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  • (Matthewson, 1991).
  • (Wilkerson, 2005). History of the Telephone.
  • Innovations that have been investigated in diffusion research have been technological innovations. Technological innovations are created by scientific research resulting from the interplay between scientific methods and practical problems.
  • The innovation-development process consist of all the decision, activities, and their impacts that occur from recognition of a need or a problem, through research, development and commercialization of an innovation through diffusion and adoption of the innovation.
  • Broad Voice Router and phone adapter.
  • The new approach reduces the network bandwidth consumption of a conference by a factor of two. In addition, this technique also reduces the CPU bandwidth utilization at the teleconference server.
  • In conclusion, In a VoIP telephone system, the signicant challenge of providing a teleconference feature that can support a large-scale teleconference without using excessive bandwidth.
  • Higdon,J.,( 2007) http://www.voip-news.com/feature/10-ways-to-make-voip-better-04/03/07. Open Links for videos;Yugma, Twitter and Gizmo.
  • Private corporate networks is available on iPhone using established industry-standard VPN protocols. Users can easily connect to enterprise systems via the built-in VPN client or through third-party applications from Juniper and Cisco.
  • Click –on the link for web-site. Open link to Mobile VoIP video.
  • Teleconference using a video link. Simply due to costs, teleconferences are frequently limited to audio links (telephone or computer-based).
  • ACT Conferencing provides global conferencing services: audio, video, web and multimedia events
  • A pie chart reference to the division and use of the IP telephony.


  • 2. Multimedia Presentation
    Jasper Thompson
    EDUC-7101/EDUC-8841-3 Diffusion and Integration of Technology in Education
    Dr. C. Watson
  • 3. Introduction
    The Philosophy and Role of Teleconferencing in Distance Education.
    The role of Teleconferencing in Distance education is linking the Instructors and learners. This will bridge the gap between the Learners enabling peer support for distance between sites. The benefits create social and pedagogical opportunities.
  • 4. Bandwidth-Conserving Multicast VoIPTeleconference System
  • 5. History
    VoIP, the Internet and the eventual demise of traditional telephone conferencing
    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) soon became popular for telephone communications because it avoids the toll charges of standard telephone connections.
  • 6. Dial-up internet connections provided near “toll-quality” voice communications, and with broadband connections the increased data throughput enabled businesses to use VoIP in conjunction with other Internet services like data sharing and video conferencing. With the money saved using VoIP, it seems obvious that using analog phone lines for telephone conferencing will soon be a thing of the past.
  • 7. History
    Dial-up internet connections provided near “toll-quality” voice communications, and with broadband connections the increased data throughput enabled businesses to use VoIP in conjunction with other Internet services like data sharing and video conferencing.
  • 8. The Need of the innovation
    Teleconferencing is an essential feature in any business
    telephone system. A teleconference allows associates to
    engage in a group discussion by conducting a virtual
    meeting while remaining at geographically disperse
  • 9. bandwidth-efficient
    In a VoIP telephone system, research and inquiry about challenges of providing a teleconference feature that can support a large-scale teleconference without using excessive bandwidth.
  • 10. Basic and Applied Research
    An audio teleconference feature with current technology sums or mixes the audio inputs from all of the conference participants to produce a mixed audio stream that contains the audio from everyone in the conference.
  • 11. Problem -Situation
    In a teleconference server application, the server supports a large number of participants in a single conference. This introduces an additional challenge. The teleconference server can no longer sum the audio of all the participants. Summing the audio of a large number causes overflow in the audio, thus distorting the audio and degrading the audio quality.
  • 12. Development
    The new system allows a network with a
    given capacity to accommodate almost double the number of conference participants that an existing system would allow. The new approach
    consumes considerably less data bandwidth than existing systems require. The audience at a teleconference allows associates to
    engage in a group discussion.
  • 13. Innovation
  • 14. Commercialization
    This new teleconference technique reduces the number of server transmissions from multiple unicast transmissions down to a single multicast transmission. The advantage of this new technique in terms of reduced bandwidth
    consumption increases tremendously when the number of participants in a conference grows. For a 100-participant conference, this new approach requires 100 incoming audio streams and only one outgoing mixed audio stream.
  • 15. Consequences
    Analysis of Bandwidth Savings
    To quantify the bandwidth improvement that our system achieves, consider implementations with various codes. The computed results for server implementations with the ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union Standardization Sector) standard G.729A codec [7], the Internet Low Bitrates Codec (iLBC) [5], and the G.711 Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) codec [6].
  • 16. Three Ways to Make VoIP Better
    Gizmo Call
  • 17. iPhone in Business Virtual Private Networks (VPN)
  • 18. Open -Links
  • 19. Diffusion and Adoption
    Supported Protocols and Authentication Methods
    Supports user authentication by password, two-factor token, and certificates.
    Cisco IPSec
    Supports user authentication by password, two-factor token, and machine authentication by shared secret and certificates.
    L2TP over IPSec
    Supports user authentication by MS-CHAP v2 Password, two-factor token, and machine authentication by shared secret.
    Supports user authentication by MS-CHAP v2 Password and two-factor token.
  • 20. S-Curve
    Guinness World Records, ACT holds the record for the largest telephone conference call, which connected 10,424 people.
  • 22.
  • 23. Relative Advantage
    Conferencing services range from on-demand, self-service to customized global multimedia events. Local dialing is available for participants in more than 65 countries. ACT is ISO 9001:2000 certified in the U.S. and is pursuing Six Sigma certification
  • 24. Compatibility
    Demand is driven by the construction needs of companies and governments and the desire of industrial customers to improve the efficiency of operations. Profitability depends on the ability to accurately predict costs for a project. Small firms, which can effectively compete with larger ones by having expertise in a particular field, are often hired as consultants on larger projects if they have special expertise. Large firms are advantaged in designing and managing large projects.
  • 25. Complexity
    Services Audio Conferencing, Web Conferencing, Video Conferencing, Video Event Services
  • 26.
  • 27. Trial Ability
    VoIP: Getting down to basics The significance of "IP" in VoIP : Besides being an acronym for Internet Protocol, it means that voice services are no longer tied to a specific network. VoIP also provides enterprise organizations with a significantly more network design flexibility.
  • 28. Observability
    A pure IP PBX is a software-based version of a traditional PBX that delivered in an appliance. The pure IP PBX replaces the traditional TDM PBX. The data network is then used to deliver voice services. A pure IP PBX offers a high degree of flexibility in where the call control is located. Normally, migrating from TDM to IP is not a one-to-one replacement. Companies often rationalize the number of IP PBXs.
  • 29. Innovation Adoption
  • 30. Reference
    http://images.apple.com/iphone/business/docs/iPhone_V PN.pdf
    Pheanis, D.C.& Chua, T..K.,(2006). Bandwidth-conserving multicast VolP teleconference system. International Journal of Network Security, Vol.7, No.1, PP.42{4.
    Mathewson, C. (1991). The philosophy and role of teleconferencing in distance education. University of South Pacific.