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Study questions.
What is power?
How do managers acquire the power needed for leadership?
What is empowerment, and how can managers empower others?
What are organizational politics?

Study questions.
How do organizational politics affect managers and management?
Can the firm use politics strategically?

“Power tends to corrupt; absolute power corrupts absolutely”
--- Lord Acton

A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes.

B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires.

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  1. 1. 18/3/2013 POWER AND POLITICS Presented To: Mrs. Pradeepika (Asst. professor) Presented By :- JASSI DUTT
  2. 2. 18/3/2013 POWER AND POLITICS  Study questions.  What is power?  How do managers acquire the power needed for leadership?  What is empowerment, and how can managers empower others?  What are organizational politics?
  3. 3. 18/3/2013 CONTD…..  Study questions. How do organizational politics affect managers and management? Can the firm use politics strategically?
  4. 4. 18/3/2013 “Power tends to corrupt; absolute power corrupts absolutely” --- Lord Acton
  5. 5. 18/3/2013 A DEFINITION OF POWER POWER A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. DEPENDENCY B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires. A B
  6. 6. 18/3/2013  Power is the ability to … Get someone to do something you want done. Make things happen in the way you want.  Influence is … What you have when you exercise power. Expressed by others’ behavioral response to your exercise of power.
  7. 7. 18/3/2013 Power and Dependence Person B’s counterpower over Person A Person B Person A Person A’s power over Person B Person B’s Goals
  8. 8. Faces of Power in Action 18/3/2013 • Positive – Leading – Influencing – Selling – Persuading • Negative – Coercing – Forcing – Hurting – Crushing
  9. 9. 18/3/2013 Coercive Reward The Bases of Power Legitimate Expert Referent
  10. 10. 18/3/2013 BASES OF POWER Formal Power Is established by an individual’s position in an organization; conveys the ability to coerce or reward, from formal authority, or from control of information. Coercive Power A power base dependent on fear. Reward Power Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable
  11. 11. 18/3/2013 BASES OF POWER Legitimate Power The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization. Information Power Power that comes from access to and control over information.
  12. 12. 18/3/2013 BASES OF POWER Expert Power Influence based on special skills or knowledge. Referent Power Influence based on possession by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits. Charismatic Power An extension of referent power stemming from an individual’s personality and interpersonal style.
  13. 13. 18/3/2013 CONSEQUENCES OF POWER Sources of Power Consequences of Power Expert Power Commitment Referent Power Legitimate Power Compliance Reward Power Coercive Power Resistance
  14. 14. 18/3/2013 SEXUAL HARASSMENT: UNEQUAL POWER IN THE WORKPLACE  Harasser stereotypes the victim as subservient and powerless  Harasser threatens job security or safety through coercive or legitimate power  Hostile work environment harassment continues when the victim lacks power to stop the behavior
  15. 15. 18/3/2013 OFFICE ROMANCE AND POWER  Co-workers believe that employees in relationships abuse their power to favor each other.  Higher risk of sexual harassment when relationship breaks off.
  17. 17. 18/3/2013 Power Tactics Reason Friendliness Sanctions Coalition Higher Authority Bargaining Assertiveness
  18. 18. 18/3/2013 WHAT IS EMPOWERMENT, AND HOW CAN MANAGERS EMPOWER OTHERS?  Empowerment. The process by which managers help others to acquire and use the power needed to make decisions affecting themselves and their work. Considers power to be something that can be shared by everyone working in flatter and more collegial organizations.  Provides the foundation for self-managing work teams and other employee involvement
  19. 19. 18/3/2013 CONTD…..  Power as an expanding pie. With empowerment, employees must be trained to expand their power and their new influence potential. Empowerment changes the dynamics between supervisors and subordinates.
  20. 20. 18/3/2013 Ways to expand power. Clearly define roles and responsibilities. Provide opportunities for creative problem solving coupled with the discretion to act. Emphasize different ways of exercising influence. Provide support to individuals so they become comfortable with developing their power. Expand inducements for thinking and acting, not just obeying.
  21. 21. 18/3/2013 DEPENDENCY: THE KEY TO POWER  The General Dependency Postulate     The greater B’s dependency on A, the greater the power A has over B. Possession/control of scarce organizational resources that others need makes a manager powerful. Access to optional resources (e.g., multiple suppliers) reduces the resource holder’s power. What Creates Dependency    Importance of the resource to the organization Scarcity of the resource Nonsubstitutability of the resource
  22. 22. 18/3/2013 CONTRASTING LEADERSHIP AND POWER  Leadership   Focuses on goal achievement.  Requires goal compatibility with followers.  Focuses influence downward.   Used as a means for achieving goals.  Requires follower dependency.  Used to gain lateral and upward influence. Research Focus styles and relationships with followers Power  Leadership  Research Focus  Power tactics for gaining
  23. 23. 18/3/2013 BRIEFING      Power is the ability to influence people and events. Managers need to use power effectively. Closely related to power is politics. Politics relates to the ways people gain and use power in organizations. Political activities in an organization are inevitable and managers should manage them carefully. Power and politics are present in all organizations.
  24. 24. 18/3/2013 What are organizational politics?
  25. 25. 18/3/2013 ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS  Attempts to influence others using discretionary behaviors to promote personal objectives  Discretionary behaviors -neither explicitly prescribed nor prohibited  Politics may be good or bad for the organization
  26. 26. 18/3/2013 POWER IN ACTION Political Behavior Legitimate Illegitimate Limited Resources The Reality of Politics Ambiguous Decisions
  27. 27. TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS Managing impressions Creating obligations Attacking and blaming Types of Organizational Politics Developing a Base for Support Integration / Praising Others Forming coalitions
  28. 28. CAUSES TO POLITICAL BEHAVIOR : NO OPPOSITION, NO NEED FOR POLITICS  Scarcity of Resources  Organizational Change  Non-Programmed  Lust for Power Decisions  Discretionary Authority  Ambiguous Goals  Organizational Culture  Technology and External  Psychological Factors Environment
  29. 29. NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF POLITICS Self Interest Organizational Conflicts Effect on Managers Inequitable Distribution of Power
  30. 30. TECHNIQUES OF ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS  Form the Right Alliances  Expect Reciprocal  Control the Decision Criteria Favours  Control Information  Try to be popular  Control Communication  Build up a Preferred Image  Control the Agenda of Meeting Channels  Use Outside Expert
  32. 32. MANAGING POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR Ethical and Positive Role Model Open and Honest Communication MANAGING POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR Eliminate or Reduction of Uncertainty Study the Political Behaviour
  33. 33. 18/3/2013 ETHICAL GUIDELINES FOR POLITICAL BEHAVIOR Unethical Question 1 Is the action motivated by self-serving interests which exclude the goals of the organization? Yes Ethical Question 3 Is the political activity fair and equitable? No Yes No Unethical Yes Question 2 Does the political action respect individual rights? No Unethical
  34. 34. 18/3/2013 “You can get much farther with a kind word and a gun than you can with a kind word alone.” ---A. Capone THANK YOU For listening