Smart Dust


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presented by Rohit Kumar. Its all about the ultra modern technology

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Smart Dust

  1. 1. SMART DUST Magic Dust(Tiny sensor)
  2. 3. WHAT WE WILL COVER ! <ul><li>What is smart dust </li></ul><ul><li>The smart dust technology </li></ul><ul><li>Communication with a smart dust </li></ul><ul><li>Listening to a dust field </li></ul><ul><li>Major challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul>
  3. 4. What is Smart Dust ?? <ul><li>It’s a tiny sensors </li></ul><ul><li>A tiny dust size device with extra-ordinary capabilities . </li></ul><ul><li>A Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Nodes in Smart Dust are called Motes </li></ul><ul><li>Combines sensing, computing, wireless communication capabilities and autonomous power supply within volume of only few millimeters. </li></ul>
  4. 6. MEMS Technology in Smart Dust <ul><li>Integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators and electronics on a common silicon substrate through micro fabrication. </li></ul><ul><li>Fabrication </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>electronics – IC process technique </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Micromechanical- micromachining process </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 7. Components
  6. 8. Smart Dust Technology <ul><li>MEMS sensors </li></ul><ul><li>MEMS beam steering mirrors for optical transmission </li></ul><ul><li>MEMS corner cube retroreflector for passive optical transmission </li></ul><ul><li>An optical receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Signal processing and control circuitory </li></ul><ul><li>A power source based on thick film batteries and solar cells </li></ul>
  7. 9. Sensors and other devices <ul><ul><li>Micro-controller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiny operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 KB RAM memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 week fully active, 2 yr @1%duty cycle </li></ul></ul>N S E W 2 Axis Magnetic Sensor 2 Axis Accelerometer Light Intensity Sensor Humidity Sensor Pressure Sensor Temperature Sensor
  8. 10. How Smart dust works? <ul><li>Run by microcontroller </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines the task performed by the mote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary constraint of smart dust is volume </li></ul><ul><li>=> constraint on energy </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the time mote if off with only timers running </li></ul><ul><li>When a timer expires, it powers mote to carry out a job , then powers off. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Communicating with a Smart dust <ul><li>Radio Frequency Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Optical transmission technique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Laser based Communication) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Radio Frequency Transmission <ul><li>Based on the generation, propagation and detection of electromagnetic waves with a frequency range from tens of kHz to hundreds of GHz . </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplexing techniques: time, frequency or code-division multiplexing. </li></ul><ul><li>Their use leads to modulation, bandpass filtering, demodulation circuitry, and additional circuitry, all of which needs to be considered, based on power consumption. </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Problems with RF comm.. </li></ul><ul><li>Large size of antenna. </li></ul><ul><li>RF communication can only be achieved by using time, frequency or code division . </li></ul><ul><li>TDMA, FDMA, and CDMA have their own complications. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Disadvantages <ul><li>Relatively high power consumption . </li></ul><ul><li>Thus can be used only for a short duration burst-mode communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Components like active beam-steering mechanism makes the design of the dust mote more complicated. </li></ul>
  13. 15. OPTICAL COMMUNICATION PASSIVE REFLECTIVE SYSTEMS ACTIVE-STEERED LASER SYSTEMS <ul><li>DOES NOT require onboard light source </li></ul><ul><li>Uses special device called corner cube retro reflectors </li></ul>
  14. 16. Passive reflective Systems <ul><li>For bidirectional communication btw mote & BTS </li></ul><ul><li>Light enters CCR, bounces off each of three mirrors & is reflected parallel to the direction it entered </li></ul>CORNER CUBE RETRO REFLECTOR
  15. 17. <ul><li>Limitations of passive communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to communicate with each other, motes rely on central station. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mote can be isolated from n/w if there is no clear line of sight. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System’s range cannot extend beyond 1 km </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Working of a CCR <ul><li>CCR requires uninterrupted line of sight . </li></ul><ul><li>CCR is highly directional => CCR can transmit to BTS only when CCR body diagonal points to BTS. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be made more omni directional by employing several CCRs oriented in diff direction </li></ul>
  17. 20. Active steered laser systems <ul><li>For mote to mote communication </li></ul><ul><li>Uses onboard light source to send a tight collimated beam towards an intended receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Uses a semiconductor laser, collimating lens and beam steering micro mirrors. </li></ul><ul><li>Power consumption trade off btw bandwidth & range </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>DISADVANTAGE </li></ul><ul><li>High power consumption=> use of short duration burst mode communication </li></ul><ul><li>ADVANTAGE </li></ul><ul><li>High power density =>optical wireless communi over enormous long dist </li></ul>
  19. 22. Major Challenges <ul><li>It is difficult to fit all these devices in a small Smart Dust both size wise and Energy wise. </li></ul><ul><li>With devices so small, batteries present a massive addition of weight. </li></ul>
  20. 23. Applications !!!! <ul><li>Military Application </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental protection </li></ul><ul><li>identification and monitoring pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>observing the behavior of animals in their natural habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory Control smart offices </li></ul>
  21. 24. Health And Wellness Monitoring Enter human bodies and check for physiological problems VIRTUAL KEYBOARDS Glue a dust mote to each fingertips. Accelerometers will sense the orientation and motion of each of the fingertip and talk to the computer on your watch Circulatory Net
  22. 25. Conclusion <ul><li>There are many ongoing researches on Smart Dust, the main purpose will to make mote as small as possible and to make it available at a low price. </li></ul><ul><li>Soon we will see smart dust being used in varied application from all spans of life! </li></ul>
  23. 26. References <ul><li>1.Yunbin Song: ”Optical Communication Systems for Smart Dust”. </li></ul><ul><li>2. J. M. Kahn, R. H. Katz, K. S. J. Pister: Next Century Challenges: Mobile Networking for “Smart Dust”. </li></ul><ul><li>3. An Introduction to Microelectromechancal System Engineering: Nadim Maluf, Kirt William </li></ul><ul><li>4. B.A. Warneke, M.D. Scott, B.S. Leibowitz: Distributed Wireless Sensor Network </li></ul><ul><li>5. </li></ul>
  24. 27. Thank You <ul><li>Presented by </li></ul><ul><li>Rohit Kumar </li></ul><ul><li>Roll No: 73 </li></ul><ul><li>C.S. ‘B’ </li></ul><ul><li>S.O.E., CUSAT </li></ul>
  25. 28. Questions??