Atlantis 22.3 urban economy


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Atlantis is Polis’ magazine which explores the field of urbanism. This issue features an interesting combination of contributors regarding Urban Economy from amongst other John Kasarda, Geoffrey West, Ronald Wall and Eric Luiten. Also Atlantis continued where the Urbanism Week 2011 left off and talked more in depth with some key figures as Henk Ovink, Alfredo Brillembourg and Markus Appenzeller. Chief-editor of volume 22 (2011)

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Atlantis 22.3 urban economy

  1. 1. ATLANTIS #22.3 December 2011 Ronald Wall 04 Mike Yin 07 Maurits Schaafsma 09MAGAZINE BY POLIS | PLATFORM FOR URBANISM John Kasarda 12 Atelier Olschinsky 16 Urbanismweek 2011 Urbanismweek 2011 Intro by Jorick Beijer 18 Henk Ovink 21 Alfredo Brillembourg 26 Jaap Modder 29 Markus Appenzeller 30 Tess Broekmans 33 Chris Zevenbergen 36 Hubert Habib 39 MSc Urbanism projects 40 VURB 45 Vincent Schipper 49 Osong Bio Valley 52 Geoffrey West 54 Alex Lehnerer 57 Tim Peeters 58 Eric Luiten 60URBAN ECONOMY 1
  2. 2. EditorialIn the previous Atlantis issue we discussed However, urbanism seems to constantly seek The outline for Atlantis volume 22. If youthe tangible subject of urban form. In this for a relevant position. The profession strug- have ideas and would like to contribute, pleaseissue of Atlantis, we will explore the seem- gles with numerous aspects at once: its role do not hesitate to contact us atingly invisible economic forces that shape in the process, its position towards involved cities. The impact of these economic parties, the status of its products, and per-forces on cities is enormous which can haps also a societal recognition as a knowl- ATLANTIS #22.1 April 2011clearly be seen by the effects of the finan- edge-intensive profession. To exchange ideas MAGAZINE BY POLIS | PLATFORM FOR UBANISMcial crisis on cities all over the world. The about this, the Urbanism Week broughtrise and fall of Detroit and Dubai is an together a number of very interesting speak-extreme example of this. Therefore, space ers from all over the world to give theirand economy cannot be considered sepa- view. When the heat of the debates vanished, URBAN SOCIETY 1rate from one another and in this light, the Atlantis spoke more in-depth with theseposition of the urbanist is questioned again: speakers to elaborate on their propositions #22.1 Urban Society“What can urban designers and planners and personal motives. Henk Ovink starts Keywords: society, regeneration, politics, housing,contribute to the urban environment, while with a plea for new alliances in a decentral- neighborhood.this urban environment is increasingly ized government when it comes to designsubject to unpredictable and complex eco- content. Alfredo Brillembourg passionately ATLANTIS #22.1 April 2011nomic forces?” Issue #22.3 Urban Economy speaks about engaging the public in devel- MAGAZINE BY POLIS | PLATFORM FOR UBANISMexplores this question from various perspec- opments, whereas Jaap Modder pleas for atives, by exchanging ideas with students, different role of the government. Markusscholars, designers, politicians, developers Appenzeller argues that there are similari-and engineers. ties in approach despite working in different URBAN SOCIETY 1 cultures, while Hubert Habib, Tess Broek-Ronald Wall will open this issue, by reveal- mans and Chris Zevenbergen discuss the #22.2 Urban Forming the complexity of investments and their future challenges of sustainable living and Keywords: form, density, typologies,effect on cities. Wall pleas for a new set of development in cities. Along these lines, the design, public space, urban techniques.methods and techniques to incorporate the work of TU Delft urbanism students will beknowledge of economic logics into urban exhibited and several visitors and professorsstrategies and designs. According to Wall will reflect on the Urbanism Week. ATLANTIS #22.1 April 2011 MAGAZINE BY POLIS | PLATFORM FOR UBANISMthe power of world cities is essentially rela-tional: cities form nodes of attraction within After contemplating on the role of thea global network of investments, and thus urbanist, VURB discusses techno-socialneed to act accordingly. Not only the tradi- means on vacancy and Vincent Schipper URBAN SOCIETY 1tional cities will form these nodes, but also continues the discussion by looking at thenew urban typologies are attractive to invest city through the metaphor of dance. Geof- #22.3 Urban Economyin. Mike Yin will introduce the airport as frey West, one of the world’s leading physi- Keywords: globalization, urban economy, competi-a new urban centre while Maurits Schaaf- cists of the last decade, recently began study- tiveness, branding, market, role of urbanism, foreignsma further elaborates on the specific case ing the science of urban life and came up direct investment.of Schiphol. John Kasarda, author of the with some remarkable insights. West dis-best-seller Aerotropolis, proposes to bring covered that the reason we all live in cities ATLANTIS #22.1 April 2011together airport planning, urban planning, all have to do with the number 1.15. Alex MAGAZINE BY POLIS | PLATFORM FOR UBANISMand business site planning to eventually Lehnerer presents some provocative globesform true airport cities. The Vienna-based that deal with major themes of the contem-Atelier Olschinsky provides a look into the porary city. To round it off, Eric Luiten, URBAN SOCIETYfictional machine rooms of today’s cities, professor of Cultural Heritage will reflect 1showing their beauty as well as their com- on some of the themes apparent throughoutplexity. Their works provide a triggering this issue. #22.4 Urban Landscapestarting point to further explore the specific Keywords: landscape, metropolitan, urban-rural, bio-role of the urbanist in these machine rooms. Jasper Nijveldt diversity, border conditions.2
  3. 3. From the board Committees 2011‘So, you are an urbanist?!’ The Urbanism Week 2011 was an We could not be as visible as we are withoutunforgettable event for everyone with a fascination for the (un)built the great effort of a lot of active students. Inenvironment. Polis Platform for Urbanism is proud to build the the last 10 months Polis was able to organize aplatform for knowledge exchange and offers you the chance to look big trip to Vienna, excursions to Antwerp andback and ahead. Urbanism Week 2011 has made its statement in the Amsterdam North, a double lecture on digitalfaculty and outside. So, you are an urbanist?! was the discussion urbanism, the Roadshow on sustainablethat sounded in the corridors in the last months. During the last planning, a case study on Spoorzone Delft andweek of September Polis built the physical platform for international of course Urbanism Week 2011. The Polisdiscussion about the (un)built environment. What does it mean to be board wants to thank all the people involvedan urbanist? The keynote speakers brought us a sharp and inspiring for their great efforts and positive input!view of the world of urbanism. We are always looking for enthusiasticWhat is your discipline? What does the ‘urban’ do for you? What is people to join. Interested in one of the Polisthe profession really about? But what made the Urbanism Week really committees or becoming the new board ofspecial were the audiences whom actively took part in the debate during 2012? Don’t hesitate to contact us at ourthe whole week. It resulted in a sharp and inspiring discussion about the Polis office (01west350) or by mail: contact@essence of urbanism and the role of the urbanist. The critical discussion polistudelft.nlhas reached not only the students and the academic field but also theprofessionals in practice. Urbanism Week has shown what Polis stands Urbanism Week. Arie Stobbe, Jorick Beijer,for as an active platform for urbanism: yes, i am an urbanist!! Karien Hofhuis, Vera Konings, Tim Ruijs & Noor Scheltema.For those who unfortunately missed the Urbanism Week 2011 orthose who would like to re-experience the whole week again Polis has Lectures. This committee is looking for newgood news. The videos of all the lectures as well as photos of the whole enthusiasts! Let us know if you want to joinweek are available online at the Urbanism Week website. Visit the them and organise more interesting lectures!website to revisit the Urbanism Week 2011: Excursions. After the great success of the bigPolis is proud to present to you two special editions of Atlantis trip to Vienna this committee will organisemagazine this year. Both issues 22.3 and 22.4 will flashback on two great events for the coming months. Atthe Urbanism Week and will continue where Urbanism week the end of this year we will visit Maastrichtleft off. The Urbanism Week keynote speakers and debaters will & Luik and in the 2012 we will go to Berlin!look back and ahead in the interviews and essays you can find in Hannah Cremers, Gijs Briet, Andre Kroese,this magazine. For us this is rather important, because Polis highly Verena Roell & Wieke Villerius, Feddyvalues its members and wants to keep in touch after the Urbanism Garofalo.Week. Polis aims to extend our platform online, so please visit us atthe Polis website ( and connect to our Linkedin Borrel. Nazanin Hemmati, Ani Skachokovaand Facebook group to keep updated and join the discussion! Let the & Laurens de Lange. Are you a Msc1 studentdebate continue! and interested in organizing borrels? Please contact us!Urban greetings from the Polis board 2011, Atlantis. Jasper Nijveldt, Jan Breukelman,Jorick Beijer, Karien Hofhuis, Vera Konings, Tim Ruijs & Noor Edwin Hans, Jan Wilbers, Mike Yin, SangScheltema Huyn Lee. 3
  4. 4. Urban geopolitics Dr. Ronald Wall Architect and Economic Geographer IHS/Erasmus UniversityUrban Competitiveness and the Global Economic Network wall@ihs.nlIn this article I argue that cities are increasingly affected by exter- cymakers persistently assume that cities are in equal competitionnal, seemingly invisible, political, economic, cultural, social, and with each other and consequently apply generic approaches to theenvironmental forces, and that policymakers, urban planners and development of their cities e.g. ‘creative cities’, ‘green cities’ andarchitects may need to explore new methods and techniques to ‘sustainable cities’. In this manner most cities increasingly imitateincorporate this type of knowledge into their urban strategies and each other and become very similar, instead of identifying uniquedesigns. However, I will not elaborate on the theory behind this characteristics that would make them different and enable a com-argument and instead will focus more on a practical example. For petitive advantage.those interested in a theoretical explanation, this can be found in‘We Need Archinomics’1. Despite the increasing mobility of capital, only a few cities can sat- isfy the specific requirements of large firms to invest in particu-In a world in which the mobility of capital steadily increases, cities lar projects abroad. Depending on a firm’s industrial sector, e.g.compete more than ever in attracting capital flows, mostly in the chemicals, semiconductors, oil-extraction or advanced businessform of investments2. In this sense, the power of world cities is services, it will seek different urban qualities in a city. Indeed, vari-essentially relational: cities do not have power in isolation, but have ous studies show that it is best for cities to attract investments thatpower to the extent that they form points of attraction and com- complement their existing or potential economic functions. In thismand within the global network of investments3. To improve their way, cities with the same type of economic functions can to someposition within this network, cities need to improve their ability to degree be considered to be true competitors as they have similarsuccessfully compete with each other, i.e. create competitive advan- endowments to attract the same kind of investors. Cities with dis-tage over others. To do this today, policymakers use incentive based similar economic functions are not competitors and can thereforepolicies e.g. subsidies and taxes, but also capacity-building policies, be considered complimentary to the extent that they exploit dif-such as physical infrastructure, public transportation, and human ferent sources of investment, and hereby fulfill different economicresource development to improve a city’s ability to attract invest- roles within the urban system. Furthermore, empirical researchments. Furthermore, marketing and branding strategies have has indeed revealed that cities are not all in competition with eachbecome a ‘booming business’, with the endeavor to boost a city’s other, and instead each city has only a handful of true competitors4.attractiveness for business. However, a major problem of these Hence, by using econometric techniques for example, the competi-policies and strategies, is that they are over-generalized, hereby tors of a city can be identified within the entire global network ofnot specifying a city’s true competitors, nor the type of investments investments. Based on this specific knowledge, detailed case stud-that are being contested amongst cities. In other words, urban poli- ies can be carried out on its competitors to find out (i) exactly whichFigure 1. The geographic location of regional and global investments in Rotterdam, Hamburg and Frankfurt (Wall and Pajevic, 2011)4
  5. 5. New Delhi Stockholm Eindhoven Epsom Marseille Beverly Hills Purchasefirms are investing in them, (ii) what type of economic, infrastruc- Redmond Austin New Orleans Basking Ridge Voorburg Houston Wellington Regina Newburyport Amsterdam Raleigh Westlake Village Roskilde Schindellegi Seattle Nova Prata Vienna Vaduz D Wilmington Turin Ozorkowtural, social and environmental functions in these cities are attract- Nantes Hamilton Pune Zeist Massy Tallinn Vaasa Rochester Fairfield Rockville York Zurich Windsor Vevey Washington Westborough Yokohama Piscataway Waltham Brussels Xiamen Utrecht Northbrook San Diego Den Haag Toronto Scottsdaleing the investments, and (iii) which functions need to be developed Parsippany Copenhagen Cambridge Rotkreuz Milan Dublin Stockholm Muttenz Slough New Delhi Saint Petersburg White Plains Pino Torinese Gouda St Louis RigaEindhoven Epsom Marseille Beverly Hills Valencia Purchase Pittsburgh Austin New Orleans Redmond Basking Ridge Montreal Shenzhen Malagna Hull Voorburg Sydney Houston Hartford Naperville Regina Osaka Newburyport Sunnyvaleso as to attract new investments. Based on this knowledge, a city TaipeiWellington Amsterdam Raleigh Leamington Spa Hwaseong Westlake Village Sundsvall Athens Nishio Roskilde Schindellegi Seattle Nantes Nova Prata Minneapolis Vienna Chicago Vaduz Indianapolis Hamilton D Zeist SpringfieldOzorkow Wilmington Turin Pune Massy Mumbai Niederwangen Amstelveen Kiryu Ipswich Clichy Tallinn Vaasa Fairfield York Rochester Rockville Nieuwegein Zurichcan develop targeted urban programs, policies, plans and mar- Hsinchu Windsor Westborough Rome Hamburg Vevey Washington Moscow Piscataway Yokohama Johannesburg Brussels Xiamen Utrecht Nijmegen Northbrook A Waltham Aalborg London Itasca San Diego Den Haag Toronto Scottsdale Southfield Jersey City Parsippany Memphis Copenhagen Santa Clara Minato-ku Cambridge Rotkreuz Milan Humlebaek Cardiff Beijing Dublin Muttenz Frankfurt Slough Luxembourg Boston Saint Petersburg White Plainsketing strategies that will give it a future competitive advantage Gouda St Louis Riga Hilversum Valencia Pino Torinese Lawrenceville Leuven Addison New York Pittsburgh Siena Blagnac San Mateo Montreal Shenzhen Milwaukee Malagna Hull Sydney Hartford Mansbach Lund Cerritos Naperville Tokyo Sunnyvale Mountain View Taipei Osaka Bath Baden Marlborough Leamington Spa Bloomfield Hills Paris Minneapolis Mumbai Nishio Springfield Madrid Southborough Niederwangen Amstelveen Sundsvall Town Cape Chicago Le Plessis-Robinsonover its competitors. Therefore, a good understanding of competi- Chippenham Hwaseong Indianapolis Atlanta Basel Athens Oslo Hong Kong Tel Aviv Kiryu Menlo Park Ipswich Clichy Aimargues Dallas Greenwood Village Barcelona Dubai Los Angeles Kinnarp Nieuwegein Hsinchu Decatur Rome B Al-Kuwait San Francisco Hamburg Seoul Moscow Belgrade Johannesburg Miami Zug Minsk Espoo Nijmegen A Londontion within the global investment network will clear the path to Malmo Aalborg Shanghai Broomfield Southfield Jersey City C Itasca Philadelphia El Segundo Memphis Baltimore Deerfield Clara Cleveland Santa Minato-ku Humlebaek Cardiff Beijing Frankfurt Fukuoka Luxembourg Boston Linz Lawrenceville Leuven Addison Hilversum Chiyoda-Ku New York Siena Bangalore Manama Rockford Blagnac Rotterdam San Mateo Milwaukee Brighton Mansbachsmarter, more goal-directed and effective urban planning, urban Cerritos Lund Tokyo Newark Baden Abingdon Marlborough Mountain View Ichikawa BathFoster City Bloomfield Hills Paris Baku AberdeenSouthborough Cincinnati Madrid Chippenham Cape Town Le Plessis-Robinson Jakarta Atlanta Auckland Boca Raton Basel Oslo Hong Kong Tel Aviv Menlo Park Dallas Gwacheon Greenwood Villagedesign and policy-making5. In this sense, ‘form follows function Aimargues Barcelona Dubai Los Angeles Kinnarp Decatur B Al-Kuwait San Francisco Seoul Belgrade Southampton Miami Zug Espoo Minsk Malmo Shanghai Broomfield C Philadelphia El Segundo Kolkata Baltimore Deerfield Cleveland Duisburgfollows flows’. Antwerp Fukuoka Linz Seville Chiyoda-Ku Bangalore Manama Brighton Rockford Dusseldorf Rio de Janeiro Rotterdam Birmingham Lysaker Ichikawa Newark Foster City Abingdon Johor Bahru Aberdeen Baku Reykjavik Cincinnati Jakarta Gent Salvador Fischamend Auckland Boca Raton Irving Arhus Gwacheon Koln Bucharest SouthamptonCombining insights from international economics, business man- Kolkata Figure 3: investments from various cities to Rotterdam and its competitors Hamburg and Frankfurt Duisburg Antwerp (Source: Wall and Pajevic, 2011) Sevilleagement, urban development and urban network literature, an Figure 3. Investments from various cities to Rotterdam and its competitors Ham- Dusseldorf Rio de Janeiro Metals Birmingham Lysaker Johor Bahru Rotterdam Reykjavik Gent Salvador Fischamendindicator has been developed to measure competition between burg and Frankfurt (Wall and Pajevic, 2011) Irving Arhus Koln Bucharestcities for investments6. Unlike previous competitive advantage Figure 3:Wall and Pajevic, 2011) cities to Rotterdam and its competitors Hamburg and Frankfurt (Source: investments from various Metals Coal, Oil and Natural Gasapproaches that only compare cities by the strengths of their urban G Warehousing & Storage Rotterdam Financial Services Software & IT services Textilesindicators, the new model measures a city’s competitive impor- Non-Automotive Transport OEM Chemicals Hotels & Tourismtance relative to other cities in the global network. This results in E Semiconductors Coal, Oil and Natural Gas Industrial Machinery, Equipment & Tools Alternative/Renewable energy Wood Products Transportation Services Financial Plastics Ga network measure which in its simplest form is explained by the Business Services Rubber Software & IT services Automotive Components Warehousing & Storage Communications Textiles Chemicals Food & Tobacco Automotive OEMdiagram below (figure 1). The seven cities (A-G) are hypotheti- Beverages Non-Automotive Transport OEM Hamburg Real Estate Hotels & Tourism E Semiconductors Leisure & Entertainment Frankfurt Industrial Machinery, Equipment & Tools Alternative/Renewable energy Space & Defencecally connected by investments made by firms in these cities. Cities Wood Products Medical Devices Rubber Transportation Business Services Plastics Paper, Printing & Packaging Automotive Components Pharmaceuticals Communications A and G have different cities investing Electronic Components Aerospace Food & Tobacco Consumer Electronics Automotive OEM F Beverages Biotechnology Hamburg Healthcare Real Estate in them and therefore have a 0% market Space & Defence Leisure & Entertainment Engines & Turbines Frankfurt Consumer Products Business Machines & Equipment Paper, Printing & Packaging overlap. In other words, they are not com- Medical Devices Pharmaceuticals Electronic Components Aerospace Consumer Electronics Figure 4: investments from various industrial sectors to Rotterdam and its competitors Hamburg and Frankfurt petitors at all. Cities B and C have the same (Source: Wall and Pajevic, 2011) F Biotechnology Healthcare Engines & Turbines Consumer Products cities investing in them and hereby have a Business Machines & Equipment 100% market overlap. In this sense, they Figure investments from various from various industrialcompetitors Hamburg and Frankfurt and its competi- Figure 4: 4. Investments industrial sectors to Rotterdam and its sectors to Rotterdam (Source: Wall and Pajevic, 2011) are perfect competitors. Cities A and D are tors Hamburg and Frankfurt (Wall and Pajevic, 2011) partly linked to the same cities and there- fore have a partial overlap which can range (figure 1). The darker the region and the higher its red node is between 0 and 100%. In previous studies, positioned, the stronger it is in attracting investments. The link- it is shown that cities tend to only have a ages (in red) represent the total investments taking place betweenFigure 2. Diagram to handful of true competitors. For instance, regions and it is clear from the map that Europe’s core investmentexplain network compe- Rotterdam’s competitors are not Dutch axis runs between London and Milan, incorporating areas like thetition (Burger, Wall and cities, as is often assumed, but cities like Randstad, Ruhr area, Flemish Diamond, and Paris. A video of thisv.d. Knaap 2010 7) Frankfurt, Hamburg and Prague. can be seen at, the competition model is more complex than this, In the network diagram (figure 3), we see two of the importantas it also requires other conditions to properly measure competi- competitors of Rotterdam, namely Hamburg and Frankfurt. Theytion between cities i.e. (1) sectoral similarity of investments e.g. are competitors because other cities like Moscow, London, Beijing,transport, manufacturing, legal services or trade, (2) functional New York, Tokyo and Paris invest in all three of them (label A).similarity e.g. headquarters, branch plant, sales or logistics, and Cities like Atlanta, Tel Aviv, Seoul and Shanghai only invest in(3) geographical proximity e.g. Amsterdam, Cologne, Antwerp Rotterdam and Frankfurt (label B); while Philadelphia, Miami,and Utrecht. In other words, the degree of network competition Dubai and Hong Kong invest only in Rotterdam and Hamburgbetween cities A and D would be highest if both cities received (label C). The fact that 22 cities invest in Hamburg and Frankfurt,equal sized investments, for the same industrial sectors and func- but not in Rotterdam, shows that Rotterdam is the weaker of thetions, and from the same cities. Applying the above methodology competitors (label D). However, this cluster of investor cities servesto the FDI Markets investment database, the true competitors of as a potential market for Rotterdam’s future development. Thisany city can be identified. The database represents roughly 30 000 can be done by developing marketing strategies and incentives toinvestments (for the period 2000 – 2010) between European cities try to persuade these cities to also invest in Rotterdam. The star-and cities in the rest of the world. clouds indicate single investors of each of the three cities.In this article, Rotterdam’s competitors will be discussed. Firstly a The other condition which makes cities competitors is the simi-three dimensional GIS map has been made of the investments that larity of the industrial sectors investing in them. In the networkhave taken place between European regions during this period diagram (figure 4) it is clear that industries like coal, oil and natu- 5
  6. 6. Figure 5. The geographic location of regional and global investments in Rotterdam, Hamburg and Frankfurt (Source: Wall and Pajevic, 2011) Figure 5: the geographic location of regional and global investments in Rotterdam, Hamburg and F ral gas; financial services; software and IT services; and real estate, more competitive.(Source: Wall andresult2011) smart urban programs that will This can Pajevic, in invest in Rotterdam, Hamburg and Frankfurt alike (label E). As give Rotterdam a competitive edge and which can consequently be can be seen, Rotterdam has very strong investments in the coal, transformed into urban plans and urban designs. oil and natural gas industry. It is evident that industries like phar- maceuticals, aerospace, health care, engines and turbines invest in In this article the complexity of the world of investment has been Hamburg and Frankfurt, but not in Rotterdam (label F). These discussed, but also the powerful influence of this on the develop- can in future serve as potential new industries for Rotterdam’s ment of our cities. More importantly it has been argued that to economic diversification. For instance, the fact that Rotterdam is develop cities we need to complement our understanding of what already strong in the chemical industry should form a strong moti- goes on within a city’s municipal boundaries with knowledge of its vation for attracting the related pharmaceutical industry. relative importance in regional and global arenas8. Methods and Figure 5: the geographic location of regional and global investments in Rotterdam, Hamburg and Frankfurt (Source: Wall and Pajevic, 2011) techniques have briefly been discussed that can gradually enable In the GIS maps (figure 5), the geographic location of the invest- us to understand and manage this complexity. In this context, these ments in Rotterdam, Hamburg and Frankfurt are seen. The color methods and techniques allow us to once again address the issue of coding shows the type of industrial sectors of investments. For whether the city is makeable or not. Although I believe that the total Figure 5: the geographic location of regional and global investments in Rotterdam, Hamburg and Frankfurt instance Rotterdam and Hamburg have strong investments in control of a city’s operations and mechanisms is highly unlikely, the (Source: Wall and Pajevic, 2011) opportunity of exploring novel techniques from other disciplines and combining these “... most cities increasingly imitate each other with mainstream architectural and plan- ning approaches, can contribute to an evolu- and become very similar, instead of identifying tion of these disciplines. The combination of advanced scientific techniques, with creative unique characteristics ...”gure 5: the geographic location of regional and global investments in Rotterdam, Hamburg and Frankfurtource: Wall and Pajevic, 2011) vision, imaginative design, and visualization methods, should help to improve the prob- ability of a city achieving successful develop- transportation (yellow) and in business services (green). This is also ment. In this way, understanding the causal relationships between evident in the network diagram (figure 4). In the map, Frankfurt local geographic space (social, economic, environmental and politi- is weaker on transportation, but much stronger in business ser- cal dimensions) and the relative importance of this within global vices. If we now look deeper into the database, we can see that for networks will also necessitate powerful collaborations between instance Rotterdam’s investors in business services are firms like seemingly unlikely professions, and the foreseeable combination of BNP Paribas, Bank of China, and HLV Trading. This shows that unexpected technologies — the transition of contemporary urban the data can also be used to get highly specific. development, into a more urban geopolitical approach. So far only the investment side of the story has been discussed, and 1 Wall R. S. (2010), ‘We Need Archinomics’, special issue MVRDV Architects (ed), Journal not the urban location factors that attract these investments. How- l’Architecture d’aujourd’hui, Paris ever, these are essential, for it is the similarity of urban location fac- 2 Burger M.J., v.d. Knaap and Wall R.S (2011) Revealed Competition for Greenfield Invest- tors in cities, which creates investment attraction and encourages ments between European Regions. Journal of Economic Geography (under review). competition. Location factors can include e.g. market size, GDP 3 Wall. R.S. and. v.d. Knaap. G.A. (2011), Sectoral Differentiation and Network Structure Within Contemporary Worldwide Corporate Networks. Economic Geography 87-3, 266-308. per capita, wages, corporate taxes, accessibility by air road and rail, 4 Wall. R.S. (2011), The Position of the Dutch North-wing in worldwide M&A networks. Re- language similarity, patents, education levels, export, imports, hous- port for the Ministry of Economic Affairs of The Netherlands. ing quality, environmental indicators, cultural indicators, ameni- 5 Wall. R.S. Burger M.J. and v.d. Knaap. (2011), The Geography of Global Corporate Networks: ties and entertainment levels, quality of built environment, archi- The Poor, the Rich and the Happy Few Countries. Environment and Planning A, 43, 904-927. tectural highlights etc. Using econometric techniques, these factors 6 Martijn J. Burger (2011) Structure and Cooptition in Urban Networks. Rotterdam: ERIM can be tested to see how much each attracts investment. Once the and Haveka Publishers essential factors have been derived, recommendations can be made 7 Wall. R.S. (2009), Netscape: cities and global corporate networks. ERIM and Haveka Publishers to e.g. Rotterdam, as to which economic, social, infrastructural and 8 Wall R. S. (2010, ‘Gulfworld: corporate profiles and networks of Gulf cities’, in Al Manakh 2, environmental programs it should develop in future, so as to make it OMA, Archis/Volume and Pink Tank (Columbia University). 6