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    Mpeg7 Mpeg7 Document Transcript

    • DIVISION OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY KOCHI-22 CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the technical report entitled “MPEG 7” that is being submitted bySREEKUMAR K.R in partial fulfilment for the award of the Degree of Bachelor ofTechnology in COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING of COCHINUNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY is a bonafide work carried out byher under my guidance and supervision.Mr. Sudheep Elayidom Dr. David Peter SSeminar Guide Guide Head of Division
    • MPEG 7 A SEMINAR REPORT Submitted by SREEKUMAR K.R (12080082) in partial fulfilment of requirement of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech) in Computer Science &Engineering of Cochin University of Science And Technology DIVISION OF COMPUTER SCIENCE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERINGCOCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY KOCHI-682022 AUGUST 2010
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENT I express my sincere thanks to Dr.David Peter ,Head ofDepartement, Division of Computer Science Departement,CUSAT . Iexpress my heartfelt gratitude to my respected guide Mr.SudheepElayidom for his kind and inspiring advise which helped me to understandthe subject and its semantic significance. I also extend my sincere thanks to all other members of the facultyof Computer Science and Engineering Department and my friends for theirco-operation and encouragement. SREEKUMAR K.R
    • ABSTRACT As more and more audiovisual information becomes available from manysources around the world, many people would like to use this information forvarious purposes. This challenging situation led to the need for a solution thatquickly and efficiently searches for and/or filters various types of multimediamaterial that’s interesting to the user.For example, finding information by rich-spoken queries, hand-drawn images,and humming improves the user-friendliness of computer systems and finallyaddresses what most people have been expecting from computers. Forprofessionals, a new generation of applications will enable high-qualityinformation search and retrieval. For example, TV program producers can searchwith “laser-like precision” for occurrences of famous events or references tocertain people, stored in thousands of hours of audiovisual records, in order tocollect material for a program. This will reduce program production time andincrease the quality of its content. MPEG-7 is a multimedia content description standard, (to be defined bySeptember 2001), that addresses how humans expect to interact with computersystems, since it develops rich descriptions that reflect those expectations.
    • MPEG 7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The Moving Pictures Experts Group abbreviated MPEG is part of theInternational Standards Organization (ISO), and defines standards for digitalvideo and digital audio. The primal task of this group was to develop a format toplay back video and audio in real time from a CD. Meanwhile the demands haveraised and beside the CD the DVD needs to be supported as well as transmissionequipment like satellites and networks. All this operational uses are covered by abroad selection of standards. Well known are the standards MPEG-1, MPEG-2,MPEG-4 and MPEG-7. Each standard provides levels and profiles to supportspecial applications in an optimized way. Its clearly much more fun to develop multimedia content than to index it.The amount of multimedia content available -- in digital archives, on the WorldWide Web, in broadcast data streams and in personal and professional databases-- is growing out of control. But this enthusiasm has led to increasing difficultiesin accessing, identifying and managing such resources due to their volume andcomplexity and a lack of adequate indexing standards. The large number ofrecently funded DLI-2 projects related to the resource discovery of differentmedia types, including music, speech, video and images, indicates anacknowledgement of this problem and the importance of this field of research fordigital libraries. MPEG-7 is being developed by the Moving Pictures Expert Group(MPEG) a working group of ISO/IEC. Unlike the preceding MPEG standards(MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4) which have mainly addressed codedrepresentation of audio-visual content, MPEG-7 focuses on representinginformation about the content, not the content itself.Department Of Computer Science Engineering 1
    • MPEG 7 The goal of the MPEG-7 standard, formally called the "MultimediaContent Description Interface", is to provide a rich set of standardized tools todescribe multimedia content. A single standard which can provide a simple, flexible, interoperablesolution to the problems of indexing, searching and retrieving multimediaresources will be extremely valuable and widely deployed. Resources describedusing such a standard will acquire enhanced value. Compliant hardware andsoftware tools capable of efficiently generating and interpreting suchstandardized descriptions will be in great demand.Department Of Computer Science Engineering 2
    • MPEG 7 CHAPTER 2 DIFFERENT VIDEO FORMATS Avid PC users will almost certainly remember the first time they wereable to view a video clip on their computer. The clips were about the size of apostage stamp and were generously referred to as "multimedia". Later, the firstacceptable video clips were used in the opening scenes of computer games. Insome cases, there were even digital 3D animations that couldnt be created inreal-time with the hardware and software that was available in those days. As thevideo clips demanded extensive storage space (despite their short length), theywere only available on CD-ROM drives that had recently become popular.Because of this, many PCs became multimedia-compatible, in a restricted sense,by the integration of a CD-ROM drive and a soundcard. However, theirlimitations soon became apparent: it wasnt possible to run the video clipsmoothly in fullscreen mode even with the most powerful hardware available.With the development of high performance graphic chips, faster processors andcorresponding software interfaces, todays users are now able to run video clipsin all the usual formats (including fullscreen mode) without problems. Wellcontinue with a look at the most video formats and well then provide anoverview of their specific applications.The AVI Format One of the oldest formats in the x86 computer world is AVI. Theabbreviation AVI stands for Audio Video Interlaced. This video format wascreated by Microsoft, which was introduced along with Windows 3.1. AVI, theproprietary format of Microsofts "Video for Windows" application, merelyprovides a framework for various compression algorithms such as Cinepak, IntelIndeo, Microsoft Video 1, Clear Video or IVI. In its first version, AVI supportedDepartment Of Computer Science Engineering 3
    • MPEG 7a maximum resolution of 160 x 120 pixels with a refresh rate of 15 frames persecond. The format attained widespread popularity, as the first video editingsystems and software appeared that used AVI by default. Examples of suchediting boards included Fasts AV Master and Miro/Pinnacles DC10 to DC50.However, there were a number of restrictions: for example, an AVI video thathad been processed using an AV Master could not be directly processed using aninterface board from Miro/Pinnacle. The manufacturers adapted the open AVIformat according to their own requirements. AVI is subject to additionalrestrictions under Windows 98, which make professional work at higherresolutions more difficult. For example, the maximum file size under the FAT16file system is 2 GB. The FAT32 file system (came with OSR2 and Windows 98)brought an improvement: in connection with the latest DirectX6 moduleDirectShow, files with a size of 8 GB can (at least in theory) be created. Inpractice however, many interface cards lack the corresponding driver support sothat Windows NT 4.0 and NTFS are strongly recommended. Despite its age andnumerous problems, the AVI format is still used in semi-professional videoediting cards. Many TV cards and graphic boards with a video input also use theAVI format. These are able to grab video clips at low resolutions (mostly 320 x240 pixels).Apples Format The MOV format which originated in the Macintosh world, was alsoported to x86 based PCs. It is the proprietary standard of Apples Quicktimeapplication that simultaneously stores audio and video data. Between 1993 and1995, Quicktime was superior to Microsofts AVI format in both functionalityand quality. The functionality of the latest generation (Quicktime 4.0) alsoincludes the streaming of Internet videos (the realtime transmission of videoswithout the need to first download the entire file to the computer). Despite this,Apples proprietary format is continually losing popularity with the increasingDepartment Of Computer Science Engineering 4
    • MPEG 7use of MPEG. Video clips coded with Apples format are still found on someCDs because of Quicktimes ability to run on both Macintosh and x86computers.MPEG Formats The MPEG formats are by far the most popular standard. MPEG standsfor "Motion Picture Experts Group" - an international organization that developsstandards for the encoding of moving images. In order to attain widespread use,the MPEG standard only specifies a data model for the compression of movingpictures and for audio signals. In this way, MPEG remains platform independent.One can currently differentiate between four standards: MPEG-1, MPEG-2,MPEG-4 und MPEG-7. Lets take a brief look at each format separately. MPEG-1 was released in 1993 with the objective of achieving acceptableframe rates and the best possible image quality for moving images and theirsound signals for media with a low bandwidth (1 MBit/s up to 1,5 MBit/s). Thedesign goal of MPEG-1 is the ability to randomly access a sequence within half asecond, without a noticeable loss in quality. For most home user applications(digitizing of vacation videos) and business applications (image videos,documentation), the quality offered by MPEG-1 is adequate. MPEG-2 has been in existence since 1995 and its basic structure is thesame as that of MPEG-1, however it allows data rates up to 100 MBit/s and isused for digital TV, video films on DVD-ROM and professional video studios.MPEG-2 allows the scaling of resolution and the data rate over a wide range.Due to its high data rate compared with MPEG-1 and the increased requirementfor memory space, MPEG-2 is currently only suitable for playback in the homeuser field. The attainable video quality is noticeably better than with MPEG-1 fordata rates of approximately 4 MBit/s.Department Of Computer Science Engineering 5
    • MPEG 7 MPEG-4 is one of the latest video formats and its objective is to get thehighest video quality possible for extremely low data rates in the range between10 KBit/s and 1 MBit/s. Furthermore, the need for data integrity and loss-freedata transmission is paramount as these play an important role in mobilecommunications. Something completely new in MPEG-4 is the organization ofthe image contents into independent objects in order to be able to address orprocess them individually. MPEG-4 is used for video transmission over theInternet for example. Some manufacturers plan to transmit moving images tomobile phones in the future. MPEG-4 is intended to form a platform for this typeof data transfer. MPEG-7 is the latest MPEG family project. It is a standard to describemultimedia data and can be used independently of other MPEG standards.MPEG-7 will probably reach the status of an international standard by the year2001.The MJPEG Format The abbreviation MJPEG stands for "Motion JPEG". This format ispractically an intermediate step between a still image and video format, as anMJPEG clip is a sequence of JPEG images. This is one reason why the format isoften implemented by video editing cards and systems. MJPEG is a compressionmethod that is applied to every image. Video editing cards such as Fasts AVMaster or Miros DC50 or the much more inexpensive Matrox Marvel productseries reduce the resulting data stream of a standard television signal fromapproximately 30 MB/s (!) to 6 MB/s (MJPEG file). This corresponds to acompression ratio of 5:1. However, a standard for the synchronization of audioand video data during recording has not been implemented in the MJPEG formatso that the manufacturers of video editing cards have had to create their ownimplementations.Department Of Computer Science Engineering 6
    • MPEG 7 CHAPTER 3 WHAT ARE THE MPEG STANDARDS? The Moving Picture Coding Experts Group (MPEG) is a working group ofthe Geneva-based ISO/IEC standards organization, (International StandardsOrganization/International Electro-technical Committee) in charge of thedevelopment of international standards for compression, decompression,processing, and coded representation of moving pictures, audio, and acombination of the two. MPEG-7 then is an ISO/IEC standard being developedby MPEG, the committee that also developed the Emmy Award-winningstandards known as MPEG-1 and MPEG-2, and the 1999 MPEG-4 standard.• MPEG-1: For the storage and retrieval of moving pictures and audio on storage media.• MPEG-2: For digital television, it’s the timely response for the satellite broadcasting and cable television industries in their transition from analog to digital formats.• MPEG-4: Codes content as objects and enables those objects to be manipulated individually or collectively on an audiovisual scene. MPEG-1, -2, and -4 make content available. MPEG-7 lets you to find thecontent you need. Besides these standards, MPEG is currently also working in MPEG-21 aTechnical Report about Multimedia Framework.Department Of Computer Science Engineering 7
    • MPEG 7 CHAPTER 4 DEFINING MPEG-7 MPEG-7 is a standard for describing features of multimedia content.Qualifying MPEG-7 MPEG-7 provides the world’s richest set of audio-visual descriptions. These descriptions are based on catalogue (e.g., title, creator, rights),semantic (e.g., the who, what, when, where information about objects and events)and structural (e.g., the colour histogram - measurement of the amount of colourassociated with an image or the timbre of an recorded instrument) features of theAV content and leverages on AV data representation defined by MPEG-1, 2 and4.Comprehensive Scope of Data Interoperability. MPEG-7 uses XML Schema as the language of choice for contentdescription MPEG-7 will be interoperable with other leading standards such as,SMPTE Metadata Dictionary, Dublin Core, EBU P/Meta, and TV Anytime.The Key Role of MPEG-7 MPEG-7, formally named “Multimedia Content Description Inter-face,” isthe standard that describes multimedia content so users can search, browse, andretrieve that content more efficiently and effectively than they could usingtoday’s mainly text-based search engines. It’s a standard for describing thefeatures of multimedia content. MPEG-7 will not standardize the (automatic) extraction of AVdescriptions/features. Nor will it specify the search engine (or any other program)Department Of Computer Science Engineering 8
    • MPEG 7that can make use of the description. It will be left to the creativity andinnovation of search engine companies, for example, to manipulate and massagethe MPEG-7-described content into search indices that can be used by theirbrowser and retrieval tools, (see figure 1).Department Of Computer Science Engineering 9
    • MPEG 7 CHAPTER 5 MPEG-7 TECHNICAL ACTIVITIESIt is important to note that MPEG-7 addresses many different applications inmany different environments, which means that it needs to provide a flexible andextensible framework for describing audio-visual data. Therefore, MPEG-7 willdefine a multimedia library of methods and tools. It will standardize:• A set of descriptors: A descriptor (D) is a representation of a feature that defines the syntax and semantics of the feature representation.• A set of description schemes: A description scheme (DS) specifies the structure and semantics of the relationships between its components, which may be both descriptors and description schemes.• A language that specifies description schemes, the Description Definition Language (DDL): It also allows for the extension and modification of existing description schemes. MPEG-7 adopted XML Schema Language as the MPEG-7 DDL. However, the DDL requires some specific extensions to XML Schema Language to satisfy all the requirements of MPEG-7. These extensions are currently being discussed through liaison activities between MPEG and W3C, the group standardizing XML.• One or more ways (textual, binary) to encode descriptions: A coded description is a description that’s been encoded to fulfill relevant requirements such as compression efficiency, error resilience, and random access.Department Of Computer Science Engineering 10
    • MPEG 7 Figure 1: The Scope of MPEG-7Organization of MPEG-7 Description Tools Over 100 MPEG-7 Description Tools are currently being developed andrefined. The relationships between the MPEG-7 Description Tools are outlined inFigure 2. The basic elements, at the lower level, deal with basic data types,mathematical structures, schema tools, linking and media localization tools, aswell as basic DSs, which are elementary components of more complex DSs. TheSchema tools section specifies elements for creating valid MPEG-7 schemainstance documents and description fragments. In addition, this section specifies tools for managing and organizing theelements and datatypes of the schema. Based on this lower level, contentdescription and management elements can be defined. These elements describethe content from several viewpoints. Currently five viewpoints are defined:creation and production, media, usage, structural aspects, and conceptual aspects.Department Of Computer Science Engineering 11
    • MPEG 7The first three elements primarily address information that’s related to themanagement of the content (content management), whereas the last two aremainly devoted to the description of perceivable information (contentdescription). Figure 2: Overview of MPEG-7 Multimedia Description Schemes (DSs)• Creation and Production: Contains meta information that describes thecreation and production of the content; typical features include title, creator,classification, and purpose of the creation. Most of the time this information isauthor-generated since it can’t be extracted from the content.• Usage: Contains meta information that’s related to the usage of the content;typical features involve rights holders, access rights, publication, and financialinformation. This information may be subject to change during the lifetime of theAV content.Department Of Computer Science Engineering 12
    • MPEG 7• Media: Contains the description of the storage media; typical features includethe storage format, the encoding of the AV content, and elements for theidentification of the media. Note: Several instances of storage media for the sameAV content can be described.• Structural aspects: Contains the description of the AV content from theviewpoint of its structure. The description is structured around segments thatrepresent physical, spatial, temporal, or spatio-temporal components of the AVcontent. Each segment may be described by signal-based features (color, texture,shape, motion, audio) and some elementary semantic information.• Conceptual Aspects: Contains a description of the AV content from theviewpoint of its conceptual notions.The five sets of Description Tools are presented here as separate entities,however, they are interrelated and may be partially included in each other. Forexample, Media, Usage or Creation & Production elements can be attached toindividual segments involved in the structural description of the content. Toolsare also defined for navigation and access and there is another set of tools forContent organization which addresses the organization of content byclassification, by the definition of collections and by modeling. Finally, the lastset of tools is User Interaction which describes user’s preferences for theconsumption of multimedia content and usage history.MPEG-7 Working GroupsCurrently MPEG-7 concentrates on the specification of description tools(Descriptors and Description Schemes), together with the development of theMPEG-7 reference software, known as XM (eXperimentation Model). The XMLDepartment Of Computer Science Engineering 13
    • MPEG 7Schema Language was chosen as the base for the Description DefinitionLanguage (DDL).The MPEG-7 Audio group develops a range of Description Tools, from genericaudio descriptors (e.g., waveform and spectrum envelopes, fundamentalfrequency) to more sophisticated description tools like Spoken Content andTimbre. Generic Audio Description tools will allow the search for similar voices,by searching similar envelopes and fundamental frequencies of a voice sampleagainst a database of voices. The Spoken Content Description Scheme (DS) isdesigned to represent the output of a great number of state of the art AutomaticSpeech Recognition systems, containing both words and phonemesrepresentations and most likely transitions. This alleviates the problem of out-of-vocabulary words, allowing retrieval even when the original word was wronglydecoded. The Timbre descriptors (Ds) describe the perceptual features ofinstrument sound, that make two sounds having the same pitch and loudnessappear different to the human ear. These descriptors allow searching for melodiesindependently of the instruments.The MPEG-7 Visual group is developing four groups of description tools:Color, Texture, Shape and Motion. Color and Texture Description Tools willallow the search and filtering of visual content (images, graphics, video) bydominant color or textures in some (arbitrarily shaped) regions or the wholeimage. Shape Description Tools will facilitate “query by sketch” or by contoursimilarity in image databases, or, for example, searching trademarks inregistration databases. Motion Description Tools will allow searching of videoswith similar motion patterns that can be applicable to news (e.g. similarmovements in a soccer or football game) or to surveillance applications (e.g.,detect intrusion as a movement towards the safe zone).Department Of Computer Science Engineering 14
    • MPEG 7The MPEG-7 Multimedia Description Schemes group is developing thedescription tools dealing with generic and audiovisual and archival features. Itscentral tools deal with content management and content description as outlined insection 2.1.The MPEG-7 Implementation Studies group is designing and implementingthe MPEG-7 Reference Software known as XM.The MPEG-7 Systems group is developing the DDL and the binary format(known as BiM), besides working in the definition of the terminal architectureand access units.Department Of Computer Science Engineering 15
    • MPEG 7 CHAPTER 6 MPEG-7 APPLICATION DOMAINS The elements that MPEG-7 standardizes will support a broad a range ofapplications (for example, multimedia digital libraries, broadcast media selection,multimedia editing, home entertainment devices, etc.). MPEG-7 will also makethe web as searchable for multimedia content as it is searchable for text today.This would apply especially to large content archives, which are being madeaccessible to the public, as well as to multimedia catalogues enabling people toidentify content for purchase. The information used for content retrieval may alsobe used by agents, for the selection and filtering of broadcasted "push" materialor for personalized advertising. Additionally, MPEG-7 descriptions will allowfast and cost-effective usage of the underlying data, by enabling semi-automaticmultimedia presentation and editing. All domains making use of multimedia willbenefit from MPEG-7 including,  Digital libraries, Education (image catalogue, musical dictionary, Bio- medical imaging catalogues…)  Multimedia editing (personalised electronic news service, media authoring)  Cultural services (history museums, art galleries, etc.),  Multimedia directory services (e.g. yellow pages, Tourist information, Geographical information systems)  Broadcast media selection (radio channel, TV channel,…)  Journalism (e.g. searching speeches of a certain politician using his name, his voice or his face)  E-Commerce (personalised advertising, on-line catalogues, directories of e-shops,…)Department Of Computer Science Engineering 16
    • MPEG 7  Surveillance (traffic control, surface transportation, non-destructive testing in hostile environments, etc.)  Investigation services (human characteristics recognition, forensics)  Home Entertainment (systems for the management of personal multimedia collections, including manipulation of content, e.g. home video editing, searching a game, karaoke,…)  Social (e.g. dating services)Typical applications enabled by MPEG-7 technology include:• Audio: I want to search for songs by humming or whistling a tune or, using anexcerpt of Pavarotti’s voice, get a list of Pavarotti’s records and video clips inwhich Pavarotti sings or simply makes an appearance. Or, play a few notes on akeyboard and retrieve a list of musical pieces similar to the required tune, orimages matching the notes in a certain way, e.g. in terms of emotions.• Graphics: Sketch a few lines on a screen and get a set of images containingsimilar graphics, logos, and ideograms.• Image: Define objects, including color patches or textures, and get examplesfrom which you select items to compose your image. Or check if your companylogo was advertised on a TV channel as contracted.• Visual: Allow mobile phone access to video clips of goals scored in a soccergame, or automatically search and retrieve any unusual movements fromsurveillance videos.• Multimedia: On a given set of multimedia objects, describe movements andrelations between objects and so search for animations fulfilling the describedtemporal and spatial relations. Or, describe actions and get a list of scenarioscontaining such actions.Department Of Computer Science Engineering 17
    • MPEG 7Examples of MPEG-7 ApplicationsThe following applications are examples of the type of solutions that MPEG-7can solve. These application examples represent development work in progress.There are many more applications being developed around the world.  Content Retrieval using Image as the QueryFigure 3 shows possible ways to search for visual content using the inherentstructural features of an image. In this example there are four image featuresdetailed. The color histogram feature (1) of an image allows me to search forimages that have the same color. Note, the position of the colors is not importantbut rather the amount of similar color in the image is important. The next feature,spatial color distribution (2) allows me to search for images where the location ofthe same color is important. You can see that the added object in the right-bottomflag does not affect this type of search. You can additionally search for imagesthat have a similar edge or contour profile as in the spatial edge distribution (3)search technique. Note, color does not make a difference to this type of search.Finally, you can see an example of searching by object shape (4). Here, the colorand edge profiles are not important. Figure 3: Search using image featuresDepartment Of Computer Science Engineering 18
    • MPEG 7Movie Tool This is an MPEG-7 description tool for video with easy-to-use visualinterface (see figure 4). It is possible to compose a logical structure of the targetcontent, and to also edit and output an MPEG-7 instance file using this tool.Automatic segmentation of video content is done by detecting scene changes.Manual annotation is also possible to allow users provide additional informationabout the content. The content is arranged in a hierarchy based on topic and sub-topics where visual clips are summarized using thumbnails. In the ideal world,automatic description and organization of content is most desirable but thevariety of possible meanings associated with semantic content make it a difficulttask. This Movie Tool, though, helps speed up the manual annotation processbecause of its friendly visual interface environment. Currently, this tool operateson MPEG-1 input content. Since the logical structure of the content is mappeddirectly to its MPEG-7 instance in the editor, users can easily see therelationships between content and its related MPEG-7 description. This featureprovides is very useful when trying to understand the usage of MPEG-7description tools and their relationship to content. Figure 4: Movie ToolDepartment Of Computer Science Engineering 19
    • MPEG 7 CHAPTER 7 MPEG-7 IN THE 21ST CENTURY MEDIA LANDSCAPE MPEG-7 is about the future of media in the 21st century. This is not anoverstatement. MPEG-7 provides a comprehensive and flexible framework fordescribing the content of multimedia. To describe content implies knowledge ofelements it consists of, as well as, knowledge of interrelations between thoseelements. The most straightforward application is multimedia management,where such knowledge is prerequisite for efficiency and accuracy. However,there are other serious implications. Knowledge of the structural features ofmultimedia information as well as its semantic features will help generatesolutions that will provide more comprehensive and accurate indexing and searchapplications, (leading to greater ability for content manipulation, content reuse -and thus new content creation). Many issues, it is true, remain includingcopyrights issues and interoperability between applications and systems that wishto adhere to the MPEG-7 standard. But such issues are balanced by incredibleeconomical, educational, and ergonomic benefits that will be brought by MPEG-7 technology. Potential concerns will be resolved, and after some years hence, wewill not be able to imagine media without MPEG-7 technologies.Department Of Computer Science Engineering 20
    • MPEG 7 CHAPTER 8 ADVANTAGES OF MPEG-7 – A SUMMARY1. MPEG Standards have been Successful in the Marketplace. MPEG standards, to date, have been extremely successful in themarketplace due to MPEGs unique process of sharing leading-edge technologywhile protecting intellectual property. MPEG-7 builds on the demonstratedsuccess of this process.2. Taking Advantage of MPEG-7 ExpertiseThe contributors to MPEG-7 include experts in every portion of the content valuechain: production, post-production, delivery, and consumption. Through thisprocess MPEG-7 has standardized description schemes for content description,management, and organization, as well as navigation, access, user preferencesand usage history.3. Interoperability: rapid uptake of MPEG-7, as it is built on enabling technologies and standards. MPEG-7 is harmonizing with has employed (or has otherwise harmonizedwith) other standards that have demonstrated success and acceptance in bothtraditional media and new media businesses, e.g., W3C (XML, XML Schema),IETF (URI, URN, URL), Dublin Core, ISO/ANSI Thesaurus guidelines, SMPTEMetadata Dictionary, TV-Anytime, etc. This will allow rapid integration intoyour companys products Various MPEG-2 solutions are looking to MPEG-7 as the standard forspecifying additional program metadata. For example, ATSC recently announcedan “RFP for Metadata for Advance Electronic Program Guide (EPG)Department Of Computer Science Engineering 21
    • MPEG 7Functionality”. This request for proposal applies to a protocol for the carriage ofmetadata in an ATSC MPEG-2-based digital television broadcast stream tosupport advanced EPG functionality in a DTV receiver. The RFP explicitlystates that “it is highly desirable that any ATSC standard for enhanced metadatato support advanced EPG features should be harmonized with other standardsefforts, such as MPEG-7…”4. Data Exchange between Subsidiaries MPEG-7 will enable the content management system at one subsidiary toleverage the content of another subsidiary. For example, broadcasters and contentproducers could categorize, exchange, process and manage assets acrossboundaries or along an entire supply chain, e.g., from production house toadvertising agency to a broadcaster’s network.5. Market Potential for MPEG-7 ApplicationsAccording to a Goldman Sachs projection, the market for content managementtools will grow from US$378Million in 2000 to US$4.5Billion by 2005.Interoperable tools sell better than non-interoperable tools. MPEG-7 is the goldstandard for content management interoperability, not just entertainmentcompanies - but every company, every industry, everywhere.6. MPEG-7 will enable a New Generation of Multimedia Applications MPEG-7 uniquely provides comprehensive standardised multimediadescription tools for content. Descriptions for the catalogue level (e.g. title), thesemantic level (who, what, when, where) and the structural level (spatio-temporalregion, color histogram, timbre, texture) will provide tools for creativedevelopers to generate new waves of multimedia applications. StandardizedMPEG-7 description tools, then, are a key enabler of the following applicationdomains:Department Of Computer Science Engineering 22
    • MPEG 7  Search Engines, Digital Libraries, Broadcast Networks, Entertainment and News Distributors, Streaming Businesses  Dynamic start-up companies, searching for cutting edge technologies.  Governmental, Educational, Law, Medical & Remedial Services, and Non-profit organizations looking for digital media solutions. For example, the U.S. Library of Congress receives over 10,000 multimedia items each week, and is committed to a) the long term preservation of these multimedia items in digital format, and b) making much of their collection accessible to U.S. citizens in digital format.  XML, Metadata, Modeling/Simulation, & Surveillance Industries.  AI Practitioners, Content Creators and Providers.7. MPEG-4 and MPEG-7 Tools for Killer Applications With MPEG-7s sister standard, MPEG-4, an ideal combination is madefor solutions that require efficient streaming of content, content manipulation,and indexing and retrieval of that content. In particular mobile applicationdevelopers have already begun to use these two standards and the trend is set tohugely increase as the demand for visual and audio information servicescontinues to grow.8. MPEG-7 Intellectual Property and Management Protection MPEG works closely with representatives of the creative industries toensure that the best possible protection of the rights of stakeholders is maintainedboth in content and in metadataDepartment Of Computer Science Engineering 23
    • MPEG 79. MPEG-7 Makes Content More Valuable Stored audio-visual content, gathered over the years, by broadcasters,libraries, and publishers becomes more valuable because, with MPEG-7 indexingtechnology, more comprehensive methods are available for users to access andretrieve more detailed descriptions of that content.10. MPEG-7 provides a seamless path towards increasingly intelligentcontent management systems We live in the age of convergence, from the level of production through todistribution and consumption. The technical hardware and communicationinfrastructure is evolving and will soon reach the point where computing andcommunications will become embedded in everyday objects and environments.Media will also then become ubiquitous. Ubiquitous media will create a hugedemand for new content, and meeting this demand must involve fundamentalchanges to all stages of media production, management and delivery. Media archives will become vast and interconnected pools of content, toolarge to be managed manually. Customization of content within programs, e.g.substitution of structural elements (characters, music, voices) according to viewerdesires, content scaling for PDA, cell phones, will be not only possible, but easyand pleasant. MPEG-7 will enable the creation of tools, (through its structuredcombination of low level features and high-level meta-data), for coping with this"outbreak" of generic content.Department Of Computer Science Engineering 24
    • MPEG 7 CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE MPEG-7 is intended to describe audiovisual information regardless ofstorage, coding, display, transmission, medium, or technology. It will address awide variety of media types including: still pictures, graphics, 3D models, audio,speech, video, and combinations of these (e.g., multimedia presentations).Examples of MPEG-7 data are an MPEG-4 stream, a video tape, a CD containingmusic, sound or speech, a picture printed on paper, or an interactive multimediainstallation on the web. MPEG-7 will address both retrieval from digital archives (pull applications)as well as filtering of streamed audiovisual broadcasts on the Internet (pushapplications). It will operate in both real-time and non real-time environments. A"real-time environment" in this context means that the description is generated atthe same time as the content is being captured (e.g., smart cameras and scanners). There are many applications and application domains which will potentiallybenefit from the MPEG-7 standard. Examples of applications include: • Digital libraries (image catalogue, speech archive); • Broadcast media selection (radio channel, TV channel); • Multimedia editing (personalised electronic news service, mediaauthoring). The potential applications cover a wide range of domains which include: • Education; • Journalism (e.g., searching speeches of a certain politician using his name,his voice or his face); • Cultural services (museums, art galleries);Department Of Computer Science Engineering 25
    • MPEG 7 • Film, Video and Radio archives; • Entertainment (e.g., video-on-demand, searching a game, karaoke); • Investigation services (surveillance, human characteristics recognition,forensics); • Geographical information systems; • Remote sensing (cartography, ecology, natural resources management); • Telemedicine and bio-medical applications.Department Of Computer Science Engineering 26
    • MPEG 7 REFERENCES [1] (http://www.cselt.it/mpeg/) [2] (http://www.mpeg-7.com) [3] www.mpeg-7.comDepartment Of Computer Science Engineering 27