIFICANT PERSONAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SUCCESS OF THEIR ORGANIZATIONS FOR YEARS TO COME.
VARIOUS MODELS OF LEADERSHIP I) ENNEAGRAM II) MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI) III) FROMM’S THEORY OF SPIRITUAL LEADERSHIP IV) SIGMUND FREUD V) GUNG HO
ENNEAGRAM ENNEAGRAM ALTHOUGH SOUNDS EXOTIC BUT IT ACTUALLY REFERS TO A PRACTICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL SYSTEM THAT DESCRIBES NINE BASIC PERSONALITY STYLES AND NINE VERY DIFFERENT WAYS OF VIEWING THE WORD. EACH ONE OF US HAS A PERSONALITY STRATEGY THAT INFORMS EVERYTHING WE DO IT SHOWS THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STYLE AND THE LIMITATIONS, WHICH LEADS THE PATH TO GROWTH AND SELF DEVELOPMENT. IT IS NEW AS A BUSINESS MODEL BUT IS THE SINGLE MOST POWERFUL TOOL TO HELP PEOPLE FACE AND WORK THROUGH THEIR LIMITATIONS IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE FULL POTENTIAL. COMING TO KNOW YOUR ENNEAGRAM STYLE CAN BE A POWERFUL CATALYST FOR PERSONAL CHANGE THAT WILL ENHANCE YOUR EFFECTIVENESS AS A LEADER. IT IS A MOTIVATIONAL MODEL AND NOT A BEHAVIORAL MODEL. IT DESCRIBES THE FOLLOWING: - your driving force or “compulsion” - behaviour set or “fixation” which arises from your driving force - your talk style - your action under stress - your key development need Contd..
DISTINCTION AMONGST NINE ENNEAGRAM STYLES Sl. No. Style Driving Force Behaviour Set Development Need 1. The Idealist Anger Perfectionism Patience (Fixing things) 2. The mentor Pride Entitlement Humility (Others’ Needs) 3 The Star Vanity Self deception Authenticity (Getting it done) 4. The Innovator Envy Dissatisfaction Equanimity (The new & Different) 5. The Synthesizer Hoarding Detachment Non attachment (Understanding) 6. The Partner Fear (of Fear) Accusation Courage (The bad news) 7. The Futurist Gluttony Enthusiasm Temperance (The good news) 8. The Advocate Lust / Excess Power / Control Innocence (Taking Charge) 9. The Diplomat Indolence Self- Active Engagement (Others’ Preferences) forgetting Contd..
DISTINCTION AMONGST NINE ENNEAGRAM STYLES Sl. No. Style Behaviour Set Life Script Self Talk Description Style 1. The Idealist Perfectionism Resentment I’m right Preach & Teach (Fixing things) 2. The mentor Entitlement Manipulative I’m helpful Help & Advict (Others’ Needs) 3 The Star Self deception Image Making I’m successful Self Promotion (Getting it done) 4. The Innovator Dissatisfaction Moody Nostalgia I’m unique Sad stories (The new & Different) 5. The Synthesizer Detachment Knowledge/Withdrawal I’m perceptive Dissertations (Understanding) 6. The Partner Accusation Reckless Courage I’m loyal Group thought (The bad news) 7. The Futurist Enthusiasm Uneasy Activity I see the bright side Anecdotes (The good news) 8. The Advocate Power / Control My Justice I’m Powerful Imperatives (Taking Charge) 9. The Diplomat Active Non-Aggression I’m easy going Epic Tales (Others’ Preferences) Contd..
Sl No . Description of Leadership Style 1 A wonderful leader, voice, tolerant, balanced, focused on excellence which provide exemplary vision for followers, they are focused on standards, quality, ideals and get angry when disappointed with others shoddy work. Patience means willingness to accept conditions that do not conform to one’s ideal 2. Caring leaders who drive satisfaction from seeing and encouraging the development of others, focus on service relationship. Humility means true compassion without expectation 3. Risk taking, go getters, ensure high productivity, efficient and supremely goal oriented, formidable models for others and tend to rise to the top organizational level. Authenticity means learning from failures. 4. View thinks from a new angle and are not bound by tradition. They are moody and have trouble getting past their melancholy. Equanimity means ability to live in the moment. 5. Strategist and visionaries, bright and are extremely capable of influencing others through knowledge. They are reserved a deep thinker and tend to withdraw from others’ emotions. Non Attachment means engaging with others without fear of being overwhelmed. Contd..
Sl No . Description of Leadership Style 6. Highly team oriented and bring out the best in everyone. They are good contingency planner and focus on what could go wrong. Morality means recognizing own contribution to situation instead of playing “victim” 7 Optimistic, focus on long term perspective and possibility. They avoid nitty-gritty details. Temperance means seeking moderation and letting go of materialism 8. Shoulders huge responsibility soft hearted and have loyal followers and can truly move mountains. Innocence means a focus on service to the world. 9. Serene, centered, highly capable of dealing with others’ problem, build consensus and have a natural tendency to honor diversity and can get alongwith almost every one. Active engagement means willingness to stay focused on their own purpose without distraction. Theory of the Ennegram 1. The nine different Enneagram types arise from a consideration of three centers of intelligence: the Head, the Heart and the Gut (or Instinct). These may be thought of as the basic “functions” for the Enneagram. 2. The Head center is the home of the mental processes-for example, the Jungian functions of Thinking, Feeling, Sensing, and Intuiting. 3. The Heart center is consists of relational processes (carring, loving, influencing, accepting, rejecting, affiliation, affects) 4. The Instinctual center consists of action processes (doing, being active or passive, power).
MBTI stands for Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which is basically a personality test and associated personality model based on the work of the Swisss psychologist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), Jung was a contemporary of Austrain psychologist Sigmund Frued, and although Jung was initially a Freudian a bitter disagreement erupted between the two and Jung split off to develop personality theories of his own.
Isabel Myers and Katheryn Briggs were a mother-and-daughter team of psychologists who took Jung’s theory of psychological types (I believe work was started in the 1940) and developed it into a basic type/temperament model that today is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
In type theory, there are 16 different personality “types” and each type has four letter slots, with each of these slots having one of two letters which describe the personality’s preference in a particular area.
These 16 personalities arise as a result of preferences in four key areas and are given below in order
Extraversion (E)/Introversion (I)-Describes where people prefer to focus their attention and get their energy from, either the outer world of people and activitiy or their inner world of ideas and experiences
Sensing (s)/Intuition (N)-Describes how people prefer to take in information, either focused on what is real and actual or on patterns and meanings in data
Thinking (T) / Feeling (F)-Describes how people prefer to make decisions, either based on logical analysis or guided by concern for their impact on other
Judging (J)/Perceiving (P)-Describes how people prefer to deal with the outer world, either in a planned orderly way, or in a flexible spontaneous way
MBTI is widely used for Leadership Development tool - it is a set of questionnaire based on which following 16 combinations can be reached
ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ
ISTP ISFP INFP INTP
ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP
ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ
There is a defined characteristics attached to each 16 types of personalities / leaders which can be explained to each person who has been given the questionnaire
For example ISTJ type (Introvert, Sensing, Thinking, Judging)
ISTJs are quiet and reserved individuals who are interested in security and peaceful living. They have a strong internal dependable on following through with things which they have promised. Organized and methodical in their approach, they can generally succeed at any task which they undertake. They place great importance on honesty and integrity and can be depended on to do the right thing for their families and communities.
ISTJ - Serious, quiet, earns success by concentration and thoroughness. Practical, orderly, matter-of-fact, logical, realistic and dependable. Make sure that everything is well organized. Take responsibility. Make up their own minds as to what should be accomplished and work toward it steadily, regardless of protests or distractions. ISFJ - Quiet and friendly, responsible and conscientious. Work devotedly to meet their obligations. Lend stability to any project or group. Thorough, painstaking, accurate. Their interests are usually not technical. Can be patient with necessary details. Loyal, considerate, perceptive, concerned with how other people feel. INFJ - Succeed by perseverance, originality and desire to do whatever is needed or wanted. Put their best efforts into their work, Quietly forceful, conscientious, concerned for others. Respected for their firm principles. Likely to be honoured and followed for their clear convictions as to how to serve for common good. INTJ - Usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes. In fields that appeal to them, They have a fine power to organise a job and carry it through with or without help, Scepticall, critical, independent, determined, some times stubbon. Must learn to yield to less important points in order to win the most important. ISTP - Cool onlookers, quiet, reserved, observing and analysing life with a detached curiosity and unexpected flashes of original humour. Usually interested in cause and effect, how and why mechanical things work, and in organising facts using logical principles.
ISFP- Retiring, quietly friendly, sensitive, kind, modest about their abilities. Shun disagreements, do not force their opinions or values on others. Usually do not care to lead but are often loyal followers. Often relaxed about getting things done, because they enjoy the present moment and do not want to spoil it by undue haste or exertion. INFP- Enthusiastic, loyal, but seldom talk of these until they know you well. Care about learning, ideas, language, and independent projects. Tend to undertake too much, then somehow get it done. Friendly but often absorbed in what they are doing to be sociable. Little concerned with possessions or physical surroundings. INTP- Quiet and reserved. Especially enjoy theoretical or scientific pursuits. Like solving problems with logic and analysis. Usually interested mainly in ideas, with little liking for parties or small talk. Tend to have sharply defined interest. Need careers where some strong interest can be used. ESTP- Good at on-the-spot problem solving. Do not worry, enjoy whatever comes along. Tend to like mechanical things and sports, with friends on the side. Adaptable, tolerant, generally conservative in values. Dislike long explanations. Are best with real or tangible things that can be worked, handled, taken apart, or put together. ESFP- Outgoing, easygoing, accepting, friendly, enjoys everything and makes things more fun for others by their enjoyment. Like sports and making things happen. Knows what’s going on and join in eagerly. Finds remembering facts easier than mastering theories. Are best in situations that need sound common sense and practical ability with people.
ENFP - Warm, enthusiastic, high-spirited, ingenious and imaginative. Able to do almost anything that interest them. Quick with a solution for any difficulty and ready to help anyone with a problem. Often rely on their ability to improvise instead of preparing in advance. Can usually find compelling reasons for whatever they want. ENTP - Quick and ingenious, good at many things. Stimulating company, alert and outspoken. May argue for fun on either side of a question. Resourceful in solving new and challenging problems but may neglect routine assignments. Apt to turn to one new interest after another. Skillful in finding logical reasons for what they want. ESTJ - Practical, realistic, and matter-of-fact, with a natural head for business or mechanics. Not interested in subjects they see no use for, but can apply themselves. ESFJ- Warm hearted, talkative, popular and conscientious, born co-operators, active committee members. Need harmony and may be good at creating it. Always doing something nice for someone. Work best with encouragement and praise. Main interest is in things that directly and visibly affect people’s lives. ENFJ- Responsive, responsible. Generally feel real concern for what others think or what, and try to handle things with due regard for the other person’s feelings. Can present a proposal or lead a group discussion with ease and tact. Sociable, popular, sympathetic. Responsive to praise and criticism. ENTJ- Hearty, frank, decisive, leaders in activities. Usually good in anything that requires reasoning and intelligent talk such as public speaking. Are usually well informed and enjoy adding to their fund of knowledge. May sometimes appear more positive and confident than their experience in an area warrants.
Enron, Qwest, WorldNet, and now Xerox!! Corporate America has clearly lost its compass. Service, community, honesty and plain old hard work have taken a back seat to the Gods of Corporate Profit and “Me first”.
Eric Fromm , the great psychoanalyst, called the “Marketing Character”.
The “marketing character” transforms everything into a commodity. Things, people, skills, knowledge, opinions, feelings, are all commodities from which one may profit.
Spiritual Leadership will vary from “marketing leadership” In significant ways. Along with facilitating the achievement of a goal (production, financial or personal), spiritual leadership will strive to convey and model spiritual values such as the sacredness of each life, mutual responsibility and the idea of service to a Higher Power.
A spiritual leader will have a sense of awe towards life that will find expression in feelings of gratitude and love for life.
A great spiritual leader will be able to make these qualities transparent, sharing his or her love freely with others.
While caring deeply for each of his or her followers the spiritual leader balances sensitivity with accountability. “Marketing Character” leader who considers only how much the organization can get out of the individual, spiritual leader takes a deep interest in the welfare and growth of every individual.
The spiritual leader deeds of loving kindness .
Organizations can and do pursue goals such as sustainability alongwith profitability.
FREUD IDENTIFIED THREE MAIN TYPES OF PERSONALITY: EROTIC, OBSESSIVE, AND NARCISSISTIC . MOST OF US HAVE ELEMENTS OF ALL THREE. WE ARE ALL, FOR EXAMPLE, SOMEWHAT NARCISSISTIC. IF THAT WERE NOT SO, WE WOULD NOT BE ABLE TO SURVIVE OR ASSERT OUR NEEDS. THE POINT IS, ONE OF THE DYNAMIC TENDENCIES USUALLY DOMINATES THE OTHERS, MAKING EACH OF US REACT DIFFERENTLY TO SUCCESS AND FAILURE.
FREUD’S EROTIC TYPE, GENERALLY DID NOT MEAN SEXUAL PERSONALITY BUT RATHER ONE FOR WHOM LOVING AND ABOVE ALL BEING LOVED IS MOST IMPORTANT.
1) THIS TYPE OF INDIVIDUAL IS DEPENDENT ON THOSE PEOPLE THEY FEAR WILL STOP LOVING THEM.
2) MANY EROTICS ARE TEACHERS, NURSES, AND SOCIAL WORKERS. AT THEIR MOST PRODUCTIVE, THEY ARE DEVELOPERS OF THE YOUNG AS WELL AS ENABLERS AND HELPERS AT WORK. AS MANAGERS, THEY ARE CARING AND SUPPORTIVE, BUT THEY AVOID CONFLICT AND MAKE PEOPLE DEPENDENT ON THEM.
3) THEY ARE, ACCORDING TO FREUD, OUTER DIRECTED PEOPLE.
FREUD’S OBSESSIVES CREATE AND MAINTAIN ORDER AND MAKE THE MOST EFFECTIVE OPERATIONAL MANAGERS.
1) IN CONTRAST, THEY ARE “INNER DIRECTED.” THEY ARE SELF-RELIANT AND CONSCIENTIOUS. THEY LOOK CONSTANTLY FOR WAYS TO HELP PEOPLE LISTEN BETTER, RESOLVE CONFLICT, AND FIND WIN-WIN OPPORTUNITIES.
2 ) OBSESSIVES ARE ALSO RULED BY A STRICT CONSCIENCE—THEY LIKE TO FOCUS ON CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT AT WORK BECAUSE IT FITS IN WITH THEIR SENSE OF MORAL IMPROVEMENT.
3) AS ENTREPRENEURS, OBSESSIVES START BUSINESSES THAT EXPRESS THEIR VALUES, BUT THEY LACK THE VISION, DARING, AND CHARISMA IT TAKES TO TURN A GOOD IDEA INTO A GREAT ONE. THE BEST OBSESSIVES SET HIGH STANDARDS AND COMMUNICATE VERY EFFECTIVELY. THEY MAKE SURE THAT INSTRUCTIONS ARE FOLLOWED AND COSTS ARE KEPT WITHIN BUDGET. THE MOST PRODUCTIVE ARE GREAT MENTORS AND TEAM PLAYERS. THE UNPRODUCTIVE AND THE UNCOOPERATIVE BECOME NARROW EXPERTS AND RULE-BOUND BUREAUCRATS.
SOMETIMES DEGENERATING INTO PARANOIA WHEN THEY ARE UNDER EXTREME STRESS.
FREUD’S NARCISSISTS , THE THIRD TYPE, ARE INDEPENDENT AND NOT EASILY IMPRESSED. THEY ARE THE INNOVATORS, DRIVEN IN BUSINESS TO GAIN POWER AND GLORY. PRODUCTIVE NARCISSISTS ARE EXPERTS IN THEIR INDUSTRIES, BUT THEY GO BEYOND IT. THEY ALSO POSE THE CRITICAL QUESTIONS. THEY WANT TO LEARN EVERYTHING ABOUT EVERYTHING THAT AFFECTS THE COMPANY AND ITS PRODUCTS.
UNLIKE EROTICS, THEY WANT TO BE ADMIRED, NOT LOVED.
AND UNLIKE OBSESSIVES, THEY ARE NOT TROUBLED BY A PUNISHING SUPEREGO, SO THEY ARE ABLE TO BE VERY AGGRESSIVE IN PURSUIT OF THEIR GOALS.
NARCISSISTS RUN THE GREATEST RISK OF ISOLATING THEMSELVES AT THE MOMENT OF SUCCESS.
BECAUSE OF INDEPENDENCE AND AGGRESSIVENESS, NARCISSISTS ARE CONSTANTLY LOOKING OUT FOR ENEMIES,
EROTIC PERSONALITIES TYPICALLY MAKE POOR MANAGERS—THEY NEED TOO MUCH APPROVAL.
OBSESSIVES MAKE BETTER LEADERS—THEY ARE YOUR OPERATIONAL MANAGERS: CRITICAL AND CAUTIOUS.
NARCISSISTS ARE CLOSEST TO OUR COLLECTIVE IMAGE OF GREAT LEADERS. THERE ARE TWO REASONS FOR THIS: THEY HAVE COMPELLING, EVEN GRIPPING, VISIONS FOR COMPANIES AND THEY HAVE AN ABILITY TO ATTRACT FOLLOWERS.
SUMMARY WITH THE DRAMATIC DISCONTINUITIES GOING ON IN THE WORLD TODAY, MORE AND MORE LARGE CORPORATIONS ARE GETTING INTO BED WITH NARCISSISTS. THEY ARE FINDING THAT THERE IS NO SUBSTITUTE FOR NARCISSISTIC LEADERS IN AN AGE OF INNOVATION. COMPANIES NEED LEADERS WHO DO NOT TRY TO ANTICIPATE THE FUTURE SO MUCH AS CREATE IT. BUT NARCISSISTIC LEADERS—EVEN THE MOST PRODUCTIVE OF THEM—CAN SELF-DESTRUCT AND LEAD THEIR ORGANIZATIONS TERRIBLY ASTRAY. FOR COMPANIES WHOSE NARCISSISTIC LEADERS RECOGNIZE THEIR LIMITATIONS, THESE WILL BE THE BEST OF TIMES. FOR OTHERS, THESE COULD TURN OUT TO BE THE WORST.
GUNG HO KEN BLANCHARD AND SHELDON BOLES HAVE DEFINED LEADERSHIP IS A PROCESS OF IMPROVING THE PRODUCTIVITY AND PROFITS BY INSTILLING ENERGY AND ENTHUSIASM INTO EVERY PERSON IN THE WORK PLACE THROUGHOUT THE ORGANIZATION, WHICH IS CALLED GUNG HO PHILOSOPHY OF LEADERSHIP, WHICH IS BASED ON 3 PRINCIPLES AND ARE MODELED AFTER OBSERVATIONS OF NATURE . 1. SPIRIT OF THE SQUIRREL THE FIRST PRINCIPLE REVEALED BY WATCHING SQUIRRELS RUNNING AGAIN AND AGAIN TO A FEEDER, STUFFING THEIR CHEEKS WITH SUNFLOWER SHEETS AND TAKING THEM BACK TO THE FOREST. WHY ARE THE SQUIRREL WORKING SO HARD? BECAUSE THEY ARE MOTIVATED. WHAT MOTIVATES THEM? IF THEY DON’T STORE UP FOOD FOR THE WINTER THEY WILL DIE CONCLUSION: THE SQUIRRELS ARE WORKING HARD BECAUSE THEIR “WORK IS WORTHWHILE” IN THE ORGANIZATIONS THE SPIRIT OF THE SQUIRREL CAN BE INSTILLED IN PEOPLE BY FOCUSING ON HOW THEIR JOB FITS INTO THE BIG PICTURE, HOW IT IS IMPORTANT AND ADDS VALUE AND NOT SIMPLY ON UNITS PRODUCE. UNDERSTANDING THAT THEIR “WORK IS WORTHWHILE” GIVES EMPLOYEES SELF- ESTEEM, WHICH IS ONE OF THE MOST POWERFUL HUMAN EMOTIONS. Contd..
2. THE WAY OF THE BEAVER THE SECOND PRINCIPLE IS DEMONSTRATED BY WATCHING BEAVERS REPAIRING THEIR DAM, WHICH HAD BEEN DAMAGED BY A FLOOD. EACH BEAVER SWAM BACK AND FORTH WITH BRANCHES, AND ANCHORED THEM TO THE DAM. THERE IS NO BOSS BEAVER TELLING THE OTHER BEAVERS WHAT SIZE OF BRANCH TO BRING OR WHERE TO PUT IT. EACH BEAVER DECIDES FOR ITSELF HOW IT WILL CONTRIBUTE TO GETTING THE DAM REPAIRED. IF THEY WANT TO WORK AT ONE END, FINE. IF THEY WANT TO BRING SMALL BRANCHES, GREAT. THEY EXERCISE THEIR OWN BEST JUDGEMENT. THE WAY OF THE BEAVER: IN CONTROL OF ACHIEVING THE GOAL THE WAY OF THE BEAVER IS APPLIED TO PEOPLE BY GIVING THEM CONTROL OVER HOW THE GOAL IS ACHIEVED. THE ROLE OF THE LEADER IS TO ESTABLISH THE FRAMEWORK THROUGH SETTING THE KEY GOALS AND VALUES. LEADER DEFINES THE PLAYING FIELD, AND THE RULES OF THE GAME, LEADER DECIDES WHO PLAYS WHAT POSITION, THEN LEADER HAS TO GET OFF THE FIELD AND LET THE PLAYERS MOVE THE BALL. THE PLAYERS HAVE TO KNOW THAT AS LONG AS THEY FOLLOW THE RULES THEY CAN GO ANYWHERE WITHIN THE LINES AND AS LONG AS THE BALL IS IN THE PLAY THE LEADER WILL KEEP OFF THE FIELD. THE RESULT IS THE CHALLENGING AND DEMANDING EXPECTATIONS ARE MET Contd..
3. THE GIFT OF THE GOOSE THE THIRD AND THE FINAL PRINCIPLE IS OBSERVED IN A FLOCK OF GEESE, FLYING SOUTH FOR THE WINTER. AS THE GEESE FLEW BY IN THEIR V FORMATION THEY WERE HONKING AWAY AT EACH OTHER. WHEN THEY LANDED ON THE POND THEY HONKED UP A STORM. WHEN THEY TOOK OFF-HONKING AGAIN. WHAT WERE THEY HONKING ABOUT? THEY WERE CHEERING EACH OTHER ON - THOSE WERE HAPPY ENTHUSIASTIC, CHEERING HONKS. THE GIFT OF THE GOOSE: CHEERING OTHERS ON THE GIFT OF THE GOOSE IS GIVEN TO PEOPLE BY COMPLIMENTING AND CELEBRATING ON AN ONGOING BASIS, NOT JUST THE BIG WINS, BUT THE SMALL ONES TOO. YOU CAN’T OVERDO CONGRATULATIONS, IF THEY ARE TRUE CONGRATULATIONS. AN ANNUAL MESSAGE TO THE WHOLE DEPARTMENT CONGRATULATING THEM ON A GOOD YEAR, BY WAY OF A MEMO ON THE BULLETIN BOARD, WON’T HAVE THE IMPACT OF AN ANNOUNCEMENT ON THE PAGING SYSTEM. AND IT’S NOT JUST THE HEAD GOOSE THAT CHEERS. ALL OF THE GEESE ARE INVOLVED - CHEERING EACH OTHER ON TO ACHIEVE THEIR MUTUAL GOAL. CHEERING EACH OTHER ON BRINGS ENTHUSIASM TO THE WORK IMPLEMENT THESE THREE SIMPLE PRINCIPLES, IN ORDER, IN YOUR ORGANIZATION, FOR PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENTS WHICH WILL GUARANTEE YOU GREATER PROFITS. THE BOOK PROVIDES A CLEAR, STEP BY STEP OUTLINE FOR INSTITUTING THESE IDEAS, WHICH WILL ENSURE GUNG HO LEADERS WHO ARE COMMITTED TO SUCCESS.
LEADERSHIP MODEL IN TERMS OF ANIMAL INSTINCTS VISION: EAGLE EPITOMIZES THE BEST TYPE OF THE VISION THAT GREAT LEADERS BRING TO THE ORGANIZATION LEADERS SHOULD SEE BOTH THE BIG PICTURE AND EACH ELEMENT OF THAT BIG PICTURE WITH GREAT CLARITY AND PERSPECTIVE FOLLOWER SHIP - AFRICAN BULL BUFFALO TEACHES US ABOUT FOLLOWER SHIP AND THE ONCE WHO LEAD THE HEARD UNDERSTAND THAT WITHOUT THE HEARD HIS CHANCES OF SURVIVAL ARE LIMITED TO PROBABLY NOT MORE THAN 24 HOURS. BUFFALO REALIZES THAT HIS POWER COMES FROM ALL OF THE EARS, ALL OF THE EYES, ALL OF THE NOSES, ALL OF THE HOOVES AND ALL THE INTUITION OF THE ENTIRE HEARD. LEADERS UNDERSTAND THAT POWER IS MOSTLY ABOUT GIVING IT AWAY AND NOT TRYING TO EXERCISE CONTROL OVER IT. STRUCTURE - THE ANT AND THE BEE PLACE THEMSELVES AT THE MIDDLE OF THE ORGANIZATION AND NOT ON THE SHARP POINT AT THE TOP OF THE PYRAMID SINCE IN THE MIDDLE THEY ARE MOST ACCESSIBLE, MOST VISIBLE, MOST AVAILABLE, MOST NURTURED AND BEST PROTECTED . THERE ALSO MOST ABLE TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE GREATEST NUMBER OF FOLLOWERS. LEADERS AVOID HIERARCHY AND BUREAUCRACY TERRITORY KNOWLEDGE - T HE RHINO IS ALMOST BLIND. AND YET IT CAN CHARGE A CROSS 30 KM PER HOUR WITHOUT FALLING OR RUNNING INTO TREE. LEADER SHOULD NOT HAVE A DEFINED TERRITORY
STYLE OF LEADERSHIP W.R.T LEADER AND LED There are four types of leadership in terms of relationship between the leader and led. Dimension # 1 Motivation of the Leader either through personal power or the common good Dimension # 2 Motivation of the led who may either want to follow or have to follow the leader i.e. either by a belief in the leader or by fee of the leader Following chart shows the relationship MOTIVATION OF LED Have to follow Want to Follow Common good Doctor Democrat Pressure and Persuasion Interactive dialogue Motivation of Leader Personal Power Dictator Demagogue Threats Seduction
DOCTORS THE ORGANIZATIONAL LEADER DIAGNOSE ITS ILLNESS AND COMMUNICATE THE URGENCY ABOUT TREATING IT. THEY FACILITATE A PROCESS OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING AND THUS PLAY A ROLE OF PHYSICIAN AND TEACHER DICTATORS THESE LEADERS RULE BY FEAR AND ARE LEAD BY PERSONAL POWER DEMAGOGUE THE LEADER SEDUCE FOLLOWERS WITH FALLS PROMISES AND CANNOT MAINTAIN THE TRUST ESSENTIAL FOR CO-OPERATION DEMOCRAT THIS LEADER BELIEVE IN PARTICIPATION BY EACH AND EVERYBODY THEREFORE, THE LEADER SHOULD PLAY THE ROLE OF DEMOCRAT AND DOCTOR SO AS TO ACHIEVE THE CHANGE.
STYLE OF LEADERSHIP W. R. T. MOTIVATION AFFILIATION MOTIVE - PEOPLE WHO ARE PRIMARILY AFFILIATIVE ARE MOTIVATED BY BEING WITH OTHERS, EXPRESSING THEIR FEELINGS, AND ENJOYING MUTUAL FRIENDSHIP. THEY ARE USUALLY WARM AND FRIENDLY AND WORK BEST WHEN THEY FEEL APPRECIATED AND WHEN THEIR WORK ENVIRONMENT GIVES THEM THE OPPORTUNITY TO INTERACT WITH OTHERS. THIS MOTIVATION IS REINFORCED AND MAINTAINED BY PROVIDING WORK WHERE COOPERATION WITH CO-WORKERS IS REQUIRED, WHERE SOME TIME FOR PERSONAL INTERACTION IS ENCOURAGED AND WHERE TEAM BUILDING EFFORTS ARE VALUED. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVE - PEOPLE WHO ARE PRIMARILY ACHIEVEMENT-ORIENTED ARE MOTIVATED BY SITUATIONS WHERE STANDARDS OF EXCELLENCE ARE CLEAR AND WHERE THEY HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO SET GOALS AND TO PERFORM SUCCESSFULLY AGAINST THOSE STANDARDS (THIS INCLUDES PROBLEM-SOLVING ABOUT HOW TO OVERCOME OBSTACLES TO PERFORMANCE). THEY ARE USUALLY COMPETITIVE AND WORK WELL INDEPENDENTLY. THIS MOTIVATION IS REINFORCED AND MAINTAINED BY PROVIDING CHALLENGING WORK THAT STRETCHES CAPABILITIES, ALONG WITH CONCRETE STANDARDS FOR SUCCESS AND CLEAR, UNAMBIGUOUS FEEDBACK POWER MOTIVE - PEOPLE WHOSE PRIMARY MOTIVE IS POWER ARE MOTIVATED BY OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPACT THEIR WORKING ENVIRONMENT. THIS INCLUDES BEING ABLE TO PERSUADE AND / OR INFLUENCE OTHERS, EITHER THROUGH ORGANIZATIONAL POSITION OR THROUGH OPPORTUNITIES FOR GROUP INPUT. THEY USUALLY HAVE AN INTEREST IN MOVING UP IN THE ORGANIZATION AND ARE OFTEN FLUENT IN THEIR COMMUNICATION STYLE. THIS MOTIVATION IS REINFORCED AND MAINTAINED BY ALLOWING PERSONAL CONTROL OVER WORK PACE AND METHODS, AS WELL AS OPPORTUNITIES TO INFLUENCE - ESPECIALLY IF THEY CAN DEAL DIRECTLY WITH PEOPLE HIGHER IN THE ORGANIZATION.
LEVEL OF LEADERSHIP THERE ARE FIVE LEVEL OF LEADERSHIP, WHICH ARE DETERMINED BY ACCOUNTABILITY . MANY ORGANIZATIONS DEFINE IT BY ROLE ALSO. Level 5 - Supra Organizational stand or ideal Level 3 - Team-peers Level 4 - Entire Organization Leadership Management Level 2 - Team - direct reports Level 1 - Self HIGH Level of Control LOW Level of Control Contd..
LEVEL # 1 WE ARE ACCOUNTABLE FOR ONLY OUR OWN RESULTS FOR EXAMPLE AT SCHOOL AND COLLEGE LEVEL WE ARE ONLY BOTHERED FOR OUR OWN LEVELS LEVEL #2 WHEN WE BECOME MANAGER WE ARE ACCOUNTABLE FOR THE RESULTS THAT EVERYONE WHO WORKS FOR US PRODUCES. MANY MANAGERS ACTUALLY FALL AT THIS LEVEL ONLY. GOOD MANAGERS ARE ACCOUNTABLE FOR WHAT HAPPENS BELOW THEM BUT IT IS THE NEXT LEVEL THAT LEADERSHIP REALLY BEGINS. LEVEL # 3 AT THIS LEVEL ONE FUNCTIONING TEAM IS ACCOUNTABLE FOR OTHER TEAM MEMBERS RESULT, WHICH IS CALLED TEAM-PEERS LEVEL. IN THE ABOVE THREE LEVEL ACCOUNTABILITY IS EITHER DOWNWARDS OR SIDEWAYS. IN THE NEXT TWO LEVELS ACCOUNTABILITY IS UPWARD. LEVEL # 4 IN THIS LEVEL LEADERS WITHOUT AUTHORITY OR REWARDS INSPIRE THOSE AROUND THEM AND ABOVE TO PRODUCE RESULTS. FOR EXAMPLE THREE YOUNG GRADUATES WHO HAD NO POLITICAL CLOUT, ORGANIZATIONAL INFLUENCE OR JOB EXPERIENCE TOOK UP THE ISSUE OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND GAINED THE EAR OF EVEN ITS COMPANY’S CHAIRMAN AND THE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY BECAME THE PROFESSION OF THE FIRM. LEVEL # 5 AT THIS LEVEL OF ACCOUNTABILITY A SUPRA-ORGANIZATION LEVEL, STANDARD OR PURPOSE IS ACHIEVE. FOR EXAMPLE MAHATMA GANDHI BEGAN TO STAND FOR THE INDIGENCE FOR INDIA THOUGH HE HAD NO SOURCES OF POWER SUCH AS WEALTH OR POLITICAL INFLUENCE. Contd..
AT LEVEL 5 LEADER APPEAL TO VALUES FOR EXAMPLE MANDELA APPEALED TO THE VALUES SUCH AS FREEDOM, EQUALITY, HUMAN DIGNITY. CRIEST AND BUDDHA APPEAL TO VALUES SUCH AS COMPASSION AND FORGIVENESS. HACHARD APPEALED TO VALUES SUCH AS INDIVIDUAL SELF DETERMINATION AND RIGHTS OF CAPITAL OVER LABOUR. LEADERS HAVE MEANING, VALUES, CONCEITEDNESS TO SOMETHING BIGGER, A BIGGER “WHY”, WHICH CAUSES FOLLOWERS TO BE “UNSTOPPABLY” COMMITTED THREE STONE CUTTERS WORKING SIDE BY SIDE WHEN ASKED REPLIED STONE CUTTER NO. 1- DISENCHANTEDLY REPLIED “I’M CARVING STONE” STONE CUTTER NO. 2 -CONTENTEDLY REPLIED “I’M BUILDING A WALL” STONE CUTTER NO. 3 - INSPIRED AND GLOWINGLY REPLIED “I’M BUILDING A CATHEDRAL” Contd..
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP MANAGEMENT IS A FUNCTION THAT MUST BE EXERCISE IN ANY BUSINESS. MANAGEMENT IS ABOUT EFFICIENT WORKING WITHIN CONSTRAINTS MANAGEMENT IS ABOUT STABILITY MANAGEMENT IS ABOUT STRUCTURE AND SYSTEMS LEADERSHIP IS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADER AND LED, WHICH CAN ENERGIZE AN ORGANIZATION. LEADERSHIP DEMANDS WORKING BEYOND CONSTRAINTS LEADERSHIP IS ABOUT CHANGE LEADERSHIP IS ABOUT PEOPLE AND DIRECTION FAILURE IS A PART OF LEADERSHIP AND WOULD BE LEADER WHO AVOID FAILURES AT ALL COSTS NEVER GRADUATE FROM MANAGEMENT TO LEADERSHIP LEADERS HAVE TO BE “COMFORTABLE BEING UNCOMFORTABLE” THIS CAN BE EXPLAINED BY OLD SELLING APHORISM “IN ORDER TO REACH THE FARTHEST SHORES, IT IS FIRST NECESSARY TO LOSE SIGHT OF THE ONE YOU ARE DEPARTING” Contd..
From these two dimensions five types of leaders emerge
Incompetent : Neither manages nor leads
Controller : Manages
Realists : Optimist (prefers to lead than manage): pessimist (prefers to manage than lead)
Challenger : Leads to attain a specific goal
Master : Leads to translate his vision into reality
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE - TOOL OF LEADERSHIP DANIEL GOLEMAN AND HIS COLLEAGUES HAVE CONSTRUCTED A CONCEPT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND A NUMBER OF ASSOCIATED COMPETENCIES BASED ON THESE GOLEMAN DEVELOPED SIX LEADERSHIP STYLES 1. COERCIVE - LEADERS DEMAND IMMEDIATE COMPLIANCE 2. AUTHORITATIVE - LEADERS MOBILIZE PEOPLE TOWARDS A VISION 3. AFFILIATIVE - LEADERS CREATE EMOTIONAL BONDS AND HARMONY 4. DEMOCRATIC - LEADERS BUILD CONSENSUS THROUGH PARTICIPATION 5. PACESETTING - LEADERS EXPECT EXCELLENCE AND SELF-DIRECTIONS 6. COACHING - LEADER DEVELOP PEOPLE FOR THE FUTURE LEADER DO NOT NECESSARILY RELY ON ANY ONE LEADERSHIP STYLE THE EMERGING LITERATURE REVEALS A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CORPORATE SUCCESS AND THE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE OF ITS LEADERS EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE MEANS - “ABILITY TO MONITOR ONE’S OWN AND OTHER’S FEELINGS AND EMOTIONS, TO DISCRIMINATE AMONG THEM AND USE THIS INFORMATION TO GUIDE ONE’S THINKING AND ACTION” Contd..
A TECHNICAL EXPERTISE OR COGNITIVE SKILL IS RELATED TO TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE AND IS DIFFERENT FROM EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE. TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE ACCOUNTS FOR 20% SUCCESS WHEREAS 80% SUCCESS IS ATTRIBUTED TO EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AT WORK PLACES. EMOTIONAL COMPETENCY FRAMEWORK EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE CONSIST OF 5 ELEMENTS - SELF AWARENESS - EMOTIONAL SELF-AWARENESS, ACCURATE SELF-ASSESSMENT, SELF-CONFIDENCE. SELF-REGULATION - SELF -CONTROL, TRUSTWORTHINESS, CONSCIENTIOUSNESS (TAKING RESPONSIBILITY FOR PERSONAL PERFORMANCE), ADAPTABILITY, INNOVATIVENESS. SELF-MOTIVATION - ACHIEVEMENT DRIVE, COMMITMENT, INITIATIVE, OPTIMISM. SOCIAL AWARENESS - EMPATHY, SERVICE ORIENTATION, DEVELOPING OTHERS, LEVERAGING DIVERSITY (CULTIVATING OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH DIVERSE PEOPLE), POLITICAL AWARENESS (READING A GROUP’S EMOTIONAL CURRENTS AND POWER RELATIONSHIPS). SOCIAL SKILLS - INFLUENCE, COMMUNICATION, LEADERSHIP, CHANGE CATALYST, CONFLICT MANAGEMENT, BUILDING BONDS, COLLABORATION AND COOPERATION, TEAM CAPABILITIES. STUDIES IN INDIA ON EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AS ON DAY ONLY TWO OR THREE STUDIES HAVE BEEN CARRIED OUT ON THE INDIAN MANAGER / LEADERS TO ASSESS THE EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND THE FOLLOWING IS OBSERVED 1. INDIAN LEADERS HAVE MODERATE TO ABOVE AVERAGE LEVEL OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE 2. EDUCATION SYSTEM SHOULD INCLUDE THE CHAPTERS ON LEADERSHIP AND EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE BECAUSE THE FOCUS SHOULD NOT ONLY BE ON COGNITIVE SKILL BUT ON EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE SKILL ALSO.
SINCE THE STUDY OF INDIAN LEADERS SHOWS THAT THEY SHOULD PRACTICE TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP I WILL DISCUSS SOMETHING ABOUT THIS ALSO
WE BELIEVE THAT THERE IS A LACK OF AUTHENTIC AND TRULY TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADER
AUTHENTIC MEANS KNOWING ONESELF AND WHAT ONE STANDS FOR, KNOWING WHO ONE IS, WHAT ONE’S BELIEFS AND WHAT ONE IS WITH RESPECT TO VISION, VALUES AND ACTIONS OF THE ORGANIZATION.
TRANSFORMATIONAL MEANS TRANSFORM THINGS WITH THE PRESUMPTION BEING FOR THE BETTER, PERMANENT, FOR MANY PEOPLE (EMPLOYEES, CUSTOMER, STAKE HOLDERS, SHARE HOLDERS AND COMMUNITIES) AMONG THE OPERATE IN TERMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACT.
WHAT IS AUTHENTIC TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP (ATL)?
ATL IS A SET OF BELIEFS, CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIORS THAT CAN BE IDENTIFIED, LEARNED AND PRACTICED FOR POSITIVE BENEFIT, FOR THE LEADER [AT ALL LEVELS NOT JUST AT THE “TOP”] AND THOSE WHOM THEY SERVE, THEIR ORGANIZATION, THEIR EMPLOYEES, STAKEHOLDERS, THE COMMUNITIES THAT THEY WORK IN, AND THE WIDER WORLD ON WHICH THEY IMPACT.
AUTHENTIC LEADERS TRANSFORM THEIR ORGANIZATION BY SERVING IT THROUGH CREATING NOT FOLLOWERS BUT LEADERS, CREATING LEADERS THROUGHOUT THE ORGANIZATION, LEADERS FOR TODAY AND FOR THE FUTURE. THESE WILL BE THE PEOPLE WHO WILL ACT AS “THE CULTURAL ARCHITECTS” FOR THE LEADER AND THE LEADERSHIP TEAM IN “INFECTING” THE BODY OF THE ORGANIZATION WITH THE BACILLUS OF THE DESIRED WAY OF BEING AND THE BEHAVIOUR THAT THE LEADERSHIP EXEMPLIFIES AND WANTS TO BE THE CULTURAL NORM. THIS WAY OF LEADING REGARDS THE BEHAVIOUR OF PEOPLE AS THE TRUE BRAND OF THE COMPANY. CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIOUR OF AUTHENTIC TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADER CHARACTERISTICS AND BEHAVIOUR OF LEADERS CAPABLE OF EFFECTING POSITIVE AND LASTING TRANSFORMATION ARE: EMOTIONALLY INTELLIGENT -IN TOUCH WITH AND IN COMMAND OF THEIR EMOTIONS; SELF-KNOWING -KNOWING WHO THEY ARE WHAT THEY BELIEVE IN AND WHAT THEY WANT TO DO; RESONANT -BEING ABLT TO BE IN TUNE WITH PEERS, CO-WORKERS, STAKEHOLDERS AND SURROUNDINGS; HIGH TOUCH RELATORS -ABLE TO MAKE THEIR PRESENCE POSITIVELY AND POWERFULLY FELT THROUGHOUT THE ORGANIZATION AND IN EXTERNAL RELATIONSHIPS;
LEADERS HAVE TO ADOPT TWO ROLES IN PARTICULAR WHICH ARE RELEVANT FOR FUTURE
1. DIGITAL AGENDA
2. DEMOCRATIZATION OF WORK PLACE
THE WORLD IS BECOMING MORE OF BORDER LESS MARKET PLACE TO OPERATE IN AND HAVING MORE CUSTOMERS TO ACCESS ON ONE TO ONE MARKETING BY E-MAIL. THIS IS CALLED E-GOVERNMENT. THE INCREASINGLY DIGITALLY CONNECTED WORLD IS FORCING LEADERS TO BE AWARE OF AN BE A MASTER OF THESE TECHNIQUE RATHER THAN STAYING ON TOP OF THE ORGANIZATION AS IN THE PAST.
DEMOCRATIZATION OF WORK PLACE
CREATING A NEW BALANCE IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERS, MANAGERS AND EMPLOYEES AS A RESULT OF THE INCREASE COMPETITION TO RETAIN AND ATTRACT TALENT;
INCREASING EXPECTATIONS BY EMPLOYEES THAT THEY WILL BE INVESTED IN TO RETAIN, UP-GRADE AND EXPANCD THEIR SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE;
EMPOWERING EMPLOYEES TO PLAY A GREATER ROLE IN CONTACT WITH THEIR CUSTOMERS; SHAREHOLDERS AND SOCIETY MORE WIDELY THAT IS ENABLED BY ICT;
MANAGING AND RETAINING A WORKFORCE THAT INCREASINGLY VALUES AND DEMANDS INVESTMENT IN THEMSELVES;
A GROWING CULTURE OF LIFE-LONG LEARNING IN THE WORKPLACE AND IN THE HOME WHICH IS INCREASING THE VALUE OF THE WORKER;
THE GROWING WAR FOR TALENT IN THE LABOUR MARKET AT A TIME WHEN IT IS REDUCING IN SIZE;
THE GROWTH OF EMPLOYEES AS KNOWLEDGE WORKERS AND THE INCREASING COMPETITION FOR THEIR SERVICES.
THE GROWING CONNECTIVITY AND COMPLEXITY OF COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN AN ORGANIZATION'S EMPLOYEES, ITS CUSTOMERS AND SUPPLIERS, WHICH MEANS THAT OLD WAYS OF ATTEMPTING TO CONTROL OR LIMIT SUCH CONTACT ARE NO LONGER RELEVANT OR APPLICABLE;
CONCLUSION - BUILDING AND GROOMING LEADERS IN INDIA 1. AMANTRAM AKSHARA NAASTI - THERE IS NOT A SINGLE AKSHARA WITHOUT THE POWER OF MANTRA. 2. AYOGYA PURUSH NAASTI - THERE IS NOT A SINGLE HUMAN BEING WHO IS INCOMPETENT. 3. YOG AASTI DURALABHAM - IT IS YOGA DIFFICULT TO FIND A GOOD LEADER THE CRITICAL ISSUE IS WHAT KIND OF LEADER WE ARE GOING TO FIND AND GROOM? A COUPLET COMES TO MY MIND. BAHU LOG THE JO WAQT KE SAANCHE ME DHAL GAYE MANY PEOPLE MELTED IN THE FRAME OF TIME PAR KUCH LOG THE JO WAQT KE SAANCHE BADAL GAYE, BUT THERE WERE SOME PEOPLE WHO CHANGED THE FRAME OF TIME NOW LET US COMPARE INDIA WITH CHINA WITH SOME CORE DATA AS INDIA AND CHINA GOT FREEDOM TOGETHER AND LOOK WHERE ARE WE AND WHERE IS CHINA
China India 1. Steel Production 133 mt. 25 mt. 2. Foreign Trade (Dollar) 491 Billion 75 Billion 3. Scientific papers in 1980 1000 15000 4.Scientific papers in 2002 22000 12000 5 Per capita Income (Dollar) 990 440 From the above it may be seen that China has built up leadership faster than India. Now Let us compare 21st Century organization with 20th Century organization. 21st Century Organization 20th Century Organization 1. Will operate on growth concept Operated on domestic concept 2. Will operate on bottom up approach Operated on top down approach 3. Web centric Pyramidal 4. Wealth Creation Wealth extraction 5. Work on employability Worked on employment security This will be the outlook of the 21st Century leader
MIND OF INDIAN MANAGER / LEADER 1. INDIAN MIND IS HIGHLY POWER CENTRIC AND INDIAN ORGANIZATIONS ARE HIGHLY HIERARCHY CENTRIC ( WHO SAYS BECOMES MORE IMPORTANT THAN WHAT HE SAYS) CAN WE BUILD A CULTURE WHERE WHAT HE SAYS BECOMES MORE IMPORTANT THAN WHAT HE IS IN THE ORGANIZATION 2. INDIAN CORPORATIONS ARE EMBARKING ON MONEY MAKING STRATEGIES WITHOUT PAYING ATTENTION TO BUILDING CORE COMPETENCIES. 3. INDIAN CORPORATE MIND IS EXPLOITATIVE IT IS SURVIVAL CENTRIC MIND AND A NOT SURVIVAL EXCELLENCE CENTRIC MIND 4. INDIAN MIND IS INVERT LOOKING 5. INDIAN MIND IS PROCRASTINATING MIND
WHEN YOU BECOME A LEADER, YOU TAKE ON A GREAT RESPONSIBILITY… YOU PROMISE TO CHANGE THE WORLD FOR THE BETTER.
IF YOUR REACTION TO THIS STATEMENT IS ‘I’ M ONLY MANAGING AN ORGANIZATION, OR DEPARTMENT, OR PROJECT, I’M NOT OUT TO CHANGE THE WORLD’, THEN I RESPECTFULLY SUGGEST THAT YOU LEARN TO BE A GOOD MANAGER, BUT NOT A LEADER.
LEADERS CAUSE POSITIVE CHANGE TO HAPPEN, THROUGH PEOPLE.
MANAGER CONTROL THINGS.
THE WORLD NEEDS GREAT LEADER. IT HAS ITS FILL OF MANAGERS.
IF YOU FEEL THAT YOU ARE NOT SURE WHETHER YOU ARE TRULY COMMITTED TO BECOMING A GREAT LEADER, IF YOU HAVE NOT YET MADE THAT DECISION, WOULD LIKE YOU TO TAKE A LOOK AT TWO SCENARIOS:
WHAT IF YOU WERE TO MAKE A TOTAL COMMITMENT TO BECOMING A GREAT LEADER? PROJECT YOURSELF AHEAD 3 TO 5 YEARS FROM NOW. YOU HAVE BECOME A GREAT LEADER. VISUALIZE WHAT POSITIVE IMPACT YOU ARE HAVING ON THE WORLD AROUND YOU…
WHO ELSE IS TOTALLY COMMITTED TO THE SAME CAUSE AS YOU?
WHAT POSITIVE ACTIONS ARE YOU AND THESE PEOPLE TAKING?
HOW ARE OTHER PEOPLE RESPONDING TO YOUR SUCCESSES?
HOW WORTHWHILE AND MEANINGFUL HAS YOUR LIFE BECOME?
WHAT DOES THAT FEEL LIKE?
HOW ARE YOU GROWING AND DEVELOPING?
HOW DOES ALL THIS DIFFER FROM TODAY?
WHAT IF YOU WERE TO BE LESS THAN FULLY COMMITTED TO BECOMING A GREAT LEADER? PROJECT YOURSELF AHEAD 3 TO 5 YEARS FROM NOW. YOU ARE IN A LEADERSHIP POSITION. VISUALIZE HOW THINGS WILL BE…
HAVE THINGS CHANGED MUCH, OR NOT AT ALL?
WHO ARE YOU ASSOCIATING WITH… PERHAPS OTHERS WHO ARE ALSO LESS THAN FULLY COMMITTED?
WHAT POSITIVE IMPACT HAVE YOU HAD ON THE WORLD AROUND YOU? LESS THAN YOU DESIRED?
HOW DO YOU FEEL ABOUT THAT?
HOW WORTHWHILE AND MEANINGFUL HAS YOUR LIFE BECOME?
HOW DOES ALL THIS DIFFER FROM TODAY?
I HAVE NO DOUBT THAT THE FIRST SCENARIO IS ONE THAT YOU DESIRE, AS WE ALL DO. THE SECOND SCENARIO IS ONE THAT YOU PROBABLY WANT TO HAVE NO PART OF. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO SCENARIOS IS SO STARK, SO DRAMATIC, THAT SOMETIMES WE FIND IT DIFFICULT TO SEE OURSELVES IN THE FIRST ONE, AND EASIER TO SEE OURSELVES IN THE SECOND. BUT FOR MANY OF US, THE SECOND SCENARIO IS TOTALLY UNACCEPTABLE. MANY LEADERS HOWEVER GET CAUGHT SOMEWHERE BETWEEN THE TWO SCENARIOS, AND FEEL AT A LOSS ABOUT WHAT TO DO. SO THEY REACH OUT TO ‘TECHNIQUES’ TO SOLVE THEIR DILEMMA. I HAVE SEEN MANY LEADERS GET CAUGHT UP IN FADS, AND I ALSO HAVE HAD THE PLEASURE OF BEING ASSOCIATED WITH LEADERS WHO KNEW THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN WHAT THEY WERE ATTEMPTING TO ACHIEVE AND HOW THEY ACHIEVED IT. THAT LED ME TO CRYSTALLIZE MY THOUGHTS AND EXPERIENCES INTO 5 KEY FACETS OF QUALITY LEADERSHIP. KEEP THESE FACETS FOREMOST IN YOUR MIND, AND YOU WON’T GO ASTRAY. BY EXPLORING THESE AREAS YOU WILL BE LED TO DISCOVER INSIGHTS AND ABOVE ALL TAKE ACTION CONCERNING FIVE KEY FACETS OF YOUR LEADERSHIP… FOCUS EFFECTIVE LEADERS STAY FOCUSED ON THE OUTCOMES THEY WISH TO CREATE AND DON’T GET TOO MARRIED TO THE METHODS USED TO ACHIEVE THEM. THEY PROVIDE THIS ‘OUTCOMES FOCUS’ FOR THEIR ORGANIZATION BY EMPHASIZING THE MISSION, VISION, VALUES AND STRATEGIC GOALS OF THEIR ORGANIZATION AND AT THE SAME TIME BUILDING THE CAPACITY OF THEIR ORGANIZATIONS TO ACHIEVE THEM. THIS CAPACITY BUILDING EMPHASIZES THE NEED TO BE FLEXIBLE, CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE AND AVOID BECOMING FOSSILIZED THROUGH THE ADOPTION OF BUREAUCRATIC STRUCTURES, POLICIES AND PROCESSES.
AUTHENTICITY LEADERS WHO ARE AUTHENTIC ATTRACT FOLLOWERS, EVEN LEADERS WHO ARE VIEWED AS BEING HIGHLY DRIVEN AND DIFFICULT TO WORK FOR. SIMPLY PUT, THEY ARE VIEWED AS ALWAYS BEING THEMSELVES… AND THEREFORE FOLLOWERS KNOW WHAT TO EXPECT FROM THEM AND CAN RELY ON THEM, COME THICK OR THIN. AUTHENTICITY PROVIDES THE LEADER WITH THE CURRENCY TO OBTAIN ‘BUY-IN’ FROM KEY STAKEHOLDERS, BECAUSE IT BUILDS AND MAINTAINS TRUST. AUTHENTICITY IS THE BEDROCK UPON WHICH THE OTHER FACETS ARE BUILD. COURAGE THE CHALLENGES FACING LEADERS TODAY ARE IMMENSE AND REQUIRE GREAT COURAGE TO OVERCOME. LEADERS ARE CONSTANTLY BEING CHALLENGED BY OTHERS, BE IT THEIR OWN TEAM, CUSTOMERS, THE PUBLIC OR OTHER STAKEHOLDERS. STANDING FIRM IN THE FACE OF CRITICISM, YET HAVING THE COURAGE TO ADMIT WHEN THEY ARE WRONG, ARE HALLMARKS OF COURAGEOUS LEADERS. FOR EXAMPLE, SHIFTING AN ORGNAIZAION FROM BEING INTROSPECTIVE TO BECOMING CUSTOMER FOCUSED REQUIRES COURAGE WHEN PEOPLE PAY LIP SERVICE TO THE NEW DIRECTION… IT MEANS CALLING PEOPLE ON THEIR BLUFF. EMPATHY EFFECTIVE LEADER KNOW HOW TO LISTEN EMPATHETICALLY… THUS LEGITIMIZING OTHERS’ INPUT. BY DOING SO, THEY PROMOTE CONSENSUS BUILDING, AND BUILD STRONG TEAMS. THEY COACH OTHERS TO DO THE SAME AND SO CREATE A CULTURE OF INCLUSIVENESS. THEY TEND TO BE GREAT LISTENERS WHO CAPITALIZE ON THE IDEAS OF OTHERS, AND PROVIDE RECOGNITION FOR THESE IDEAS, YET THEY DON’T GET BOGGED DOWN IN OVERLY COMPLICATED DIALOGUE. WHILE THEY CREATE LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS THAT PLACE A HIGH VALUE ON DIALOGUE AND CONTINUOUS FEEDBACK, THEY KNOW WHEN TO TAKE ACTION, WHEN TO ‘FISH OR CUT BAIT’, WHICH BRINGS US ON TO THE FINAL FACET… Contd..
TIMING THE ONE FACET THAT CAN MAKE OR BREAK A LEADER IS IN KNOWING WHEN TO MAKE CRITICAL DECISIONS AND WHEN NOT TO. ALL OF THE OTHER FACETS MUST BE VIEWED AS SUBSERVIENT TO GETTING THE TIMING OF CRITICAL DECISIONS RIGHT. THERE IS A NEED TO BE FOCUSED, AUTHENTIC, COURAGEOUS AND EMPATHETIC, BUT GET THE TIMING WRONG ON CRITICAL DECISIONS AND EVERYTHING ELSE STANDS TO BE NULLIFIED. GREAT LEADERS MOVE WITH APPROPRIATE SPEED. THEY DON’T BELIEVE THAT EVERYTHING MUST BE DONE IMMEDIATELY…THEY KNOW HOW TO PRIORITIZE AND HOW TO GET THEIR TEAM TO PRIORITIZE. AS WELL, THEY ENGAGE IN TIMELY FOLLOW-THROUGH TO ENSURE ACTIONS THAT ARE COMMITTED TO HAPPEN IN A WELL COORDINATED AND TIMELY WAY. IS THAT ALL IT TAKES TO BE A GREAT LEADER? THESE FACETS OF QUALITY LEADERSHIP ARE NOT EXHAUSTIVE. JUST AS ONE WOULD LOOK AT THE FACETS OF A DIAMOND, UPON CLOSER OBSERVATION OTHER FACETS BECOME OBSERVABLE. ANY PERSON CAN ASPIRE TO BEING A GREAT LEADER BY COMMENCING WITH THESE FACETS. IF YOU ARE IN A LEADERSHIP ROLE, REGARDLESS OF YOUR POSITION IN YOUR ORGANIZATION, START BY ASKING YOURSELF THE FOLLOWING KEY QUESTIONS: KEY QUESTIONS 1 HOW FOCUSED AM I? HOW MUCH OF MY TIME DO I SPEND COMMUNICATING AND INSPIRING PEOPLE ABOUT OUR MISSION, VISION AND STRATEGIC GOALS? HOW MUCH FOCUS DO I CREATE IN MY ORGANIZATION? HOW MARRIED AM I / MY ORGANIZATION TO METHODS THAT HAVE OUTLIVED THEIR USEFULNESS? Contd..
2. AM I VIEWED AS AUTHENTIC? DO PEOPLE SEE AND HEAR THE REAL ME? DO I WEAR A MASK AT WORK AND REMOVE IT WHEN I LEAVE EACH EVENING? 3. HOW COURAGEOUS AM I WHEN MY VALUES, VISION AND GOALS ARE CHALLENGED? DO I STAND FIRM AND ONLY CHANGE MY POSITION WHEN I KNOW THAT I AM WRONG? 4. HOW EMPATHETIC AM I? TOO MUCH/TOO LITTLE? DO I CREATE ENOUGH OPPORTUNITIES FOR OPEN AND CANDID DIALOGUE? DO I EVER FIND MYSELF GETTING BOGGED DOWN IN CONSENSUS BUILDING OR ACHIEVING FALSE CONSENSUS? IS THERE A FEELING OF INCLUSIVENESS AMONGST THE MEMBERS OF MY ORGANIZATION AND WITH OTHER STAKEHOLDERS INCLUDING CUSTOMERS? 5. DO I MAKE AND EXECUTE DECISIONS IN A TIMELY FASHION? DO I KNOW WHEN TO ‘FISH OR CUT BAIT?’ - DO I DEMAND WELL COORDINATED AND TIMELY EXECUTION OF STRATEGY FROM OTHERS? WHAT CAN YOU DO TO CREATE A QUALITY LEADERSHIP CULTURE? ASKING THESE QUESTIONS IN A CANDID WAY WILL OPEN UP MANY POSSIBILITIES FOR YOU, YOUR ORGANIZATION OR YOUR CLIENTS… IF YOU HAVE THE COURAGE TO DO IT. BUILDING AND SUSTAINING A QUALITY LEADERSHIP CULTURE TAKES TIME, PATIENCE AND A CLEAR FOCUS ON THE VITAL FEW CHARACTERISTICS THAT LEADERS CAN DEVELOP NATURALLY AND AUTHENTICALLY. LISTENING TO WHAT PEOPLE EXPECT FROM YOU AS A LEADER, AND THEN RESPONDING EMPATHICALLY, IN A TIMELY FASHION, WILL MOVE YOU DRAMATICALLY TOWARDS MASTERING THESE FIVE KEY FACETS OF QUALITY LEADERSHIP. ABOVE ALL, YOU NEED TO TAKE ACTION. Extracted from the speech of Brain Ward from the book Lead People…Manage Things.
. LEADERS LIVING THE 7 HABITS Be Proactive Stay in control of yourself, don’t let other people or events control your behaviour. Being with the End in Mind Have a clear vision of what you want to achiever; develop a personal mission statement. Put First Things First Pay more attention on a regular basis to things which are important but not urgent. Think Win/Win Look for an agreement or a solution that is mutually beneficial and mutually satisfying. Seek First to Understand, then to be understood Empathize with and logically understand the other person, and then logically explain your own stand. Synergize Value the difference between people, and use those differences to create better solutions. Sharpen the Saw Take time to renew yourself - physically, spiritually, mentally and emotionally/socially.
LEADERSHIP LESSONS FROM INDIAN FILM LAGAAN Lagaan is about Bhuvan and his team, who, against all odds, fight for pride, land and country - and win. It is how one single person with a passion can make a difference. It is about the triumph of human spirit, the Indian spirit. LEADERSHIP LESSONS 1. Thing of Problems as Opportunities -When Captain Russell challenges Bhuvan to a cricket match, Bhuvan accepts it because he knows that there is really no option. 2. Dream Big and Define the Goal - Once Bhuvan accepted the challenge, his dream was three years of no tax. 3. Put Community Before Self - The important thing about Bhuvan’s dream was that it was not for himself, it was for the community. 4. Be Determined in face of Opposition - Right from the start when the entire village opposes Bhuvan’s having taken up the challenge to when the rest of his team refuses to play because Bhuvan wants to take on board Kachra, who is an untouchable. 5. Give Examples to Enhance Understanding - Even though Bhuvan didn’t know the difference at that time, he simpleifed the challenge of learning cricket by portraying it as something similar to gilli-danda.
6. Make a Beginning - Bhuvan did not wait to start. He did not see around. He made a bat and a ball, got the kid interested and started. 7. Small Victories are Important at the Start - The first time Bhuvan hits the ball; he does so in public, in full view of the entire village. 8. Building the Team - This is at the heart of the film in the first half. Building the team is like recruitment. 9. Allocating Roles - Bhuvan also assigns responsibilities to each of his people. 10. Support the Team Members - Bhuvan backs his people to the hilt, even when they make mistakes. He is willing to give Kachra a second chance (on the second afternoon of the match) despite the skepticism of others. 11. Passion as the Differntiator - Bhuvan and his team were playing for the hopes and aspirations of a nation. Their passion, especially Bhuvan’s, made all the difference. 12. Lead from the Front - Bhuvan is always there- encouraging, talking, and making the decisions. He knows that having taken up the challenge, he has to take the fight and be there till the end. 13. Overconfidence Destroys - Look at Captain Russell. In trying to destroy Bhuvan (a personal enmity), he forgets what he is speaking and what he is offering.
14. Train and Practice - Bhuvan and his team did not just go into the match; they trained and practiced day and night. 15. Celebrate the Small Wins - Watch the genuine joy in Bhuvan’s team when a catch is taken or a wicket falls. 16. Never Give Up - Because the Last Ball can be the winner. A small opening - as in Chess, as in Cricket, as in a battle, and as in life - is all that it takes to make the difference and turn the tide. 17. Make the Best of Limited Resources - Watch how Bhuvan makes the bat and ball, and later how the pads are made. Look at the scene where Bhuvan and his team are practicing at night - the entire village is gathered around their team with mashalls to created the light. 18. Face the Challenges - When you are batting and facing a fast bowler, if you run away it is all over. You have to stand there and face the bowling to have a chance of winning. 19. It’s about Team Spirit - However good and passionate Bhuvan was, he could not have won the match on his own. Cricket needs eleven players. It is a team game. So is business. 20. It’s about people - Lagaan is about how ordinary people can do extraordinary deeds. We all have it within us. Look at the Reader’s Digenst “Drama In Real Life” stories. When the occasion comes, people - each one of us- can do amazing things.
THE LEGACY OF LAGAAN Lagaan succeeds in bringing out something from within us. Something, which has been hidden and perhaps long forgotten. Something whose existence, we didn’t even know about. As we go about our lives, we need to be reminded that each of us matters, that each of us has it within us to make a difference.
Leadership Lessons form American Sam Walton Wal Mart Corporation is the biggest retail chain in the world and number one Corporation in the list of Fortune 500 companies, and its founder is Sam Walton Life of Sam Walton….. Sam Walton was born in a farmer’s family in Oklahoma, USA. In his childhood he did a variety of jobs ranging from selling milk to magazine subscriptions to earn for financing his education up-to college. He pursued everything he was interested in with passion, be it his interest in boys scout or in the game of football and baseball. Playing football was very inspirational for him as it taught him not only Teamwork but also to expect to win and to take up tough challenges planning to come out victorious. His these attributes played a major role in making Wal-Mert a very admirable and successful organization in course of time. Elements of Wal-Mart Culture…. Sam Walton build Wal-Mart Culture on three basic beliefs - 1 Respect for the Individual 2. Service to Customers 3. Strive for Excellence.
Sam Walton’s 10 Rules for Building a Business…. 1. COMMIT to your business. Believe in it more than anybody else and have passion for it, very soon every body around you will catch the passion. 2. SHARE your profits with all your associates and treat them as partners. Behave as a servant leadership in a partnership. 3. MOTIVATE your partners. Money and ownership alone are not sufficient. Day by day think of new and more challenging ways to motivate and challenge your partners. Set high goals, encourage competition and then keep score. 4 COMMUNICATE everything you possibly can to your partners. The more they know, the more they will understand and the more they understand, the more they will care. 5. APPRECIATE everything your associates do for the business. Everyone likes to be told how much somebody appreciates what he has done. Nothing can substitute for a few well-chosen and well-timed sincere words of praise. 6. CELEBRATE your success and find some humour in your failures. Have fun and show enthusiasm always. 7. LISTEN to everyone in your company and figure out ways to get them talking. Push responsibility down in your organization, and to force good ideas to bubble up within it.
8. EXCEED your customers’ expectations. Give them what they want and a little more. 9. CONTROL your expenses 10. SWIM upstream Basic Management Philosophy of Sam Walton is that - “Good management is listening to ideas of line soldiers, pooling them and disseminating them around the organization so that people can act on it. Great ideas come from everywhere if you just listen and look for them”.