Atlantis 22.3 urban economy
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Atlantis is Polis’ magazine which explores the field of urbanism. This issue features an interesting combination of contributors regarding Urban Economy from amongst other John Kasarda, Geoffrey ...

Atlantis is Polis’ magazine which explores the field of urbanism. This issue features an interesting combination of contributors regarding Urban Economy from amongst other John Kasarda, Geoffrey West, Ronald Wall and Eric Luiten. Also Atlantis continued where the Urbanism Week 2011 left off and talked more in depth with some key figures as Henk Ovink, Alfredo Brillembourg and Markus Appenzeller. Chief-editor of volume 22 (2011)

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Atlantis 22.3 urban economy Document Transcript

  • 1. ATLANTIS #22.3 December 2011 Ronald Wall 04 Mike Yin 07 Maurits Schaafsma 09MAGAZINE BY POLIS | PLATFORM FOR URBANISM John Kasarda 12 Atelier Olschinsky 16 Urbanismweek 2011 Urbanismweek 2011 Intro by Jorick Beijer 18 Henk Ovink 21 Alfredo Brillembourg 26 Jaap Modder 29 Markus Appenzeller 30 Tess Broekmans 33 Chris Zevenbergen 36 Hubert Habib 39 MSc Urbanism projects 40 VURB 45 Vincent Schipper 49 Osong Bio Valley 52 Geoffrey West 54 Alex Lehnerer 57 Tim Peeters 58 Eric Luiten 60URBAN ECONOMY 1
  • 2. EditorialIn the previous Atlantis issue we discussed However, urbanism seems to constantly seek The outline for Atlantis volume 22. If youthe tangible subject of urban form. In this for a relevant position. The profession strug- have ideas and would like to contribute, pleaseissue of Atlantis, we will explore the seem- gles with numerous aspects at once: its role do not hesitate to contact us atingly invisible economic forces that shape in the process, its position towards involved atlantis@polistudelft.nl.our cities. The impact of these economic parties, the status of its products, and per-forces on cities is enormous which can haps also a societal recognition as a knowl- ATLANTIS #22.1 April 2011clearly be seen by the effects of the finan- edge-intensive profession. To exchange ideas MAGAZINE BY POLIS | PLATFORM FOR UBANISMcial crisis on cities all over the world. The about this, the Urbanism Week broughtrise and fall of Detroit and Dubai is an together a number of very interesting speak-extreme example of this. Therefore, space ers from all over the world to give theirand economy cannot be considered sepa- view. When the heat of the debates vanished, URBAN SOCIETY 1rate from one another and in this light, the Atlantis spoke more in-depth with theseposition of the urbanist is questioned again: speakers to elaborate on their propositions #22.1 Urban Society“What can urban designers and planners and personal motives. Henk Ovink starts Keywords: society, regeneration, politics, housing,contribute to the urban environment, while with a plea for new alliances in a decentral- neighborhood.this urban environment is increasingly ized government when it comes to designsubject to unpredictable and complex eco- content. Alfredo Brillembourg passionately ATLANTIS #22.1 April 2011nomic forces?” Issue #22.3 Urban Economy speaks about engaging the public in devel- MAGAZINE BY POLIS | PLATFORM FOR UBANISMexplores this question from various perspec- opments, whereas Jaap Modder pleas for atives, by exchanging ideas with students, different role of the government. Markusscholars, designers, politicians, developers Appenzeller argues that there are similari-and engineers. ties in approach despite working in different URBAN SOCIETY 1 cultures, while Hubert Habib, Tess Broek-Ronald Wall will open this issue, by reveal- mans and Chris Zevenbergen discuss the #22.2 Urban Forming the complexity of investments and their future challenges of sustainable living and Keywords: form, density, typologies,effect on cities. Wall pleas for a new set of development in cities. Along these lines, the design, public space, urban techniques.methods and techniques to incorporate the work of TU Delft urbanism students will beknowledge of economic logics into urban exhibited and several visitors and professorsstrategies and designs. According to Wall will reflect on the Urbanism Week. ATLANTIS #22.1 April 2011 MAGAZINE BY POLIS | PLATFORM FOR UBANISMthe power of world cities is essentially rela-tional: cities form nodes of attraction within After contemplating on the role of thea global network of investments, and thus urbanist, VURB discusses techno-socialneed to act accordingly. Not only the tradi- means on vacancy and Vincent Schipper URBAN SOCIETY 1tional cities will form these nodes, but also continues the discussion by looking at thenew urban typologies are attractive to invest city through the metaphor of dance. Geof- #22.3 Urban Economyin. Mike Yin will introduce the airport as frey West, one of the world’s leading physi- Keywords: globalization, urban economy, competi-a new urban centre while Maurits Schaaf- cists of the last decade, recently began study- tiveness, branding, market, role of urbanism, foreignsma further elaborates on the specific case ing the science of urban life and came up direct investment.of Schiphol. John Kasarda, author of the with some remarkable insights. West dis-best-seller Aerotropolis, proposes to bring covered that the reason we all live in cities ATLANTIS #22.1 April 2011together airport planning, urban planning, all have to do with the number 1.15. Alex MAGAZINE BY POLIS | PLATFORM FOR UBANISMand business site planning to eventually Lehnerer presents some provocative globesform true airport cities. The Vienna-based that deal with major themes of the contem-Atelier Olschinsky provides a look into the porary city. To round it off, Eric Luiten, URBAN SOCIETYfictional machine rooms of today’s cities, professor of Cultural Heritage will reflect 1showing their beauty as well as their com- on some of the themes apparent throughoutplexity. Their works provide a triggering this issue. #22.4 Urban Landscapestarting point to further explore the specific Keywords: landscape, metropolitan, urban-rural, bio-role of the urbanist in these machine rooms. Jasper Nijveldt diversity, border conditions.2
  • 3. From the board Committees 2011‘So, you are an urbanist?!’ The Urbanism Week 2011 was an We could not be as visible as we are withoutunforgettable event for everyone with a fascination for the (un)built the great effort of a lot of active students. Inenvironment. Polis Platform for Urbanism is proud to build the the last 10 months Polis was able to organize aplatform for knowledge exchange and offers you the chance to look big trip to Vienna, excursions to Antwerp andback and ahead. Urbanism Week 2011 has made its statement in the Amsterdam North, a double lecture on digitalfaculty and outside. So, you are an urbanist?! was the discussion urbanism, the Roadshow on sustainablethat sounded in the corridors in the last months. During the last planning, a case study on Spoorzone Delft andweek of September Polis built the physical platform for international of course Urbanism Week 2011. The Polisdiscussion about the (un)built environment. What does it mean to be board wants to thank all the people involvedan urbanist? The keynote speakers brought us a sharp and inspiring for their great efforts and positive input!view of the world of urbanism. We are always looking for enthusiasticWhat is your discipline? What does the ‘urban’ do for you? What is people to join. Interested in one of the Polisthe profession really about? But what made the Urbanism Week really committees or becoming the new board ofspecial were the audiences whom actively took part in the debate during 2012? Don’t hesitate to contact us at ourthe whole week. It resulted in a sharp and inspiring discussion about the Polis office (01west350) or by mail: contact@essence of urbanism and the role of the urbanist. The critical discussion polistudelft.nlhas reached not only the students and the academic field but also theprofessionals in practice. Urbanism Week has shown what Polis stands Urbanism Week. Arie Stobbe, Jorick Beijer,for as an active platform for urbanism: yes, i am an urbanist!! Karien Hofhuis, Vera Konings, Tim Ruijs & Noor Scheltema.For those who unfortunately missed the Urbanism Week 2011 orthose who would like to re-experience the whole week again Polis has Lectures. This committee is looking for newgood news. The videos of all the lectures as well as photos of the whole enthusiasts! Let us know if you want to joinweek are available online at the Urbanism Week website. Visit the them and organise more interesting lectures!website to revisit the Urbanism Week 2011: www.urbanismweek.nl Excursions. After the great success of the bigPolis is proud to present to you two special editions of Atlantis trip to Vienna this committee will organisemagazine this year. Both issues 22.3 and 22.4 will flashback on two great events for the coming months. Atthe Urbanism Week and will continue where Urbanism week the end of this year we will visit Maastrichtleft off. The Urbanism Week keynote speakers and debaters will & Luik and in the 2012 we will go to Berlin!look back and ahead in the interviews and essays you can find in Hannah Cremers, Gijs Briet, Andre Kroese,this magazine. For us this is rather important, because Polis highly Verena Roell & Wieke Villerius, Feddyvalues its members and wants to keep in touch after the Urbanism Garofalo.Week. Polis aims to extend our platform online, so please visit us atthe Polis website (www.polistudelft.nl) and connect to our Linkedin Borrel. Nazanin Hemmati, Ani Skachokovaand Facebook group to keep updated and join the discussion! Let the & Laurens de Lange. Are you a Msc1 studentdebate continue! and interested in organizing borrels? Please contact us!Urban greetings from the Polis board 2011, Atlantis. Jasper Nijveldt, Jan Breukelman,Jorick Beijer, Karien Hofhuis, Vera Konings, Tim Ruijs & Noor Edwin Hans, Jan Wilbers, Mike Yin, SangScheltema Huyn Lee. 3
  • 4. Urban geopolitics Dr. Ronald Wall Architect and Economic Geographer IHS/Erasmus UniversityUrban Competitiveness and the Global Economic Network wall@ihs.nlIn this article I argue that cities are increasingly affected by exter- cymakers persistently assume that cities are in equal competitionnal, seemingly invisible, political, economic, cultural, social, and with each other and consequently apply generic approaches to theenvironmental forces, and that policymakers, urban planners and development of their cities e.g. ‘creative cities’, ‘green cities’ andarchitects may need to explore new methods and techniques to ‘sustainable cities’. In this manner most cities increasingly imitateincorporate this type of knowledge into their urban strategies and each other and become very similar, instead of identifying uniquedesigns. However, I will not elaborate on the theory behind this characteristics that would make them different and enable a com-argument and instead will focus more on a practical example. For petitive advantage.those interested in a theoretical explanation, this can be found in‘We Need Archinomics’1. Despite the increasing mobility of capital, only a few cities can sat- isfy the specific requirements of large firms to invest in particu-In a world in which the mobility of capital steadily increases, cities lar projects abroad. Depending on a firm’s industrial sector, e.g.compete more than ever in attracting capital flows, mostly in the chemicals, semiconductors, oil-extraction or advanced businessform of investments2. In this sense, the power of world cities is services, it will seek different urban qualities in a city. Indeed, vari-essentially relational: cities do not have power in isolation, but have ous studies show that it is best for cities to attract investments thatpower to the extent that they form points of attraction and com- complement their existing or potential economic functions. In thismand within the global network of investments3. To improve their way, cities with the same type of economic functions can to someposition within this network, cities need to improve their ability to degree be considered to be true competitors as they have similarsuccessfully compete with each other, i.e. create competitive advan- endowments to attract the same kind of investors. Cities with dis-tage over others. To do this today, policymakers use incentive based similar economic functions are not competitors and can thereforepolicies e.g. subsidies and taxes, but also capacity-building policies, be considered complimentary to the extent that they exploit dif-such as physical infrastructure, public transportation, and human ferent sources of investment, and hereby fulfill different economicresource development to improve a city’s ability to attract invest- roles within the urban system. Furthermore, empirical researchments. Furthermore, marketing and branding strategies have has indeed revealed that cities are not all in competition with eachbecome a ‘booming business’, with the endeavor to boost a city’s other, and instead each city has only a handful of true competitors4.attractiveness for business. However, a major problem of these Hence, by using econometric techniques for example, the competi-policies and strategies, is that they are over-generalized, hereby tors of a city can be identified within the entire global network ofnot specifying a city’s true competitors, nor the type of investments investments. Based on this specific knowledge, detailed case stud-that are being contested amongst cities. In other words, urban poli- ies can be carried out on its competitors to find out (i) exactly whichFigure 1. The geographic location of regional and global investments in Rotterdam, Hamburg and Frankfurt (Wall and Pajevic, 2011)4
  • 5. New Delhi Stockholm Eindhoven Epsom Marseille Beverly Hills Purchasefirms are investing in them, (ii) what type of economic, infrastruc- Redmond Austin New Orleans Basking Ridge Voorburg Houston Wellington Regina Newburyport Amsterdam Raleigh Westlake Village Roskilde Schindellegi Seattle Nova Prata Vienna Vaduz D Wilmington Turin Ozorkowtural, social and environmental functions in these cities are attract- Nantes Hamilton Pune Zeist Massy Tallinn Vaasa Rochester Fairfield Rockville York Zurich Windsor Vevey Washington Westborough Yokohama Piscataway Waltham Brussels Xiamen Utrecht Northbrook San Diego Den Haag Toronto Scottsdaleing the investments, and (iii) which functions need to be developed Parsippany Copenhagen Cambridge Rotkreuz Milan Dublin Stockholm Muttenz Slough New Delhi Saint Petersburg White Plains Pino Torinese Gouda St Louis RigaEindhoven Epsom Marseille Beverly Hills Valencia Purchase Pittsburgh Austin New Orleans Redmond Basking Ridge Montreal Shenzhen Malagna Hull Voorburg Sydney Houston Hartford Naperville Regina Osaka Newburyport Sunnyvaleso as to attract new investments. Based on this knowledge, a city TaipeiWellington Amsterdam Raleigh Leamington Spa Hwaseong Westlake Village Sundsvall Athens Nishio Roskilde Schindellegi Seattle Nantes Nova Prata Minneapolis Vienna Chicago Vaduz Indianapolis Hamilton D Zeist SpringfieldOzorkow Wilmington Turin Pune Massy Mumbai Niederwangen Amstelveen Kiryu Ipswich Clichy Tallinn Vaasa Fairfield York Rochester Rockville Nieuwegein Zurichcan develop targeted urban programs, policies, plans and mar- Hsinchu Windsor Westborough Rome Hamburg Vevey Washington Moscow Piscataway Yokohama Johannesburg Brussels Xiamen Utrecht Nijmegen Northbrook A Waltham Aalborg London Itasca San Diego Den Haag Toronto Scottsdale Southfield Jersey City Parsippany Memphis Copenhagen Santa Clara Minato-ku Cambridge Rotkreuz Milan Humlebaek Cardiff Beijing Dublin Muttenz Frankfurt Slough Luxembourg Boston Saint Petersburg White Plainsketing strategies that will give it a future competitive advantage Gouda St Louis Riga Hilversum Valencia Pino Torinese Lawrenceville Leuven Addison New York Pittsburgh Siena Blagnac San Mateo Montreal Shenzhen Milwaukee Malagna Hull Sydney Hartford Mansbach Lund Cerritos Naperville Tokyo Sunnyvale Mountain View Taipei Osaka Bath Baden Marlborough Leamington Spa Bloomfield Hills Paris Minneapolis Mumbai Nishio Springfield Madrid Southborough Niederwangen Amstelveen Sundsvall Town Cape Chicago Le Plessis-Robinsonover its competitors. Therefore, a good understanding of competi- Chippenham Hwaseong Indianapolis Atlanta Basel Athens Oslo Hong Kong Tel Aviv Kiryu Menlo Park Ipswich Clichy Aimargues Dallas Greenwood Village Barcelona Dubai Los Angeles Kinnarp Nieuwegein Hsinchu Decatur Rome B Al-Kuwait San Francisco Hamburg Seoul Moscow Belgrade Johannesburg Miami Zug Minsk Espoo Nijmegen A Londontion within the global investment network will clear the path to Malmo Aalborg Shanghai Broomfield Southfield Jersey City C Itasca Philadelphia El Segundo Memphis Baltimore Deerfield Clara Cleveland Santa Minato-ku Humlebaek Cardiff Beijing Frankfurt Fukuoka Luxembourg Boston Linz Lawrenceville Leuven Addison Hilversum Chiyoda-Ku New York Siena Bangalore Manama Rockford Blagnac Rotterdam San Mateo Milwaukee Brighton Mansbachsmarter, more goal-directed and effective urban planning, urban Cerritos Lund Tokyo Newark Baden Abingdon Marlborough Mountain View Ichikawa BathFoster City Bloomfield Hills Paris Baku AberdeenSouthborough Cincinnati Madrid Chippenham Cape Town Le Plessis-Robinson Jakarta Atlanta Auckland Boca Raton Basel Oslo Hong Kong Tel Aviv Menlo Park Dallas Gwacheon Greenwood Villagedesign and policy-making5. In this sense, ‘form follows function Aimargues Barcelona Dubai Los Angeles Kinnarp Decatur B Al-Kuwait San Francisco Seoul Belgrade Southampton Miami Zug Espoo Minsk Malmo Shanghai Broomfield C Philadelphia El Segundo Kolkata Baltimore Deerfield Cleveland Duisburgfollows flows’. Antwerp Fukuoka Linz Seville Chiyoda-Ku Bangalore Manama Brighton Rockford Dusseldorf Rio de Janeiro Rotterdam Birmingham Lysaker Ichikawa Newark Foster City Abingdon Johor Bahru Aberdeen Baku Reykjavik Cincinnati Jakarta Gent Salvador Fischamend Auckland Boca Raton Irving Arhus Gwacheon Koln Bucharest SouthamptonCombining insights from international economics, business man- Kolkata Figure 3: investments from various cities to Rotterdam and its competitors Hamburg and Frankfurt Duisburg Antwerp (Source: Wall and Pajevic, 2011) Sevilleagement, urban development and urban network literature, an Figure 3. Investments from various cities to Rotterdam and its competitors Ham- Dusseldorf Rio de Janeiro Metals Birmingham Lysaker Johor Bahru Rotterdam Reykjavik Gent Salvador Fischamendindicator has been developed to measure competition between burg and Frankfurt (Wall and Pajevic, 2011) Irving Arhus Koln Bucharestcities for investments6. Unlike previous competitive advantage Figure 3:Wall and Pajevic, 2011) cities to Rotterdam and its competitors Hamburg and Frankfurt (Source: investments from various Metals Coal, Oil and Natural Gasapproaches that only compare cities by the strengths of their urban G Warehousing & Storage Rotterdam Financial Services Software & IT services Textilesindicators, the new model measures a city’s competitive impor- Non-Automotive Transport OEM Chemicals Hotels & Tourismtance relative to other cities in the global network. This results in E Semiconductors Coal, Oil and Natural Gas Industrial Machinery, Equipment & Tools Alternative/Renewable energy Wood Products Transportation Services Financial Plastics Ga network measure which in its simplest form is explained by the Business Services Rubber Software & IT services Automotive Components Warehousing & Storage Communications Textiles Chemicals Food & Tobacco Automotive OEMdiagram below (figure 1). The seven cities (A-G) are hypotheti- Beverages Non-Automotive Transport OEM Hamburg Real Estate Hotels & Tourism E Semiconductors Leisure & Entertainment Frankfurt Industrial Machinery, Equipment & Tools Alternative/Renewable energy Space & Defencecally connected by investments made by firms in these cities. Cities Wood Products Medical Devices Rubber Transportation Business Services Plastics Paper, Printing & Packaging Automotive Components Pharmaceuticals Communications A and G have different cities investing Electronic Components Aerospace Food & Tobacco Consumer Electronics Automotive OEM F Beverages Biotechnology Hamburg Healthcare Real Estate in them and therefore have a 0% market Space & Defence Leisure & Entertainment Engines & Turbines Frankfurt Consumer Products Business Machines & Equipment Paper, Printing & Packaging overlap. In other words, they are not com- Medical Devices Pharmaceuticals Electronic Components Aerospace Consumer Electronics Figure 4: investments from various industrial sectors to Rotterdam and its competitors Hamburg and Frankfurt petitors at all. Cities B and C have the same (Source: Wall and Pajevic, 2011) F Biotechnology Healthcare Engines & Turbines Consumer Products cities investing in them and hereby have a Business Machines & Equipment 100% market overlap. In this sense, they Figure investments from various from various industrialcompetitors Hamburg and Frankfurt and its competi- Figure 4: 4. Investments industrial sectors to Rotterdam and its sectors to Rotterdam (Source: Wall and Pajevic, 2011) are perfect competitors. Cities A and D are tors Hamburg and Frankfurt (Wall and Pajevic, 2011) partly linked to the same cities and there- fore have a partial overlap which can range (figure 1). The darker the region and the higher its red node is between 0 and 100%. In previous studies, positioned, the stronger it is in attracting investments. The link- it is shown that cities tend to only have a ages (in red) represent the total investments taking place betweenFigure 2. Diagram to handful of true competitors. For instance, regions and it is clear from the map that Europe’s core investmentexplain network compe- Rotterdam’s competitors are not Dutch axis runs between London and Milan, incorporating areas like thetition (Burger, Wall and cities, as is often assumed, but cities like Randstad, Ruhr area, Flemish Diamond, and Paris. A video of thisv.d. Knaap 2010 7) Frankfurt, Hamburg and Prague. can be seen at http://www.tinyurl.com/3jggslo.Nonetheless, the competition model is more complex than this, In the network diagram (figure 3), we see two of the importantas it also requires other conditions to properly measure competi- competitors of Rotterdam, namely Hamburg and Frankfurt. Theytion between cities i.e. (1) sectoral similarity of investments e.g. are competitors because other cities like Moscow, London, Beijing,transport, manufacturing, legal services or trade, (2) functional New York, Tokyo and Paris invest in all three of them (label A).similarity e.g. headquarters, branch plant, sales or logistics, and Cities like Atlanta, Tel Aviv, Seoul and Shanghai only invest in(3) geographical proximity e.g. Amsterdam, Cologne, Antwerp Rotterdam and Frankfurt (label B); while Philadelphia, Miami,and Utrecht. In other words, the degree of network competition Dubai and Hong Kong invest only in Rotterdam and Hamburgbetween cities A and D would be highest if both cities received (label C). The fact that 22 cities invest in Hamburg and Frankfurt,equal sized investments, for the same industrial sectors and func- but not in Rotterdam, shows that Rotterdam is the weaker of thetions, and from the same cities. Applying the above methodology competitors (label D). However, this cluster of investor cities servesto the FDI Markets investment database, the true competitors of as a potential market for Rotterdam’s future development. Thisany city can be identified. The database represents roughly 30 000 can be done by developing marketing strategies and incentives toinvestments (for the period 2000 – 2010) between European cities try to persuade these cities to also invest in Rotterdam. The star-and cities in the rest of the world. clouds indicate single investors of each of the three cities.In this article, Rotterdam’s competitors will be discussed. Firstly a The other condition which makes cities competitors is the simi-three dimensional GIS map has been made of the investments that larity of the industrial sectors investing in them. In the networkhave taken place between European regions during this period diagram (figure 4) it is clear that industries like coal, oil and natu- 5
  • 6. Figure 5. The geographic location of regional and global investments in Rotterdam, Hamburg and Frankfurt (Source: Wall and Pajevic, 2011) Figure 5: the geographic location of regional and global investments in Rotterdam, Hamburg and F ral gas; financial services; software and IT services; and real estate, more competitive.(Source: Wall andresult2011) smart urban programs that will This can Pajevic, in invest in Rotterdam, Hamburg and Frankfurt alike (label E). As give Rotterdam a competitive edge and which can consequently be can be seen, Rotterdam has very strong investments in the coal, transformed into urban plans and urban designs. oil and natural gas industry. It is evident that industries like phar- maceuticals, aerospace, health care, engines and turbines invest in In this article the complexity of the world of investment has been Hamburg and Frankfurt, but not in Rotterdam (label F). These discussed, but also the powerful influence of this on the develop- can in future serve as potential new industries for Rotterdam’s ment of our cities. More importantly it has been argued that to economic diversification. For instance, the fact that Rotterdam is develop cities we need to complement our understanding of what already strong in the chemical industry should form a strong moti- goes on within a city’s municipal boundaries with knowledge of its vation for attracting the related pharmaceutical industry. relative importance in regional and global arenas8. Methods and Figure 5: the geographic location of regional and global investments in Rotterdam, Hamburg and Frankfurt (Source: Wall and Pajevic, 2011) techniques have briefly been discussed that can gradually enable In the GIS maps (figure 5), the geographic location of the invest- us to understand and manage this complexity. In this context, these ments in Rotterdam, Hamburg and Frankfurt are seen. The color methods and techniques allow us to once again address the issue of coding shows the type of industrial sectors of investments. For whether the city is makeable or not. Although I believe that the total Figure 5: the geographic location of regional and global investments in Rotterdam, Hamburg and Frankfurt instance Rotterdam and Hamburg have strong investments in control of a city’s operations and mechanisms is highly unlikely, the (Source: Wall and Pajevic, 2011) opportunity of exploring novel techniques from other disciplines and combining these “... most cities increasingly imitate each other with mainstream architectural and plan- ning approaches, can contribute to an evolu- and become very similar, instead of identifying tion of these disciplines. The combination of advanced scientific techniques, with creative unique characteristics ...”gure 5: the geographic location of regional and global investments in Rotterdam, Hamburg and Frankfurtource: Wall and Pajevic, 2011) vision, imaginative design, and visualization methods, should help to improve the prob- ability of a city achieving successful develop- transportation (yellow) and in business services (green). This is also ment. In this way, understanding the causal relationships between evident in the network diagram (figure 4). In the map, Frankfurt local geographic space (social, economic, environmental and politi- is weaker on transportation, but much stronger in business ser- cal dimensions) and the relative importance of this within global vices. If we now look deeper into the database, we can see that for networks will also necessitate powerful collaborations between instance Rotterdam’s investors in business services are firms like seemingly unlikely professions, and the foreseeable combination of BNP Paribas, Bank of China, and HLV Trading. This shows that unexpected technologies — the transition of contemporary urban the data can also be used to get highly specific. development, into a more urban geopolitical approach. So far only the investment side of the story has been discussed, and 1 Wall R. S. (2010), ‘We Need Archinomics’, special issue MVRDV Architects (ed), Journal not the urban location factors that attract these investments. How- l’Architecture d’aujourd’hui, Paris ever, these are essential, for it is the similarity of urban location fac- 2 Burger M.J., v.d. Knaap and Wall R.S (2011) Revealed Competition for Greenfield Invest- tors in cities, which creates investment attraction and encourages ments between European Regions. Journal of Economic Geography (under review). competition. Location factors can include e.g. market size, GDP 3 Wall. R.S. and. v.d. Knaap. G.A. (2011), Sectoral Differentiation and Network Structure Within Contemporary Worldwide Corporate Networks. Economic Geography 87-3, 266-308. per capita, wages, corporate taxes, accessibility by air road and rail, 4 Wall. R.S. (2011), The Position of the Dutch North-wing in worldwide M&A networks. Re- language similarity, patents, education levels, export, imports, hous- port for the Ministry of Economic Affairs of The Netherlands. ing quality, environmental indicators, cultural indicators, ameni- 5 Wall. R.S. Burger M.J. and v.d. Knaap. (2011), The Geography of Global Corporate Networks: ties and entertainment levels, quality of built environment, archi- The Poor, the Rich and the Happy Few Countries. Environment and Planning A, 43, 904-927. tectural highlights etc. Using econometric techniques, these factors 6 Martijn J. Burger (2011) Structure and Cooptition in Urban Networks. Rotterdam: ERIM can be tested to see how much each attracts investment. Once the and Haveka Publishers essential factors have been derived, recommendations can be made 7 Wall. R.S. (2009), Netscape: cities and global corporate networks. ERIM and Haveka Publishers to e.g. Rotterdam, as to which economic, social, infrastructural and 8 Wall R. S. (2010, ‘Gulfworld: corporate profiles and networks of Gulf cities’, in Al Manakh 2, environmental programs it should develop in future, so as to make it OMA, Archis/Volume and Pink Tank (Columbia University). 6
  • 7. Airport as CityMike YinArchitecture student Explore Lab tional corporations. The World Trade Center Schiphol bridges directly in to the terminal complex and is the most expensive office space in the Netherlands. Next door are Hilton and Sheraton hotels. Zuid-As is an eight-minute train ride away, base to companies such as ING, ABN-Amro and Akzo Nobel. Adjacent to Frankfurt Airport is Gateway Gardens, a 35 hectare business district that includes The Squaire, a remarkable 660m long building that straddles the train station. Marketed as ‘a complete city under one roof’ it accommodates 7,000 people both working and living in its offices and two Hilton hotels. It is also comprised of retail and service areas, gyms, kindergartens and medical facilities. The building is significant enough to warrant its own postcode.Figure 1. Songdo City in South Korea under construction, an airport-centric city to be completed in 2015. (Gale In the Middle East and Asia this trend isinternational and tk/pr public relations) also evident, only on a far larger scale. Greg Lindsay considers Dubai as “an airline and anThe airport city is a two-fold phenomenon: the taxi in to the city and participants can fly airport with a city attached to it.” Emirates isthe areas surrounding the airport develop back home the same day. the largest long-haul airline in the world anddue to their proximity and accessibility A new business passenger profile has Dubai International Airport is the busiest air-to the terminal complex, and the termi- emerged, glamourised by the 2009 film Up port in the Middle East. Capitalising on itsnal complex itself develops in to a pseudo- in the Air, where George Clooney plays a location as the crucial trade link between Easturban centre. This situation is manifest to nomadic businessman who flies 320 days a and West, it is a city of ‘free-zones’ - businessvarying extents in all major airports of the year across the US. Back in the real world, districts filled with expatriates that impose noworld today. In many cases, the resultant in Microsoft’s offices in Schiphol, meetings tariffs, corporate or personal income taxes, oragglomeration resembles a city in terms of are held face-to-face with colleagues from censorship on its inhabitants. Rem Koolhaasscale, ‘population’ (staff and travellers), Seattle and across Europe who then fly back observes: “Almost everybody who lives ininfrastructural connectivity and spatial qual- the same day. Dubai also lives somewhere else...The actuality. As the world becomes more globalised As airports are typically surrounded by inhabitation of the city is a fraction of its max-and the demand for air travel continues its hundreds, even thousands of hectares of imum capacity.” Dubai is an instant city inupward trajectory it seems that we are wit- undeveloped land there is enormous oppor- the middle of the desert.nessing only the beginning of a new urban tunity for real estate development. This Moving further East, Songdo in Southtypology with global implications that are development tends to take the form of office Korea, next to Incheon International Air-not yet fully known. blocks, hotels, convention centres, free trade port is a 600 hectare city mushroomed from zones, logistics hubs, medical facilities, shop- nothing in just over a decade, catering toAirport area as airport city ping malls, and golf courses; much like Joel the international business community. It Garreau’s concept of the ‘edge city’. includes luxury hotels, shopping malls,The logical conclusion of a world connected Schiphol is surrounded by business and museums, international schools, a conven-by fibre-optic cables and aeroplanes is the logistics complexes, with outposts for transna- tion centre, and a golf club.development of cities around airports. Thecurrent thinking in this domain is business-centric. Companies that locate near to air- “In Microsoft’s offices in Schiphol, meetings are held face-ports can operate more efficiently: they aremore connected to clients and staff from to-face with colleagues from Seattle and across Europeabroad, meetings can be conducted face-to-face without the additional time and cost for who then fly back the same day.” 7
  • 8. Most recently, signs of construction areemerging towards the South of Beijing forwhat is anticipated to be the world’s largestaviation hub. An article in The Guardianfrom September 2011 reads: “On the roadside,labourers are building an elaborate 10m-highsteel and concrete map of the world topped bygiant red characters declaring: ‘Constructionof a New Airport City for the Capital. ’” The airport city is not just a buzz-word. Itis fast emerging as the only template for thefuture of the airport and can be seen as part ofthe next logical phase of globalisation.Airport terminal as urban centre Figure 2. Changi Airports pool (Changi Airport Group Singapore)Catching a flight at Schiphol first involves story, of terminals absorbing unusual, city- they are still only places of transit. It will bearriving by car, train, bus or even bike like activities. Dubai International Airport interesting to see if this situation will change(there are cycling routes) and entering the contains a 350-unit, one kilometre-long in the coming decades.terminal complex via Schiphol Plaza, a duty-free shopping corridor comprised of aforty-unit shopping mall before check-in. myriad of the world’s highest-end brands. The market has spokenThere is a branch of the bank ABN-Amro, Hong Kong International Airport’s shop-a Panorama Terrace for plane spotting and ping arcade includes luxury clothiers such The main reason for the broadening of theart installations by contemporary artists as Chanel, Dior and Louis Vuitton. Frank- programmatic scope of airports is due tosuch as Jenny Holzer. After check-in there furt Airport has the world’s largest airport governmental deregulation and their sub-is a library, casino, gallery space, medita- clinic, treating over 36,000 patients annu- sequent privatisation. This began in 1978tion room, spa, showers, capsule hotel, ally. In Singapore Changi Airport there is, in the U.S. when President Jimmy Carterconference centre, duty-free shops, vari- remarkably, a tropical butterfly garden, koi deregulated domestic airlines. Intra-Euro-ous themed waiting lounges (including one pond and numerous other themed gardens pean market liberalisation followed, reach-modelled as a park), an oxygen bar, as well alongside cinemas, saunas and a rooftop ing its completion in 1997.as several sponsored pop-up installations. swimming pool. In order to remain competitive in theBehind the scenes there is an intake for the The airport city is a unique form of urban- market, airports now need to look towardshomeless and a mortuary with the capacity ism. It is a city with no residents. Its popula- non-aviation sources of revenue to fuel fur-for forty bodies. Schiphol even has its own tion is a transitory one of workers and pas- ther expansion and maintain their existingwedding service. It is clear that the contem- sengers that pass through and leave every day. assets. Schiphol is very much at the forefrontporary airport is moving far beyond its tra- Despite the urbanisation and place-making of of this trend. It is a private company thatditional role as a pure transport hub. airports that is happening globally, no airport happens to have the State of the Netherlands In other major airports it is the same has yet become a destination in and of itself - and the City of Amsterdam as its principal shareholders. Yet the state is not allowed to use its leverage as a stakeholder for political means, only to act in the interests of the com- pany. Schiphol has its own real estate group that develops, manages, operates and invests in property at and around airports both in the Netherlands and abroad. Schiphol Area Development Company (SADC) is a col- laboration with the City of Amsterdam, Municipality of Haarlemmermeer and the Province of Noord-Holland, blurring the distinction between public and private. Its portfolio consists of property in and around Schiphol and as far as Sweden, Hong Kong and Indonesia. The airport has now reached the scale and influence of a regional gov- ernmental body and it is not slowing down.Figure 3 Changi Airports butterfly garden (Changi Airport Group Singapore) This is the future of the airport city.8
  • 9. Schiphol: Airport City, Airport Corridor Interview with Maurits SchaafsmaFor this issue of Urban Economy, Atlantis went to Amster- Can you envisage Schiphol becoming more literally like adam Airport Schiphol to interview Maurits Schaafsma and city — a destination in and of itself? Can you imagine peoplediscover the role of the airport in the globalised world. Mau- living here?rits Schaafsma is an urbanist who works as Senior Advisorfor Schiphol Group’s Corporate Development department. “Actually people do live here, but only for a short period of time in aHe oversees the architecture, urban design and regional hotel or hotel apartment. I think urbanism is more about interaction;planning of Schiphol and coordinates Schiphol’s desired between different people, different companies; and the contemporaryphysical planning frame with the City of Amsterdam, the airport has become a very important point of interaction. In that sense,Municipality of Haarlemmermeer, national as well as other it’s already urban. So although people don’t live here permanently, manyinvolved regional authorities of the Netherlands. He builds companies are permanently located here. It’s now widely recognisedon the existing AirportCity concept with a focus on master within the field of urban development that the interaction, the urban lifeplanning on the land side. This is an area that is increas- of many people is now more connected to their workplace than theiringly absorbing city-like, non-aviation activities to emerge home, and that’s the kind of urbanism we do have here; in our businessas a new urban typology. Maurits Schaafsma aims to take parks, in our World Trade Center, in the whole AirportCity. I think thethe AirportCity a step further. fringes of Schiphol are really not so different from any major town. Just look at where Schiphol already physically ‘touches’ the city of Hoofd-Does Schiphol have an in-house urbanism department? dorp, Zuid-As and the South of Amsterdam.”“We, Schiphol Group, are responsible for the overall vision which I would argue that the business parks and city edges thatis the basis for our master planning and urban design. We develop you describe lack the functional diversity, the sheer vitalitythe programme, the location of functions, the concept and then work of cities to be considered truly urban. Is there any ambitionclosely with professional urbanists and architects in order to realise to capture this kind of urbanity?our vision. So we have Kees Christiaanse from KCAP as our super-visor of architecture and urban design, Jan Benthem from Benthem "Yes, and I think that it’s actually happening automatically. Before, in theCrouwel as our terminal architect and Adriaan Geuze from West 8 as our Netherlands, there was a strong tendency to create mono-functionallandscape architect. We meet with this team often; sometimes once or environments: mono-functional office parks, mono-functional housingtwice a week. It’s through this framework that we created our AirportCity.” areas - the separation of functions went very far in this country. Today, people are not attracted to these kinds of areas, whether to work or live.What is the Airport City concept? To hire the best employees you need to have an attractive work environ- ment. Coupled with the increasing need for companies to interact with“While the basic role of the airport is a gateway connecting the met- each other, we witness the development of business clusters in whichropolitan region to the world, it developed in the eighties to become a diversity of activities is created and these previously mono-functionalwhat we call a Mainport. Schiphol grew significantly in terms of eco- areas start to change in character. The Netherlands is now sufferingnomic importance during this time, mainly in connection with increas- from a crisis in the office market: there are too many offices. What weing activities in the area of logistics and transportation. The demand are trying to do together with the city of Haarlemmermeer, the city offor air cargo was growing and Schiphol became home base for “...it’s an environment of interaction...multinationals in the field of logistics and IT. By the nineties the Air-portCity concept was fully developed. It was offering retail and com-mercial services to passengers while Schiphol was becoming a prime Maybe this is a new kind of urbanity.”location for doing business. So the airport and its surroundings arebecoming more and more an urban entity.” 9
  • 10. Figure 1. Amsterdam Schiphol Airport City (Schiphol Group)Amsterdam and the Province of North Holland Is there a tension between develop-is to use this crisis to improve the quality of the ment on the landside and expansion on Schiphol in Numberstypical office parks around the airport by devel- the airside? What happens when youoping more mixed programmes – for example run out of space? Revenue for 2010 1.2 biln eurosby introducing hotels. So we are looking for, Sources of Revenuewhat you could call, a “backwards urbanisa- “There is sufficient availability of build- Aviation: 58%tion” in these existing areas. I think it’s all about ing land. On the landside you can always Consumers: 23%fostering interaction. You see these incredible increase the density of development by put- Real Estate: 12%knowledge clusters in German and Scandina- ting parking facilities below ground and real Alliances and Participations: 7%vian cities where universities, government and estate on top. Development and expansion Passenger capacity 2020 70mcorporations all work together: These truly are are also gradual processes: In her building Number of Airport Staff 59,808environments of interaction. I think we will see priorities Schiphol focuses on quality and Size of Airport City 2,787 hectaresmany more of these environments in the future. functionality. Number of Companies in Airport CityThis development could very well be a new In our master planning we always make 514kind of urbanity.” sure to separate the commercial develop- Runways 6 ment from the operation of the airport by Parking spaces 36,949To what scale does Schiphol intend to zoning. On the one hand you want to make Flights in 2010 402,375expand in the coming decades? mixed environments, but you also want to Destinations 301 safeguard the space necessary for the air-“Amsterdam Airport Schiphol will welcome port operation; aprons and runways are Schiphols Shareholders49 million passengers in 2011. We are prime functionalities of an airport.” State of the Netherlands 70%allowed to grow further, and will be able to Municipality of Amsterdam 20%accommodate 580,000 air transport move- Is there an ambition to expand the Aéroports de Paris 8%ments, of which 70,000 will take place at the non-aviation parts of the terminal, like Municipality of Rotterdam 2%regional airports of Lelystad and Eindhoven – Schiphol Plaza for example?also owned and operated by Schiphol Group. Source: Schiphol Group Facts & Fig-We will be able to grow, though in a selective “There’s no ambition to make it twice as big ures 2010and sustainable way.” or three times as big - it will follow the market.10
  • 11. “The urban life of many people is now more connected to their workplace than their home...”Figure 2. Zuidas Amsterdam (Skyscrapercity Momo1435)I think Schiphol Plaza will grow with the airport. That comes with the “Not yet. We are working on that now. We are still using the masterfunctionality of an airport: the focus on passengers, meters, greeters, plan from the 1980s. The new Masterplan is to be presented earlybusinesses, employees. And that is our function, that is our focus: to be 2012. This new Masterplan will define our directions up to 2025.”an airport. With the ambiance of a city, an AirportCity.” How would you say the passenger profile of Schiphol hasWhat changes will be made to the terminal in the coming changed over the years?decades? “60% of the passengers travel for reasons of leisure (holiday, visits of“We are preparing a plan now to redevelop the older parts of the termi- friends or family). Flying has become a commodity. I think the biggestnal from the sixties and seventies, namely Departure Lounge 2.” change has been in the way we as passengers acquire information, which is through our mobile devices. This has huge implications for the wholeDo you think it’s acceptable that Schiphol continually con- operation of the airport. Maybe in the future there will be less check-insumes the Green Heart? Is there an alternative strategy? counters because you can do it anywhere - at home or on your handheld. Things like this will completely change the character of the terminal.”“Actually we are not in the Green Heart. If you look at the exactborder, we are outside. Our strategy is to intensify land use and grow What about in business - are we starting to see an influx oftowards Amsterdam, developing a compact metropolitan region. It’s globetrotting business men and women?an unavoidable fact that we are part of this metropolitan region andwill continue to be.” “Yes definitely, you see that happening in Schiphol a lot. Microsoft has offices here and they often hold meetings where somebody’s comingHow far do you typically have to plan ahead for an airport? from Seattle, others are coming from across Europe, they have a meet- ing and they all fly home on the same day. Transnational corporations in“Very, very far ahead. You have to plan at least 20 years ahead for Zuidas do it too. That’s what the AirportCity makes possible because it’smajor developments. If you hold a reservation you want to hold on to it so efficient and of high quality. It’s a place of interaction. The mostIf you give it up you can never make it again so we keep reservations important is the first class network of destinations and frequencies thatfor really long periods of time.” Schiphol has to offer. Schiphol connects the world to the Randstad and the Netherlands, and connects the Netherlands to all important eco-So is there a comprehensive masterplan for 2030, say? nomic centres abroad.” MIKE YIN 11
  • 12. Aerotropolis: The Way We’llLive Next? Interview with John D. KasardaJohn D. Kasarda is co-author of the new food we eat, the medications we take, thebook Aerotropolis, an astonishing trea- entertainment we view, and the cultural diver-tise on the metropolis of the future and sity we absorb. The idea of a local, self-sus-the integral role of the airport. Kasarda taining city (even if feasible much beyond aargues “Look for yesterdays busiest commune) would likely attract only a tiny frac-train terminals and you will find todays ture of people since most desire and seek thegreat urban centers. Look for todays benefits globalization brings to them.busiest airports and you will find the This is not to say that there are not costsgreat urban centers of tomorrow.” In his to globalization or that moving toward a morecareer he has consulted with four White sustainable urban environment is not a criti-House administrations and advised cally important goal. It is to say, though, thatcompanies such as Boeing, FedEx and globalization and local well-being are notBank of America. He is a professor mutually exclusive and, for the most part,at the University of North Carolinas have progressed together over time.Kenan-Flagler Business School. For arare moment when he is not in the air, The aerotropolis planning model seeks toAtlantis asks him about the future of reinforce the benefits of both global and localthe airport, the city and the implications by bringing together airport planning, urbanfor the Netherlands. planning, and business site planning in a synergistic manner so that the airport regionWhat is your definition of an aerotropolis? is more economically efficient, attractive, and sustainable. For exam- ple, a basic aerotropolis planning principle is that businesses should“An aerotropolis is an urban complex whose layout, infrastructure and be steered to locate in proximity to the airport based on frequencyeconomy are centered on an airport. Analogous in shape to the tra- of their use of the airport, reducing highway travel and congestion.ditional metropolis made up of a central city and its rings of com- Another is that form-based codes should establish design standardsmuter-heavy suburbs, the aerotropolis consists of an airport city core for airport area structures, travel lanes, and public spaces. And a thirdand outlying corridors and clusters of aviation-linked businesses and is that mixed-use residential communities housing airport area work-associated residential developments.” ers should be located outside aircraft noise contours but offering short commutes and be designed to provide a sense of communityThe underlying statement of your book seems to be that the along with basic institutional and consumer services.”most successful cities have always been characterised andshaped by trade. After dock cities, railway cities, car cities To what extent do you think that local forces and globaland now airport cities, why do you anticipate the success of forces characterize cities? Do they support each other?the globalised, networked city over the local, self-sustainingcity? Is there room for both models to succeed? “A city, first and foremost, is a confluence of enterprises without which the jobs, incomes, and tax resources which sustain it and its“We live in an increasingly globalized world that impacts almost eve- residents could not exist. These enterprises, in turn, are shaped byryone’s daily lives in some manner: the products we purchase, the flows of people, goods, information and capital that are both local12
  • 13. “Schiphol is an exemplary aerotropolis.”and global in nature. Virtually all positive cityattributes sought such as gainfully employedresidents, quality public schools, moderninfrastructure, fine restaurants, shopping, andartistic venues, and safe, clean streets restultimately on resources created by a city’senterprises, large and small. These resourcesare not always distributed fairly in the eyes ofmany, but without them the city would col- You describe the aerotropolis as “the ers, and enterprise partners as they are tolapse economically with severe social and logic of globalization made concrete” those in their own region.environmental consequences. — what will the aerotropolis look like? Like any economic region, whether or not Does it have a specific urban form? the aerotropolis will be a pleasant placeBringing local and global forces in reinforc- Will it be a pleasant place to live and to live and work will depend on appropri-ing sync is the most effective path to city work? How will it differ from living in ate planning which guides development. Towell-being. This involves acknowledging the “traditional” cities? date, most aerotropolis development hasirreversibility of globalization and leveraging been organic, often resulting in haphaz-it to the city’s advantage by facilitating the “The aerotropolis has both spatial and func- ard, unsightly, economically inefficient, andconnectivity of its people, firms, and institu- tional forms. Its spatial form consists of avi- unsustainable growth. The aerotropolis plan-tions to broader experiences and opportuni- ation-oriented businesses and their associ- ning model offers an antidote to spontane-ties, preparing its young people for the global ated residential developments which cluster ous, haphazard airport area developmentworld they will inherit by enhancing their around airports and outward along connect- and its negative consequences.”education, technical skills and cultural under- ing transport corridors generating observ-standing often engendered through air travel, able physical features. The functional form Is the aerotropolis a blueprint that canand by creating a local business climate that consists of a more diffuse airport-integrated be rolled out anywhere or do local fac-encourages innovation, private sector invest- economic region whose businesses are as tors play a significant role?ment, and job creation.” closely linked to distant suppliers, custom- “Though its basic planning principles can be applied most places, the aerotropolis cannot be rolled out everywhere. In situ- ations where numerous prior decades of development have surrounded the airport, implementation will be extremely difficult compared to what can be done at a new “greenfield” site which offers a blank canvas to plan and implement the model. In addition to available land, the opportunities or con- straints to aerotropolis roll-out are deter- mined by natural ecological factors, surface transportation infrastructure, ownership of land parcels, labor force characteristics, and local governance structures.” You argue that the ambition of the aerotropolis is to create a “friction- less” business environment, maximiz- ing the efficiency of flows of people, goods and communication. When this is coupled with the generic qualities associated with airports and their sur- rounding developments, won’t the aer- otropolis model lead to soulless, inhos- pitable cities? Where does the public realm come into play? “The aerotropolis does not have to be ‘soul-Figure 1. New urban form placing airports in the center with cities growing around them (Kasarda) less and inhospitable’. This is where urban 13
  • 14. “Bringing local and global forces in rein- forcing sync is the most effective path to city well-being.”Figure 2. Taoyuan Taiwan version of Airport City Schematic (Kasarda and Taotuan Aerotropolis)planning and design come in. Since the aerotropolis can extend out- “Rotterdam complements the Amsterdam Schiphol Aerotropolis byward up to 25 kilometers from the airport, many vibrant, livable com- providing important global connectivity for Dutch products (and thosemunities can be planned and built within it. Aerotropolis planning is of other nations) that are not appropriate to move (economically orurban planning, including the provision of appropriate public space otherwise) by air. The Netherlands is blessed to have the impressivethat encourages social interaction. You do not want to locate new dual trade infrastructure with Schiphol Airport and Rotterdam’s harborcommunities at the end of the airport runways or in dense areas of that cornerstoned its original Mainport strategy.”trucking, warehousing, and industry but they can be developed withinrelatively easy commuting times of the airport and the aerotropolis In Asia it seems possible to build an aerotropolis frombusiness clusters where many of their residents are employed.” scratch such as Songdo in South Korea. But how can an existing big airport in a small city grow out to become a realTo what extent is Schiphol an aerotropolis? What would you metropolis? Could it simply grow and be its own entity orchange? How should it develop? should it merge with the existing city?“Schiphol is an exemplary aerotropolis. It exhibits all aerotropolis “The airport and the city it serves are in most cases complementarycharacteristics from an observable multimodal airport city commercial in scale. So it will be only under exceptional circumstances that acore to the corridors and clusters of aviation-linked development that small city will have a big airport. Research at the University of Northstretch outward from its boundaries. Carolina’s Kenan Institute shows that where cities exist of at least The Schiphol Group and Dutch planners have been cognizant of moderate size and their airports are growing, aerotropolis develop-changing local and global conditions and the need to adapt to those ment occurs in three ways. First, as air traffic expands, the demandchanges. Their plans have thus evolved from original ideas of Main- for commercial land spills over airport boundaries to adjoining openport to a more contemporary triple bottom line approach fostering areas. Second, cities themselves typically spawn satellites. Improvedmutually reinforcing airport, environmental, and community outcomes. highways developed to the airport area to facilitate passenger andI worry, though, that pressures to focus on minimizing airline costs cargo movements frequently become a magnet for these satelliteand short-term airport profits will distract the Schiphol Group from its cities by providing them with greater accessibility to regional markets.highly successful airport city and aerotropolis development perspec- Third, airport-linked business development (hotels, offices, trade andtives that have brought it its international distinction.” exhibition complexes) is often most pronounced along the main high- way corridor connecting the airport to the city. Dual development fromIn an age of airport cities, what is the relevance of Rotter- airport to city and from city to airport eventually fuses the city and thedam, one of the biggest harbour cities in the world? airport into a greater aerotropolis.” EDWIN HANS & MIKE YIN14
  • 15. Graduation listBaltus, M.T.A. Lam, H.M. Selezneva, E. Van Lievenoogen, M.J. Catching People?: How to deal with Transformation of the Nijmegen Railway Urban Vitality: Exploring the centrality Public space for livable neighbourhoods:shrinkage at the Dutch countryside Area: into a highly integrated domain conditions How generic spatial interventions can realize conditions for the developmentBuinevicius, V. Liang, X. Sharma, A.C. of public space to accomplish a durableExploring potentials of the socialist city: Re-public City: A strategic planning of ReCentering Mumbai: Appropriation of living environment in specific urbanIn search for relevance of the socialist public space for local people in the context Thane Creek living areasurban structures in the future of sustain- of globalization in Shanghai Lujiazui Smit, H.J.able city. The case of Kaunas, Lithuania Finance & Trade Zone Van Mourik, M. Dublin towards complementary advan- Geef het terug aan de stad: TransformatieFang, A. Lopez, A. tage: Rowlagh for tomorrow! van de Kop van Isselt in AmersfoortFrom nowhere to now here: Walking From threat to opportunity: Spatial strate- Sprado, S.towards a desired solution for social gies integrating urban and water dynam- Van Oosten, S. Kindvriendelijke looproutesspatial integration ics towards a sustainable redevelopment The land-in-between model for informal settlements in Mexico Su, J.Glas, S.M. Wang , J. City’s periphery Low Income Graduates Friendly City:City extension used for urban regeneration Renaissance of Cultural Identity-historic Social and spatial integration for low income Mu, Y. districts regeneration in Beijing inner city graduates in periphery area of BeijingHadi, H. Cloud Wall: Interactive Street Design Wang, X.The new life in old town Surabaya: Strategy for the Reorganization of Urban Sun, C. Facilitating social interaction: Neighbor-Preserving the Urban Heritage through Space in the context of Gated Communi- Non-Splintered City hood revitalization strategy of ShanghaiSpace Revitalization ties in Modern China Timmerman, H. CannesHietbrink, L. Oort, E.N. Revitaliseren van de oude haven van Warmerdam, M.M.Urban Riverfront Zutphen: Link between Making tracks for Tamale: Strategic Antwerpen: De Schelde integreren en Return to the coast! Creating vital andthe river and the urban public spaces implementation of a railway system in the verbinden met de binnenstad door gebruik attractive seaside towns existing urban fabric of Ghanaian cities van de oude havengebiedenHu, T. Wu, P.Y.Urban "Home" for the Great Urban Pisabo, C. Trentelman, S.K. The new cultural city: The future of“Outcast”: Developing "Normalized The Patchwork metropolis Stedelijke transformatie van het Tainan city in Taiwan’s metropolitanUrban Residential System" in Second- gemeentelijk industrie terrein (GIT), te Qiu, Y. development processtier City Changsha for the Low-income Den Haag Temporary urbanism in contemporaryMigrant Workers Zhang, Y. Beijing Ulloa, C. Freedom VIC for Urban VIC Team:Huang, Y. Transit Oriented Regeneration: Steden- Village in the City transformation in"Eroding on the edges": Integration Raymond, D.G. baan stations as drivers of urban regenera- Shenzhen, ChinaStategy for Western Fringe of XiAn City The Urban Bayou: Balancing Natural tion in the south wing of the Randstadas a supportive urban tissue in Mega City Processes and Urban Development in Zhou, Y. Van den Berg, H.J.Plan 2020+ New Orleans Developing beyond limitations: A flexible Integrating the informal: Developing an model of new urban structure respond-Keimanesh, T. Rimmelzwaan, M.J. integrative strategy for slum upgrading in ing to the future needs of the valley-cityPilgrimage, power and identity of the Rural park Hof van Delfland: Redefining Buenos Aires xiningplace: Strategies for future development of production and consumption patterns for a Van der Veen, A.Mashhad as a sustainable religious city metropolitan landscape in a rural context Regenerating Rotterdam South: Improv-King, S. Saddi, V. ing socio-economic diversity and spatialTurning rural: Enabling sustainability in Intermediate Rotterdam: Urban regenera- quality in problem areas dealing withremote settlement patterns in Ireland tion in time of crisis selective migration Urbanism Graduates June-July 2011 15
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  • 17. Machine Rooms of the CityAtelier OlschinskySince 2005 Peter Olschinsky and Verena Weiss run a creative Vienna-based studio. Combining their architectural and illustrator back-ground, they create rich visualizations of the fictional machine roomsof today’s cities. Under the names “Cities” and “Plants” these visualsare meant to represent urban beauty, complexity and brutality at thesame time. www.olschinsky.at 17
  • 18. Urbanismweek Urbanismweek 2011The Urbanism Week 2011 brought together students, practitioners and academics todiscuss and exchange ideas about the role of the Urbanist.Atlantis continues where the Urbanism Week left off and talked more in-depth withsome of the key figures to understand their propositions and personal motives. Thissection covers the first part of this whirlwind week.So you are an Urbanist!?Introduction by Jorick BeijerChairman of the organizing committeeThis Urbanism Week 2011 was one in a My contribution should set a small storyteller, only putting up utopian ideas?series of recurring annual events, organized framework for this section of this Atlantis,by Polis since 1992. Every single one of them regarding the strong link with the Urbanism The Urbanism Week arose as a result ofin a different configuration, expressing Week Polis organized September 26th – 30th a certain dissatisfaction with the degreethe dynamics of time, students and the 2011. I will give a brief explanation of why of attention to critical thinking withinassociation. But this one was rather special, we felt it was necessary to host such an event, the curriculum and with the decreasingsince it marked the final re-establishment of and will set the stage for the further content significance of the public debate amongstPolis as an active study association. Not only of this section about the role of the urbanist students and staff in our faculty. The Frenchfor Master students Urbanism and Landscape within the theme: “crisis and beyond, the philosopher Michel Foucault stated that:Architecture, but also for others interested in continuous state of change’’.the urban environment. The Urbanism Week “We have to be there at the birth of ideas, thecould only have been organized by students. Our fascination started with linguistics: bursting outward of their force: not in books The past years have shown us that the Urban – Urbanism – Urbanist. What does expressing them, but in events manifesting thisestablished institutions almost never succeed the suffix ‘ist’ in urbanist mean? Is the force, in struggles carried on around ideas, for orin bringing up a substantial discussion on urbanist a specialist, like a dentist? Or is against them.” 1the meaning of the discipline. They enclose the urbanist more a novelist, a storyteller?a too small, but even more a too restricted This is how the dentist works: analysis – a The Urbanism Week definitely manifestedfragment of the professional world. Since diagnosis – developing a strategy – and then the force of ideas, now this magazine bringsthe founding in 1989 Polis has been the an intervention. Every urbanist, at least the discussion to a next level.platform for knowledge exchange between when they visits the dentist, will recognize astudents, researchers and professionals and part of this sequence. But when the urbanist 1 Eribon, D. (1991) Michel Foucault, translated by Betsythis Urbanism Week proved that it still is! doesn’t intervene, is he or she then just a Wing. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, p. 282 1818 urbanism week
  • 19. The continuous state of changeThe theme of Thursday September 29: “Crisis and beyond, the continuous state of change”,covered the current state of affairs in a global economical crisis and the impact of such on theprofession of the urbanist. This review provides a short overview, dealing with crisis, urbandesign and education.This crisis is definitely not the first one we have to deal with, argued economic geographerRonald Wall. He stressed the importance of mapping in understanding the cyclic characterof economical crisis and prosperity over time. Ronald Wall related the economic crises tovisible tendencies of social awareness in the history of urban planning, for instance those ofEbenezer Howard and Christopher Alexander. “In the uncertainty you have to go back to yourroots, back to the community and you have to self reflect and win trust in your community”. Pro-fessor Maurits de Hoog emphasized the necessity of change. “I think we should change radi-cally. It’s no longer about housing and that’s the major change we have to take. It’s about schools,about health, about public space. And that’s a major shift”.According to Professor Han Meyer, the market is not a leading criterium. “Urbanism is essen-tial for society, including the market. That’s not something on its own”. Markus Appenzelleragreed on this perspective of the embedded market, but urged young professionals to inter-act and play the game. “You have to understand the logic of the market, then you can achievealmost everything you want”. Urbanists should constantly consider for whom they make citiesprofitable, and stay in the discussion. Something that Alfredo Brillembourg calls activ-ist architecture. “I am in-between the arguments of Jane Jacobs and Robert Moses, we have to negotiate the planning dilemma within each city where we work. That’s the activism”. The current state of globalization is herein key accord- ing to Alfredo Brillembourg, who argued that the availability of new resources will lead to empowerment and new connections. The education of the new urbanists gained a substantial role in this debate. Professor Han Meyer argued that every understanding of the future starts with the understanding of history and theory, knowing your own body of knowledge. Collectively the debaters stressed the importance of travelling during studies. “Knowledge is one thing, the other thing is that there is something you can’t generate from what other people have done, and that is simply exposing yourself to condition”, Markus Appenzeller stated. Where Alfredo Brillembourg convincingly plead for students to discover the global south, Han Meyer pointed out the Dutch context and the important things that still have to be done here, both in practice as in academia. With the statement that “the best urban designer is time” Hubert Habib took position in the awareness of society and societal processes: “Don’t underestimate the human intuition. It’s our duty to make it tangible and explain what they don’t understand”. A great conclusion of a discussion on crisis through all scales and the call for a new view towards society and the local space of everyday live. urbanism week 19
  • 20. Reflections“It is clear that urbanism of majorurban area development projects “To my opinion the Urbanism-in the Netherlands is over. Many week of Polis was a great success,developers, investors and housing and I hope the start of a traditioncorporations recalibrate their which will be continued nextactivities. This inherently means years. The professional andless urbanists. This is not only academic world of urbanismsomething we see in the design needs the active involvement offirms who had been working on students. They will define thethis kind of projects, but also in the content and role of the disciplineplanning departments of the large in the future, and should beDutch cities. Remarkable is the critical to the past and presentfact that employment in smaller performance of the discipline.municipalities and provinces The urbanism-week showedseems to stabilize and even grow that the present-day generationin some places. Do we see here IS involved and critical.more dedication to quality? Manydesign offices and engineering One of the statements of thefirms still have a good amount panel-debates was ‘Urbanismof work due to projects abroad. only exists in Academia’. IThe Dutch urban design seems to think the Urbanism-week as abe a pretty good export product. whole showed the contrary ofLooking to the new assignment this statement. The range ofof the transformation of existing invited speakers, most of thembuildings, ensembles and urban from professional practice,areas the question is which qualities showed that urbanism is fullyand skills do new urbanists alive in the world outsideexactly need. Shouldn’t we academia. The role of academiaanticipate to the further blurring is to reflect on this practice andof the boundaries of planning and to stimulate innovations. Thelandscape architecture; heading urbanism-week itself was ato the profession ‘environmental wonderful example of this roledesign’?” Maurits de Hoog of academia.” Han Meyer “The thing we are learning from this crisis is that new information technology and media are enabling people in the smallest places and communities to actually form social groups and take on the formal systems. I think that’s a fascinating difference with previous reces- sions. What we saw in the work of Alfredo is that when you start to engage the masses - the vast masses of the world - with a few good ideas and you mobilize it, then you don’t have to do very much else. If you know where to intervene, at the strategic points in the city, and you inject it with good program you can actually mobi- lize the people and their skills. They will take care of the rest.” Ronald Wall20 urbanism week
  • 21. You have to be an Urbanist! Interview with Henk Ovink “I am committed to make aHenk Ovink opened the Urbanism Week with Henk Ovink, the son, grandson and great-a plea for new alliances in a decentralized grandson of architects went throughgovernment when it comes to design con- mathematics, art and architecture to better government.”tent. He said three things. 1. Our context is become a civil servant in the spatial plan-a complex one. 2. We need new alliances to ning politics of The Netherlands. He isconfront the issues that are created by (and the Director for National Spatial Planningin) that complex context, especially when it comes to making city. at the Ministry for Infrastructure and the3. To welcome bottom up initiatives government will collaborate on Environment, and initiated the Design andcontent development for the design agenda in the Netherlands. Politics chair at the TU Delft. Ovink proposed to focus on three factors: good government, alli-ances and design. Within the depressing context of an economic crisis Europe strug-gles with the severity of issues like the rise of the populist vote, the Why do you wake up in the morning?fact that we’re not innovative, that we’re aging and not growing, to “I get up early. I open the door at this min-name a few. This crisis tends to focus on the past but when the past istry. In my job I have a responsibility, sois your only guideline, you’re on the wrong track. Nostalgia traps, to execute it well, or even better, takesespecially if it comes out of a future anxiety, out of uncertainty. time. I like to organize my people, my staff, “75% of the people will live in cities in 2060, earning 90% of the make it effective. At the same time if youworld’s GDP on 3% of the world’s liveable surface. That’s efficient. want to add value in content, you haveSo you’re asking if you want to be an urbanist? You should be, if the to organize some more. This third level,cities are the future. It’s the only profession. It can’t be a question.” adding value and really making it possi- The three lines of development consist in a power up of collab- ble to change this organization, that’s theorations. Ovink’s concept of good government is to name a new extra. Doing everything together is whatdesign agenda, the content of which has to be given by the collabo- makes me get up early in the morning. Itration with the design agents. He articulated the roles of advice, drives my lack of sleep.”research, education, testing in ateliers… in what seems to be theultimate call for ideas. How do your friends characterize The central government merged the existing funds into a creative you?economy fund, operative from the 1st of January 2013. It merged the “Loyal, friendly and too hard working. Soinstitutes on architecture, design and media into one, to be devel- practically un-reachable. But at the sameoped institute. How about the content, the agenda? This new design time always there. And I can cook reallyagenda NL is to be developed right now, in close collaboration with well.”the world of design – architects, urbanists and more. Who’s your favourite urbanist?How do you view your job and your responsibilities? “Janette Sadik-Khan, she is the Commis- sioner of the New York City Department“The reason why they brought me here is to work on this ‘better of Transportation. She is really making agovernment’. I must say that I’m very committed to that, and at the difference.”same time it’s also difficult. In any big organization, things are tough urbanism week 21
  • 22. “The only thing architectural institutions have to take care of is that they are excellent.”to push through. You want their container is stuck within this ‘talking around’ is a trapships to be revolutionary but the next day process, and the only change for the institutes What values do you transmit withthey’re moving in the same direction as the has to come from within.” your work?day before. It’s really hard to put real change “I am first and foremost a public serv-in position. If you have to pick up one of my How do you approach the assessment of ant, so I am responsible for executing thevalues, it would be change. quality in your design policies? What are cabinet’s policy and helping to develop it the criteria by which you evaluate the com- in such a sense that benefits society in aI very much appreciate the current cabinet parative merits of planning proposals? maximum way. In that sense, the valueswhen it calls for a trustworthy and qualitative we transmit are trying to be innovative,government. This is not about anti-govern- “Part of the agenda should be the develop- entrepreneurial and trustworthy. In myment, it’s about pro good government. But ment of these criteria. But it is not only the cri- professional life politics is the commit-making government good is quite a job. It can teria. It is also the process in which design is ment and we stand for a more liberal,only start from the content, from the issues at positioned, or better, can position itself. Design more open, with less government, morestake. It all comes down to the three positions is never only the result. In our planning pro- responsible society; a better relationshipof organization, politics and content, and on cess design makes the process, and it stipu- with business and people, less rules, andthose three I have the responsibility to be an lates the crucial confrontations that are nec- so on. I represent a more effective, moreadvisor and a developer. It is in this collabo- essary to make next steps in planning. When efficient, more accountable governmentration between politics and bureaucracy that it comes to the process of decision making in that gives more room for alliances andthe development of content, organization and our planning projects we use a Societal Cost collaborations that reduces the necessi-politics is made. I’m responsible for the devel- Benefit Analysis (SCBA). The societal stands ties in rules and regulations. I am commit-opment of the policy, rules, regulations, geo- for the added value and qualitative part. ted to make a better government.”information and design within spatial planning In that analysis it is hard to quantify thosein the Netherlands.” qualitative aspects. Through this analysis we What is outdated in architectural can address them, so they become accounta- education today?What do you think about the education of ble, they become part of the decision process. “Dynamics is lacking in the way educa-an urbanist today? Can we monetize quality and value? Not tional institutions are built up. You can yet, not in the way we want to. We devel- see that in the organizational charts, the“I find it very hard to accept that the educa- oped a research agenda for the next step employment and enrolment of studentstional institutions have to say they can’t teach in the SCBA, focusing on two things: on the and researchers and in how the curricu-you to become an architect. That you have to ‘unknown parts’ and on the process. The real lum is developed.”do another two years of experience and then improvement will come with the connectionall of a sudden you cán call yourself an archi- of both process and content. Positioning this What did you learn outside of educa-tect. Well, perhaps someone needs ten years SCBA as an accepted tool can only be suc- tion that proved useful today?instead, or half that. This saying it ‘takes you cessful when the decision makers are there “To go off limits, make mistakes andtwo years’ is such a generic answer to a very from the start.” learn some more and never be afraid. Ispecific question. Make sure you get the best studied mathematics, the most philo-education and stop - don’t try to rule outside Who decides what values are going into the sophical of the beta studies there is. Ityour territory. We should focus and invest in SCBA (societal cost benefit analysis)? makes you believe that anything is possi-making our academic process better instead ble. In that sense mathematics is still myof postponing it. “This is not my call, that’s the good thing. If it inspiration although it is sometimes far The only thing architectural institutions have was my call it would be too political, so it’s not off my present track. After that, I studiedto take care of is that they are excellent. But the call of the ministry. We have in the Neth- art and architecture, which are more cre-that’s not what they’re focusing on. They are erlands assessment agencies, enforced by ative, but neither these were preparingdistracted by the processes outside, not by the law to have an autonomous position. Two are me for a civil servant job or to become aissues of the world, not by the content but by of core value to spatial planning, the Financial spatial planner.”the talks around politics. The way the content and Economic Assessment Agency (CPB)22 urbanism week
  • 23. and the Environmental Assessment Agency addressed by the existing institutes, they the urgent, specific and underlying issues(PBL). What comes out of their assessments make the agenda now. Can you tell us the again. And in this urgency also look at theis sometimes hard for politics, but it is auton- impetus behind your new policy initiative, European context again. While the develop-omous. Right now we are collaborating with as debated in parliament on recently? You ing world is growing, the developed world isthem to deliver an answer to the question: make it sound like a new idea. But there shrinking. I want them to also address ‘the ‘How are we going to make a SCBA that was always a four year budget period Dutch question’ again.”can both define the process and the content under every recent cabinet. The four yearand in this address the more soft values of money program had a four year budget Well, in a sense what goes on in Asia andour developments?’ program attached. India impacts local Dutch questions. In that sense don’t you see that those insti-This collaboration with them is very valu- “This was policy. Out of this the Berlage Insti- tutions that are researching these topicsable, it makes the instrument and the analysis tute, the Stimuleringsfonds voor de Architec- already have a direct bearing on ‘thebecome better and at the same time it helps tuur (SfA), and so on, got the money. There Dutch question’?in the development of a better process. It is a was no difference between policy money andreal asset that we have these institutions. They programmatic involvement. As for the current “We have to talk about the world to talk aboutassess our projects, our ideas and our policy initiative, politics don’t decide on the names, Europe. Now we talk about the world to talkperspectives. If we make the assessment it’s we try to decide on the functions, based upon about the world. That’s stupid. We can’t excludepolitical. If they make it, it’s reflective.” a content agenda we call Design Agenda NL. Europe anymore in our design research. So initiatives new and old and coalitions of If we’re fascinated by megacities in Asia,According to your opening lecture in the both can enlist in this agenda, enrol and sub- fine, I’m fascinated too, but what can we learnUrbanism Week, if the content doesn’t scribe. This is not an empty political decision; from that? That’s what I want these institutescome top down, it has to come bottom it’s a content-driven one. to help us answer. What’s the European per-up from the architectural institutions. We want these aforementioned insti- spective in itself and as a reflection of theThe design agenda NL at the moment is tutes; Berlage, SfA, and so on, to address world.” MARTA RELATS & STEFAN KOLLER urbanism week 23
  • 24. Impressions photos by noor scheltema “I think we should be radical optimists” Alfredo Brillembourg24 urbanism week
  • 25. “I am a regionalist first, and an urbanist second” Edward Soja “Stations are the new churches in the city” Hubert Habib“We have to think big” Markus Appenzeller urbanism week 25
  • 26. Engaging the PublicInterview with Alfredo BrillembourgOne of the most passionate speakers during the urbanism week was ImplementationAlfredo Brillembourg, Professor on architecture and urban design at “In our work you see how this systematization of architecture is trans-the ETH Zurich and founder of Urban-Think Thank in Caracas, Ven- lated into concrete multipliable projects. The vertical gym that we con-ezuela. During his moving talk he took the audience on a journey to structed in Caracas is a good example. The site already had a soccerthe harsh reality of the informal cities of Caracas (VZ), Haifa (Jordan) field but the people told us they would like to have a roof. Inspiredand Jaipur (India), revealing the vibrant environment and hidden by other dense cities like New York, we told them not to just buildopportunities of these places. a roof but to construct a five-floor vertical gymnasium with multiple sporting fields. This resulted in a multifunctional sports center, whichLecture summary is now used by over 15,000 visitors a month. The dimensions of theIn the perspective of developments like globalization and the fact that gymnasium are 20x40 so it fits on every basketball court in the worldmore than 50% of the world population now lives in cities, he states and we have identified 100 sites in Caracas that could use one. It isthat the flexibility and improvisation of the informal city is not an a repeatable model, constructed of a bolted steel system that can beexception to he globalized economy but an integral part of it. There- built in six months. I really don’t care if the building is transformed infore slums should no longer be seen as a problem, but as the solution, each location yellow, orange or blue, what matters is that it is a proventhe solution to the millions missing housing units all over the world. system, that is what counts.” His work thus mainly focuses on the retrofit of informal settlementsand the engagement of the public. Aiming to make a change throughlocally driven, bottom-up interventions, developing concrete examplesthat focus on the people, not on beautiful architecture. Ideal situationsdo not concern him, since his work is about avoiding catastrophes,about saving lives.Approach“The focus of our profession is too much directed on the production ofsymbolic or form driven architecture. The approach of the Urban-ThinkTank however, is completely different. We focus on the people andusers at the core of our designs and the dynamics of dense cities. Inorder to do so, we have to return to the fundaments of our profession, toa system that is focused on concrete strategies that address the urgentissues of the current state of the world. Therefore I believe we have tocombine the skills of different professions like architects, environmen-tal planners and engineers, to create an open source family of productsthat can be best practice examples. I can understand that people criti-cize this systemization of architecture, but I believe we have no otherchoice given the necessity and speed needed for change. Maybe in thefuture we can turn to a more sculptural form driven approach in archi-tecture but right now, this is not our focus.” Figure 1. Metro station in Caracas slum26 urbanism week
  • 27. “As designers we suffer a lot from the fashionable reputation that star architects have built around ourFigure 2. Connecting the slum profession in the last 10 to 20 years.” ReactionsWhy do you get up and go to work “As designers we suffer a lot from the fash- to the people we bring them our magazines,every morning? ionable reputation that star architects have designs and ideas. We talk with them straight“To confront every day and to do some built around our profession in the last 10 out of our experience and regain their trust.good, therefore I exist. I get up to see what to 20 years. Architects and urbanists have The reactions we get to our designs areI can do for other people.” become too detached from the people very positive, you can watch some films on our and too much focused on beautiful object website at YouTube. Here we have a movieWhat did you learn outside educa- designs. The only way to regain trust from on the 2.1 km long cable car system that wetion that has proofed to be valuable the majority of inhabitants in cities is by designed for Caracas. It can transport 1,200today? showing them that architects work to satisfy people per hour in both directions and has“I learned to confront my fears by literally a common public good for society. two stations in the valley that are directly con-‘getting naked’ and being open to listening.” nected to the public transport system of Cara- Another complicated issue is the fact that cas. The inhabitants will tell you that before, itIf you had a chair on the TU Delft, people don’t trust NGOs anymore. For exam- took them one hour to go to the city, now itwhat would it be? ple now, we are trying to work Garbage City only takes 10 minutes. Pregnant woman can“I would have a chair on the ‘sur global’, the in Cairo, and the local NGO told us it would now go to the city to give birth and people canglobal south.” be extremely hard to enter the area and cre- take their kids to school there every day.” ated barriers for us instead of facilitating. ButHow do friends characterize you? when we came there on our own, we noticed Awareness“I think they would say I am messy, incon- that by talking Spanish and showing our his- “One of the objectives of the Urban-Thinksistent, contradictory but incredibly lovely.” tory of experience with informal communities, Tank is to create awareness. This is not only the locals appreciated us. The conclusion was achieved by building successful designs, butWho is your favorite urbanist? that often NGOs have their own agendas, they we publish a free magazine and make movies“That would have to be Denise Scott are often barriers and we have also seen this like ‘Caracas the informal city’. I know someBrown, Kevin Lynch and Alison Smithson. ” with United Nations organizations in Jordan, people are weary of the publicity the favelas so what we need is a change of mind set. The have gained, but I think it actually empoweredWhat makes you happy? truth is that many issues around NGOs but slum dwellers and made them more visible.“Traveling with friends, new projects and a also around our profession are very distorted. Even movies like Cidade de Deus (City of God)great conversation.” I am fighting this all the time by proving that or Tropa de Elite (elite troop) are in the end architects can do some good, so when we go positive films, since they bring the slum issue urbanism week 27
  • 28. “The focus of our profession is too What personal values do you transmit trough your work?much directed on the production of “To me, commitment is the most important value. This is demonstrated in professionalism as commitment to thesymbolic or form driven architecture.” profession, but overall the commitment of my work regarding social issues.”out into the open. There are also lots of movies being shot in Cara- What are the future challenges forcas. There is a recent Venezuelan one based on Cyrano de Bergerac, Caracas?which they transformed into a favela story, but the one I recommend to “Caracas needs everything so changeseverybody is called ‘Macu, la mujer del policía’ (Macu, the Policemans are necessary throughout all scales. ThisWoman). In this movie you see how the police exploits the people in the ranges from reliable political institutionsfavelas. It is about the relationship between a policeman who beats a to a visionary plan for the city or a newgirl in the favelas, but also has her as his lover. banking and financial system, but most of all a change of attitude.”To conclude I want to announce a new movie that we are making. It iscalled Gran Horizonte (Grand Horizon) and it wants to give a broader What is outdated in architecturalvision on the urban world and touches upon all the topics that we education?just talked about. The movie is filmed in different cities in the global “I think we need a change in the teacher–South, interviewing our network of friends on different issues, and student relationship. Pinning your workfilming different buildings in different places around the world. We up on the wall and having a teacherwant to see if we can raise consciousness on the topic of one urban- telling you what you did right or wrong isized planet sharing resources on different scales. Hopefully we can an outdated way of education.”show it one day in Delft.” JAN BREUKELMAN & MIKE EMMERIK28 urbanism week
  • 29. About the need for a radical change offensive growth ambition. Moreover, cial importance for the whole nation. to keep up with growing competition Therefore new policies for the Greaterin Dutch urbanization politics: between global city regions, Greater Amsterdam region should be supported Amsterdam should develop locations more than strongly by central govern- and urban zones with a huge concen- ment. Not in their present role as anJaap Modder tration in the top of the labour market. inconvenient watcher but as partner in Schiphol could, as an Airport City, be crime, as a participant in business.Chairman of the Board of the Arnhem Nijmegen City Region such a place. The Zuidas (the centralChief editor of S+RO business district) which is now poorly My second focus is on the institutional performing should be much better inte- arrangements that are needed to per-What’s wrong with Dutch urbaniza- clusters, the Amsterdam metropolitan grated with the Airport City. form as an effective global city region.tion politics? This question (or is it an region and the South Wing (Rotterdam/ I don’t think we can find a metropolisanswer?) came upon my way when I The Hague). Greater Amsterdam, from Speaking about Schiphol, connectiv- elsewhere in the world with fewer pos-recently was asked to comment on a Haarlem to Almere, is the only global ity is another condition sine qua non sibilities to act than Greater Amster-study which was commissioned by the city region in the Netherlands and has for a global city region. Connectivity dam. On the Greater Amsterdam scaleDutch government. The London School to compete on the global scale. The through air in the Amsterdam region is the governance consists of only a dis-of Economics and the Netherlands main economic axis is the A2 motorway fairly good but in order to reach new cussion table. Greater Amsterdam is notEnvironmental Assessment Agency did to Eindhoven, the most promising eco- goals in economic performance a new only too small a world town, its differ-a comparative study on urbanization nomic city-region in the Netherlands. step is necessary. Look at London with ent governments are performing on tooand urbanization politics in South East We may expect that axis to be the back- five airports in due time reaching their many small scales. Amsterdam shouldEngland and the Randstad. I had some bone of economic development in the maximum capacity. The same counts have a big scale government. If wecritical remarks on the methodology of next 50 years or so. for public transport. London is invest- look at our citizens, at the daily urbanthe study but in this contribution I will ing heavy in its infrastructure in order system they live and work in, than it’sfocus on two topics that in my view are Other than London, Amsterdam is to maintain these hyper concentration a anachronism that local governmentof crucial importance for global cities poorly prepared for the global dynam- in Central London. Greater Amsterdam still is organized along the lines of whatand regions in order to be successful ics of the next fifty years. The good should invest heavily in a better acces- we invented in het 19th century. For aon the global map. One is about the news is that Greater Amsterdam as sibility profile, externally through air and global city region this is a devastating,conditions for enhancing economic a very tiny metropolis, because of its also on the regional scale. Connectiv- risky situation and economically seenperformance and competitiveness and inherent qualities, is to be found in a ity in international rail connections is no less than stupid. Taxation (on thethe other is about the institutional lot of indexes of global cities. Is that another weak point. local/regional level) and representationarrangements that are necessary in enough to keep a position as a good are two other conditions which are nec-order to play that role. I will project mid rank player? I doubt that, because Boosting structural density at selective essary conditions in order to act as athis focus on the prospects for the size matters too. Greater Amsterdam is areas, attracting more human capital global city region. A global city regionAmsterdam region to be a truly global lacking critical mass in terms of knowl- from all over the planet and improve of this kind is in the need of makingmetropolitan area. On both sides of the edge capital but also in physical mass. connectivity through air and on rails, their own public investment decisions,North Sea we recently saw sharp politi- Look at London! London is capable of these are in my view decisive conditions taking their own risks on the basis ofcal changes. The new governments, attracting lots of highly skilled labour. to be met in order to survive as a global their own resources. And it must bein the UK and the Netherlands, do not Without that the city would perform city region in a dynamic global system held accountable for those decisions inhave too much faith in spatial plan- economically much less than it does with major changes, over continents, in a democratic environment.ning. The Netherlands are in low tide now. Moreover the workforce has a very power and importance.at the moment, having diminished insti- high concentration which is needed My central issue is that current spatialtutional arrangements at the national to boost interaction, innovation and Amsterdam is sometimes branding itself planning policy in the Netherlands islevel and in line with that left the idea new start ups. Densities in both cities as a free state. That is a good point. It neglecting that urgent question. Afterof steering spatial development. on average do not differ too much but should learn from its own history but the radical changes in the Dutch plan- the density of the workforce in Cen- also from city states in history and at ning doctrine that our government put inFor a long time one of the Dutch icons in tral London is 10 times higher than the present moment (Venice, Hamburg, recently there is some hope that a newurban planning was the Randstad. But at in Amsterdam (23,000 pp/km2 and Singapore, Dubai) and seek for the planning doctrine replacing the old canthis moment in time we better get rid of 210.000 pp/km2)! In my view Amster- necessary conditions to perform more be put in place with the same attitude tothis idea of a Randstad. As is implicitly dam should open up actively towards autonomous on the global scale. We the radical changes that are needed instated in the recent government white the global economy and attract human should realize ourselves that the future order to put at least our only global citypaper there are two separate regional capital. The city should develop a rather performance of Amsterdam is of cru- region on the world map.“The new governments, in the UK and the Netherlands, S+RO is the journal for Urbanism and Spatial Planning. Students can subscribe at a reduceddo not have too much faith in spatial planning.” price. More information on: www-s-ro.nl urbanism week 29
  • 30. Ubiquitous strategies and stories Interview with Markus AppenzellerHaving many projects in countries all over two types within both worlds. Appenzeller Markus Appenzeller is director ofthe world with different cultures could underpins his statement and introduces the international projects at KCAPresult in working with different methods and philosophy of KCAP by illustrating KCAP’s Architects & Planners. His expertisestrategies. However, Markus Appenzeller project in Shenzhen in China and the project in is large-scale urban design andstresses that there are many approach simi- Duisburg in Germany. master planning in an internationallarities when working on projects all over the environment. Appenzeller was previ-world. This was his underlying statement at The underlying framework, which is similar, is ously employed as a senior architecthis lecture for the Urbanism Week 2011. This what characterizes both projects. The under- at OMA in Rotterdam.interview goes more in-depth regarding this lying framework takes streets and the publicstatement and investigates the role of an spaces as the basis for the development of theurbanist and KCAP’s activities in China. area because these are a lasting foundation for years. By using the same tool, the frame-Lecture summary work that lasts in the long term, Appenzeller If you had a chair at TU Delft, howAs director of international projects at KCAP, describes the similarities between urbanism in would you name it?Markus Appenzeller showed he deals with pro- Europe and Asia. “Complex city. Since it is definable injects in the Western world, particularly Europe, This long-term strategy goes hand-in-hand many ways and not bound to one specificas well as in the Eastern world, Asia. From with the urban infill of this long-term frame- discourse.”an economical and political point of view the work. This urban infill is the short-term implica-world is heading into two directions; the West- tion that is based on keeping and introducing How do you remain motivated to goern world is characterized as a world of stag- new aspects within an area, with respect to to work each morning?nation with a high GDP level but stagnation in the local conditions. Despite the importance “I do not consider my work as a job. Mypopulation growth. Yet the Eastern world and of localities and apt short-term strategies, work is a mindset, applicable whereverSouth America and Africa are still growing in Appenzeller advocated that as an urbanist one I am.”both GDP level and population. Appenzeller firstly ought to think big by establishing anstates that Western designers are only able to important long-term framework. What is your favorite software?reason within a prospect of growth and miss “Word processer and illustrator.”opportunities to react positively to stagnation, In your lecture you seemed to arguesuch as in the romantic period. This leads cur- that long-term strategies always have Who is your anti-hero?rently to the result that stagnation always has a physical form. Why is this? Could “Anyone who is quoting a model of thea negative connotation. these strategies be less tangible, for past and renders it as the solution for example, constituting only as policies today’s societal problems.”By introducing “exploding China, imploding and processes?Europe” in relation to growth and stagnation Who is your biggest professionalrespectively, Appenzeller wondered if there “In my opinion long-term strategies constitute hero?are two types of urbanism. Quickly he answers policy and process. However, you need to find “As my CV already slightly indicates: Remhis question by stating that there are 1,5 types some way of communicating the potential out- Koolhaas.”of urbanism due to a lot of similarities in the comes and this is where form comes into play.30 urbanism week
  • 31. “... you need to find some way of communicating the potential outcomes andthis is where form comes into play.” Figure 1. World of stagnation and growth (Appenzeller)The average person will not have the patience to read through a hugebook of urban design guidelines, so I believe that a strategy shouldalways incorporate a plan, a model for people to be able to visualizethe outcome. That is not to say that the model is fixed in stone but itrather should convey an atmosphere. Urban grain, building density, use What kind of personal values do youpatterns and also economic models in the end contribute to this atmos- transmit through your work?phere. The domain of our profession is to understand space and how “Openness and curiosity for the unknownto structure it.” and fairness.”What, according to you, is an urbanist? Where are they sit- What are the challenges for your cityuated between designer and policy-maker? in the future (2020)? “Rotterdam will face its decline in impor-“I am involved in both architecture and urban design. Yet the mindset is tance. Rotterdam used to have the big-different within each field. An urban designer works in a highly political gest port in the world and certainly theenvironment within a multiplicity of groups. Someone who is not only biggest port in Europe. The economy isdealing with a single plot but in fact the totality of a city or a region now shifting towards other places and I- spatially, economically, socially, culturally, basically whatever can be belief this will result in an identity crisisimagined within the city. It is very complex. An urbanist acts like a medi- for the city. The port area is very mono-ator rather than acting only like a designer. Space need to be found to functional and has not developed othersteer one’s own agenda amidst a conflict of multiple interests. large-scale business activities that are An architect thinks much more about what is right for a place. There visible elsewhere in the city.”is less need to negotiate, to strike a compromise, which is actually theway an urban designer works, to mediate all these different interests What is outdated in the education ofand to find alliances where it is beneficial. It is also much more about urbanism and architecture?ego with architects. During architectural education you are always told “Students are too obsessed with creat-to explain in a lot of words why your proposal is the exact solution. But ing shapes. Yet since I am trained as anactually this is just a smokescreen for doing what you like. You are architect I mainly focus on architecturalnever allowed to just say, ‘I did it because I like it.’ ” education. Architecture is not a social or cultural discipline anymore and it is alsoWhat is KCAP’s unique selling point that makes them win so not taught as such. This is the result of amany competitions? market-oriented shift within the discipline. Furthermore, many architects and urban-“In my belief one of the reasons is that we always analyse the brief for ists, both in education and practice, lackany project very carefully. The other reason is that we are good at sell- the skills to sell their ideas to clients. It ising our ideas. We spend quite a lot of time on getting the story right not only enough to produce good work.because even the best plan is worth nothing if the story is not properly You need to be able to sell your ideas.”communicated. It is about looking at who you are dealing with and the urbanism week 31
  • 32. “We spend quite a lot of time on get- tecture, involvement throughout the whole process is necessarily if a high standard is to be achieved. It does not mean you are doing all the work, rather, you maintain communication with the other participantsting the story right because even the throughout the whole process in any design. For urban design we are mostly interested in complex projects, so for example, I think the standard Greenfield development in Holland is not particularly inter-best plan is worth nothing if the story esting to us and we also think it is not necessary in Holland — any- thing that can be developed on a Greenfield site can also be devel- oped on a Brownfield site. So it is also a question of responsibilityis not properly communicated.” for cities and urban development as a whole. Generally speaking, in China it is different — there are so many cities with no Brownfield. In find it interesting to look at how environments that often feel ‘instant’ can be shaped, environments that did not have the tie to becomebest way of communicating what we want to achieve. Talking to a pro- places, to grow in to places in the future.”ject developer is different to talking to a regional government or an indi-vidual client – you need to find the right tone. Sometimes this also has Have you received any criticism for your work in China?quite an impact on the final plans. In any country we are working in wealways tend to have people that come from there or at least speak the “For the moment there is no negative feedback. There are however,language and then do additional research to see what is really going on moments of surprise. For example, in our Shenzhen project we arethere on the ground. A certain amount of success is also due to the fact making a strong case for the preservation of the city’s urban villagesthat once you have a name in the industry it is slightly easier to win than whereas the local residents actually do not think that they should beif you are completely unknown.” preserved. I also get the impression that the critical discussion in China for architecture and urbanism is quite muted. This seems to go hand-What are your criteria in selecting projects to undertake? in-hand with economic success. The problem with any boom is that people become less critical. Another surprise is that in China, com-“One of the most important criteria is whether we think we can deliver mercial space can be considered as (public) places, which may differquality and this in part depends on the ambition of the client, the pro- slightly from Western attitudes. The thing about working in China or anygram and the economic environment. Another aspect is attainability region outside of your own is that you cannot merely translate what you— we like to be able to experience first-hand where we will design. know one-to-one in to another culture. It is not about building HollandThis is more important for architecture than urban design. For archi- in China.” EDWIN HANS, BART VAN LAKWIJK & SANG HUYN LEEFigure 2. Stadsindustrie Landschaftspark Duisburg. (Graduation project Appenzeller) Figure 3. Shenzhen, China. (KCAP)32 urbanism week
  • 33. Manifesto for the Spontaneous CityTess BroekmansUrhahn Urban DesignUrban planning faces new challenges aroundthe world. Cities continue to grow and strug-gle with the task of becoming more sustaina-ble, absorbing (im)migration, offering spaceto engaged citizens and, with that, remain-ing attractive places to settle. The economiccrisis points up the risks and deficiencies ofthe old system and functions, of necessity, asa catalyst for new forms of city development.Urban planners must reinvent themselvesand their vision of the city. It is in that frame-work that we present a manifesto for flexibleurban planning, grafted onto the power ofprivate initiatives.We argue that the Spontaneous City shouldbe used as a starting point for urban devel-opment in the 21st century. The Spontane-ous City is a marketplace, where supply and Figure 1. Model Photo, Amsterdam Oostenburg (© Urhahn Urban Design)demand sculpts urban form. The city devel-ops at various paces, in all kinds of directions.What’s more, the Spontaneous City is occu- From Masterplan to coproduction many years. In both cases, the time is right forpied by producers and limitless future projec- As with so many ‘success stories’ of the 20th planning processes that crystallise collectivetions. The producers work closely together century, utopian post-war urban design has power into a tangible form –involving localwith residents and businesses, operating in been largely sent back to the drawing board. residents and entrepreneurs, owners ’ associa-districts and quarters of the city. Users of the Nevertheless, urban planning in past decades tions and local institutions.Spontaneous City are innovative and enter- has seen little change in terms of its ambitionprising. They operate from within the ranks and scale. To the contrary, one ‘instant city’ Our plea for the Spontaneous City mightof social groups where community, custom after another was sprung into being. Ready- seem not Dutch. Our point of departure isand tradition are important values. made, ready-to-use spaces were developed, incidentally a country with a long tradition tailored to serve one specific, immutable pur- of highly developed planning, somethingThe Spontaneous City is shaped by its occu- pose. As a result of this, the role of the urban we are justifiably proud of. Since the start ofpants, in a never-ending process of transfor- user was singularly limited to a consumer of the 20th century, almost all urban design inmation, growth and adaptation. Urban plan- everyday products. the Netherlands was rigidly developed withning professionals work in close collaboration housing projects and structural plans, dis-with the project initiators. Government and Co-design and coproduction are no longer trict improvement and zoning plans. Dutchmarket work closely together, but with a dif- just fashionable terms, but accepted design practice is familiar with other traditions,ferent focus: the initiatives, creative energy forms in terms of sustainable urban devel- however, such as the freedom of private prop-and investment capital of the end user. The opment. These design forms are prevalent erty, which formed the central canal area innew urban planner must break through in newly constructed areas where traditional Amsterdam and the Statenkwartier in Thean historical trend of design that is always investment logic is being heavily challenged, Hague. Within a spatial framework of canalsincreasing in scale, involving collaboration and in depressed areas where the endogenous and streets, and a set of transparent rules, thewith only the bigger partners. pull of the city dweller has been ignored for user can act as the client. urbanism week 33
  • 34. Four principles Urban design will make the Spontaneous City a reality in the future, outlined by the following four principles: Zoom in Zooming in, or alternately reducing scale, means embracing a devel- opment process simultaneously at the disposal of many initiators inFigure 2. Zoom in (© Urhahn Urban Design) various locations. It is essential to map out local needs, relevant play- ers in renovation districts and the prospects –or rather obstructions– they face. A thorough examination of both social conditions and urban planning regulations is a necessary strategy for the urban plan- ner and this demands a sharp eye for detail. Create collective values Defining shared ambition is an integral part of the game. It is a political process that must be developed both publicly and expertly. It involves collective investment, for example in innovative energy infrastructure or water quality, in order to conserve a city’s heritage and enhance its public spaces. Acknowledgement of separate enti- ties and future values is a component of a producer’s anticipatory and imaginative power. Nature, water, landscape, accessibility, heritage and architecture combine to create collective values and inspire newFigure 3. Create collective values (© Urhahn Urban Design) forms of utilisation. These are strategically important elements for an urban planner of the 21st century: common values make it possible to dare dream about the environment of tomorrow. In anticipation of this future vision, the planner works on developing an area’s quality, unique character and coherence, confident of the city user’s resilience and conflict-resolving nature. Supervise open developments Urban functions, architecture, density, and lifestyle are constantly changing factors. Sustained development means that a city district or quarter must be able to adapt according to these changes, in terms of housing and employment functionality. The non-linear design of a city ensures its vitality. Simultaneous supervision of project initiators, in varying frequencies and directions, is of paramount importance. The blueprint must be absolutely in tune with the map indicating a wide range of possibilities and specific opportunities. An urban plan must inspire a broad range of participants and, at the same time, be able to adapt to the rules of the game as they are being played.Figure 4. Supervise open developments (© Urhahn Urban Design) Be user-oriented Participatory structures must surpass participation itself. The energy, creativity and investment capacity of all involved par- ties must be embraced in order to meet future challenges head on. Fresh approaches and resources are needed, from micro-financing of local projects to digital visual platforms. Innovations can already be found in abundance, but must be intensified in order to reach as many potential project initiators possible, from top businesses through to deprived urban districts. Residents, associations, com- panies and co-operatives should be given an active role in urban renewal initiatives. Boosting of endogenous investment capacity plays a central role. In practice, this is already a broken tradition: urban development driven by economy instead of by public hous- ing. The urban planner’s designs should be custom-made and tai-Figure 5. Be user-oriented (© Urhahn Urban Design) lored to the resources of the user.34 urbanism week
  • 35. What does this mean for the urban planner?The greatest challenge for urban design in the 21st century is find- Oostenburg asing a balance between matters of common importance and creatingfreedom whenever possible. The urban planner’s role, however, goes an example ofbeyond the game of building, renovating and transforming functions–something demanding expert guidance of building programmes spontaneous cityusing simple rules of play. The planner will have to assume variousguises– as designer, enticer, mathematician and draughtsman. But the developmentplanner will also have to play the role of negotiator or even contrac-tor, supervising active collaboration, whilst challenging and engaging Zoom invarious relevant parties. The island of Oostenburg at the east side of Amsterdam’s cityThe interventions of the urban planner are strongly related to time. centre is currently owned byIn constructing urban frameworks we are used to working on a mid- housing corporation Stadgenoot.term time scale of 10-20 years. At the same time we should provide a They have decided the develop-long term vision on what an area could become over time: not a fixed ment of the island should be ablue print, but an image, a dream, a wish which steers initiatives. And project for all possible partici-we can help mobilizing short term initiatives, creating dynamics and pants: from one owner to manypossibilities for use. owners, from a few users to many users.In reaction to the current economical crisis, we need to scrutiniseour planning strategies. Instead of just making cut-backs or reduc- Collective valueing costs, we should be focusing on weighing the value of the urban A frame work of public realmenvironment and on mobilising smaller budgets on a larger scale. The creates a solid basis for plot bySpontaneous City is no longer just a means of opportunity, but has plot development. The VOCnow become a necessary economic reality. quay along the main waterway is a public quay combining his- torical buildings opening up to- wards the waterside, relicts from the industrial past and water transport. An urban beach is the catalyst for this area: people are attracted to an area they were not used to come. Supervise open developments We only fix the essential struc- ture. Dynamic regulation can respond to the needs of the users. Rules for the plots will be made per phase: lessons learned in pre- vious phases will influence the rules for future developments and can set higher or lower standards. Be user-oriented The aim is a mixed use area, com- parable to the inner city of Am- sterdam. The whole area should be one function: mixed use for everything to allow for maxi- mum diversity in use. Users can combine functions on a plot and create their own infill.Figure 6. City Beach ‘Roest’, Amsterdam Oostenburg (© Urhahn Urban Design) urbanism week 35
  • 36. Managing urban flooding inthe face of continuous changeMany cities around the world are facing the challenges of sustainable living and develop-ment and are exploring ways to enhance their ability to manage an uncertain future. Driv-ers and pressures include relative wealth; population growth; the provision of food; lifestyleexpectations; energy and resource use and climate change. These pose new challenges for theway in which we manage urban floods. There is no clear cut, ‘best’ solution for the avoid-ance of catastrophic flood events or even how to ‘live with (all) floods’. The way forwardis thus far from clear although what we can be sure about is that we are rapidly entering aphase of fundamental change and our willingness and ability to adapt to and mitigate theworst effects of this will be critical.We live in ‘yesterday’s’ cities. Many of the urban patterns that we see some urbanisation pathways are more desirable than others becausetoday – such as city layouts, buildings, roads and land ownership – are they will likely lead to more (flood) resilient cities. These experienceslegacies of up to a century and a half of urban policy and decision- highlight the need to take a completely new and different perspec-making; even longer in some of our cities. Tomorrow’s cities will tive on urban design, planning, and building. Creative thinking andalso be shaped by the decisions we make today. They must respond innovations in socio-economic and technological systems are essen-to more rapid changes in physical, social, economic and institutional tial to change existing management structures and regimes. Thereconditions than recent generations have been used to. is a growing recognition that responses which enhance resilience can be implemented gradually in combination with autonomous retro-In general, cities are becoming larger and denser. Urban expan- fitting, and offer prospects for action in the short term in regionalsion is an issue of serious concern and is often placed as a justifica- planning and development in cities. These interventions shouldtion for densification. The fundamental question of whether urban operate in a mode of constant learning and experimentation. Thoseexpansion should be resisted, accepted or welcomed is still largely interventions do not only reduce flood impacts, but also create newunresolved. From the perspective of flooding, concerns for indis- opportunities and co-benefits.criminate urban expansion or ‘sprawl’ have captured the attentionof both policymakers and academics during the last decade. This The term ‘resilience’ is often used in discussions about sustainabil-is because, alongside climate change, it is considered as the major ity. For some, resilience is a more useful concept than sustainabil-driver for increased flood risk. Sprawl will occur where unplanned, ity, for instance when it is used within the context of sustainabledecentralised development dominates, as is common in developing urbanisation. This is partly because resilience embraces explicitlycountries. Where growth around the periphery of the city is coor- the dynamic nature of (complex) systems such as cities, whereasdinated by a strong urban policy, more compact and less vulnerable sustainability is often conceived as a goal to which we should col-forms of urban development can be secured. It is evident that these lectively aspire. For others, however, sustainability is an attributeapproaches to development have direct consequences for the wayfloods are managed both in terms of the vulnerability of the urbanarea and its inhabitants and also in terms of the often indiscriminateeffect that urban growth has on the generation of floods in termsof runoff and flood probabilities. At first glance there seem to beconflicting interests between the flood-risk managers who advo-cate open, green spaces in their cities and those who adhere to thecompact cities concept as the sustainable urban form for controllingtransport-related greenhouse gas emissions.Urbanisation, both as a social phenomenon and physical transforma-tion, is driven by processes that take place at varying temporal scalesfrom relatively slow (e.g. migration, rising water demand, sea levelrise and changes in laws) to rapid (e.g. natural disasters, changesin regulations and economic systems). While there is much that isuncertain about the urban future, some recent experiences show that36 urbanism week
  • 37. Chris Zevenbergen Director Business Development at Dura Vermeer Professor of Flood Resilience of Urban Systems at UNESCO-IHE / TU Delft “There is no single ‘magic’ recipe for successful planning of a city in response to the challenges of sustainability, climate change and flood risks.”of dynamic, adaptive systems that are able to flourish and grow in green spaces must be included in any urban flood-risk manage-the face of change. ment strategy. We also learned of the need for long-term plan- ning. A long-term perspective allows us to identify opportunitiesResilience in cities depends both on its physical form and character- for synergy and to overcome barriers for implementation, such asistics as well as on the people’s capacity, and social behaviour. Com- investments that both enhance resilience and provide short-termmunity resilience requires self-reliant, skilled and capable citizens additional economic, social or environmental benefits. A long-who have ‘developed iterative learning with mature face-to-face social term perspective is also fundamental for incorporating sustain-networks’. There is no blueprint for urban sustainability, but there is ability indicators, such as life cycle cost. Planning with a long-terma growing recognition that innovative planning approaches and pro- perspective thus opens the way to develop strategies that are morecesses based on these resilience principles will guide citizens and other resilient, adaptable and responsive. It also requires skilled andstakeholders the way to become co-producers of a sustainable com- capable stakeholders who are knowledgeable about the systemsmunity that can respond to change and disruption, and pro-actively they live in and are capable of mainstreaming flood-risk manage-reduce vulnerabilities. These approaches (and processes) should not ment in the process of (re)development.be viewed as models that can be applied in all contexts since they areshaped by the social and cultural norms of particular places. In most industrialised countries, the building stock is mainly ageing and there is much heritage. In the coming decades, the redevelop-There is no single ‘magic’ recipe for successful planning of a city ment (c.f. renovation and modernisation) of the existing stock is ain response to the challenges of sustainability, climate change and high priority and certainly of higher priority than the provision offlood risks. This is partly because every citty has a unique context. new housing. European cities are composed of mixtures of buildingsWhat we have learned is that urban design, master planning and of different ages and life spans, but within 30 years, around one-the management of buildings, infrastructure, public utilities and third of its building stock will probably be renewed. The same holds true for many other cities of the Western world, where continuous restructuring will be common practice. Redevelopment projects may thus provide windows of opportunity to make adjustments in the process of urban renewal in order to restore old mistakes and to build in more resilience by adapting and restructuring the urban fabric to new conditions of increased flood risk. The developing world, however, is not constrained by past investments, and much of their ‘urbanisation’ is to come in the next few decades. There is a huge challenge to exploit this momentum. If we are able to seize these windows of opportunity and share good practices via city-to- city networks stretching across country boundaries and other social networks, than we can create the groundswell for real practical change towards flood-resilient cities on a more global scale. There are a growing number of emerging examples of innovatory initia- tives changing the way in which these challenges are being addressed and of which we can learn! urbanism week 37
  • 38. In your opinion, What is the future direction of Urbanism?KARIEN HOFHUIS Romain Duroux Ana Rousseaud Tanja Grubic Lene BjørnøGraduated Urbanist Graduated Urbanist Msc 3 Urbanism Graduated UrbanistVisiting from France Visiting from France TU Delft student Visiting from NorwayWorkshop: Workshop: Workshop: Workshop:“Branding for Development” by MAB “Branding for development” by MAB “Client of the Future” by Urban “Client of the Future” by UrbanDevelopment Development Synergy Synergy“We are here to find out what you, “The municipality does not involve “I tend not to think about the future “I think that what I’ve learned isThe Dutch urbanists, think the people in earlier phases, and there- too much. I really want to enjoy my that the situation in Norway is veryfuture of our profession is. We are fore we want to start a type of non- studies and be de-attached from my different from Holland, also becausefrom France and spent last year profit organization to do temporary profession. I firmly believe educa- we haven’t been hit by the creditfinishing our Masters in New York, projects in the city. In New York we tion is the developing process in crunch in the same way. I think thatwhere we learned a lot about Jane saw a lot of projects dealing with which you discover for yourself your our role as urbanists is getting veryJacobs and the New York top-down the vacant lots and the temporary position as an urbanist. I tend not to important, especially as the media-planning process. We are primarily use of these. Being in Delft, we are believe impressions I receive from tor between all the specialties andinterested in short-term projects now looking for your point of view. the practicing world because I want skills. We become the mediatorand what tools there are for doing to remain positive in my position overseeing the whole picture.these. ‘We see Holland as avant-garde.’ at the current moment. How I see I also agree with the lectur- myself after this workshop is that I ers that we have a responsibilityBy short term projects we mean the France takes a lot of examples have to be somewhat of a visionary to push for what we think andempty deserted places in the city from northern countries. We heard and very innovative and into risks. believe in ourselves. We need towhich need a temporary function in the lecture that the urbanist has be creative and innovative andsuch as a playground or an arts to specialize, this is very true. The ‘In other words, leave the comfort create our own importance withinfunction to keep them a lively part Urbanist should be a facilitator. We zone in order to test yourself and society, the city and the urbanof the city. In France we have a lot believe this part of the profession explore your own limits.’ realm. You also have the respon-of big projects with many parties is growing, more than the design sibility to develop your great ideasinvolved and many management aspect of the work. This is our In any context I think my main view- and create your own work.systems, but without attention to strategy after graduating. We are point is to focus on my self-devel- the actual small scale needs of the finding out what different parts opment and remain optimistic about You need to have the personal drive,people and the neighborhood. of the world are saying about the what’s waiting for me. If you work the courage, and the perseverancePeople are complaining because the function of the profession and on things with a positive attitude, it to establish yourself as an urbanist.architectural objects do not meet taking these inputs back to France will all work out. Regardless of eve- These are things that you can’t learntheir uses.” to begin our own path in Urbanism. rything else, is it not the final goal in through your studies: you just have Because we have graduated, we life to enjoy, relax, and be happy?” to have that passion.” are free to go.”Romain Ana Tanja Lene38 urbanism week
  • 39. Urban Integration Hubert Habib was born in 1962 in Paris. He obtained his degree Master in Civil Engineering at ENPC Paris. As said by himself he was first working in managing the risks in kilo- joules as scientific researcher, thanInterview with Hubert Habib he was managing the risks of the ‘kilo-euros’. After several functions within Grontmij he is managing the risks of ‘kilo-motivation’ as the Man- aging Director of Grontmij NederlandThe lecture you presented was interest- work together with urban designers? Holding since 2010.ing, it was a very technical story. Later youtold that you think professionals should “There are urban designers working at Gront-take a distance from functionality, and go mij. We learn them to always ask ‘why’. There Why do you get up and go to work infor esthetic. Do you believe the starting is a value chain, which is actually an ongoing the morning?point for planning should be taken from an circle, consisting of conceptors, integrators “Because I believe that our work is a wayesthetical point of view? and calculators. The urban designer is already to express our involvement in society, involved in the first stage of the projects we step by step we can make the world a bit“Technology makes it possible to be esthetic. do. Urban designers can be part of all the better.”We can create things that would not be pos- three roles. The best projects develop whensible without advanced techniques, and sophis- you put people together. Urban planners work What did you learn outside of educa-ticated technology. People like Gehry and together with other specialists. tion that has proved valuable today?Koolhaas have an engineering knowledge that We are often talking about existing areas, “Try to see the things through the per-makes it feasible to have an esthetic building. which the urbanist at Grontmij needs to spective of the other person. You shouldThanks to modern programs, we can keep change, revitalize, and make sustainable. The not only listen, you should also hear theesthetics. Doorzonwoningen are about func- urbanist integrates the requirements for water, other, which is crucial in communication.”tionality, not livability. Esthetics is what it is all the underground cables, the infrastructure.about; do not be just a project developer, but The urbanist can be the integrator bringing What would be the name of yourthink about esthetics. everything together.” chair at Delft University? I am a technical engineer, but I really believe in “Urban Integration’what Umberto Eco says, the power of esthetics.” In your work at Grontmij, you value sustain- ability very much. What does ‘sustainability’ How do friends characterize you?Do you value detailing much? mean for you? “Dutch friends say I think too much, but I am just philosophizing.”“I do not believe in details. I believe in crafts- “The technical answer is that it is about zeromanship. We need to ask ourselves ‘why’, carbon. However, this is not feasible. We Who is you favourite Urbanist?not just ‘how’. That is what I ask of all of our cannot reach this, but we always try not to “If I tell it you will think I am a chauvinist,employees. make the existing situation worse. but I think the way Busquets thinks about In the lecture you spoke about the new role The philosophical answer, which I personally the world is very relevant.”of the railway station, you even called it ‘the new believe in, is that the habitat is a shared assetchurches of the city’. How do you mean that? of the human flora and fauna. Everyone has a What are the challenges for your cityThe multimodal terminals are the new cent- right to have a piece of land. in the future?ers of the city. They were planned at the edge We as humans are higher in the scale of “I like to think that we move from func-of the city, but have now become the center, Darwin, so we are the ones that can manage tionality to a more esthetical approach,where everybody meets each other. the habitat. Therefore it is our duty to take all like in Barcelona, where they developed And please, make it esthetical! In the Neth- aspects of the flora and fauna into account squares in cooperation with inhabitants. Ierlands we cannot make a decision, everything when acting upon it.” believe in open communities, in sharing.”should be cheap. We want to keep the oldbuilding, and build the rest around it. Compare It is great to hear such a philosophical What is out-dated in Building Sci-this for instance to Copenhagen or in the UK, answer from someone who is the director ence education?where great new railway station developments of such a technical company. “The vertical cities. Sorry, I don’t believeare going on.” the story of Rem Koolhaas. I believe in “I simply believe that without a social philosophy high buildings, but I also believe thatWe are very interested in the role that urban- you cannot motivate people at a large company.” people have to feel the ground.”ists play nowadays. How do you at Grontmij ROBIN BOELSUMS & HANNAH CREMERS urbanism week 39
  • 40. Urbanism Graduation projectsFrom Markus Appenzeller we learned that there are many similaritiesin approach when working on projects all over the world. However,Appenzeller characterizes the Western world as a world of stagnationwith a high GDP level but stagnation in population growth. Yet theEastern world and South America and Africa are still growing in bothGDP level and population. Therefore he states that designers shouldbe aware of these processes and should design accordingly.With this in mind Atlantis selected three recent graduation projects,that can be seen as typical of the recent production of the departmentof urbanism. These projects are situated in Poland, China and Iranand react differently to growth and stagnation. Finally, we will showall recent graduation projects and the subjects they are on.Figure 1. Master plan Figure 2-3. Before and after the intervention Anna Gralka about her project: “The project ‘Silesia – Transformation of Post-Industrial Areas in Bytom, South Poland’ refers to the rapid social, economi- cal, and environmental degradation of the post-industrial areas of Silesia. The Roz- bark Coal Mine was closed in 2004 leaving a large abandoned area in the middle of the city. The design proposes a distribution of the functional requirements of the city over the total site in the form of thematic squares on the historical structure of the previous mine buildings. The development of the project is based on the question of how to generate a new, positive cultural landscape without denying the historical identity of its location.”Figure 4. Impression40 urbanism week
  • 41. Figure 5. Redefinition of the wallFigure 6. Axonometric drawing public core Yin Mu on her project: commercial-living mixed area “In the cloud wall project, the alternative role underground parking of the boundary between public and private lot space in the realization of urban vitality is re- commercial cloud wall examined, especially the walls and gates which exist as the concrete representation of the con- village cloud wall flict. This project tries to confront these issues thin cloud wall in the context of China’s economic booming green space stage with people’s fast-changing demands. privatized public space It is all about questioning and learning from public corridor the making of ancient Chinese cities, while existing gateway adjusting the solutions to the modern city. It is admitted that we may still need walls and gates added new gateway in future Chinese cities, but what remains green corridor important to explore is how we manage to metro station reverse the walls and gates from a negative ele- bus stop ment into a positive and flexible component public bicycle point for the development of the future city, eventu- ally changing the experience of living.” Strategic plan Redefinition of wallFigure 7. Strategic plan @all: Looking for a baby sitter. @kate: Recommend a good baby @all: Newcomer Welcom Party urbanism week @all members: Chorus rehearse tonight at coummunity+! 41 tonight!!! at Community + @all: sitter - Aunt Liu. New lecture series! @all: @HOAs: Please clean your rubbish in Please fix the corridor light. lobby. @all: WELCOME @all: PRIVATE LOST! Nancy’s dog was Single apartment for rent! lost! Help her! With private parking lot! LAKE FIREWORKS @all: Vote for Community! RESTAURANT
  • 42. Figure 7. GIS map showing 500m radius (10 minutes walking)Figure 8. Urban node BOULEVARDS- INSTITUTIONAL PLAYERSKeimanesh TaherehLINKING herOF EXHCNAGES - on PLACE project: - LINKING INSTITUTIONS BY BOULEVARD - CREATING SPECIALIZED STREETS - SQUARES AS PUBLIC SPACE“This project consists of a design researchon polarization of Mashhad. The historicalanalysis shows how religious globalizationhas stratified the city, resulting in two cities;one for the inhabitants and the second for the 165pilgrims. The design strategy introduces aconcept of depolarization, where segregated GREEN BELTneighbourhoods benefit from the pilgrimage, TRANSITION ZONE BETWEEN OLD AND NEWresponding to the following CONSTRUCTION AND -OPEN GREEN SPACE AS RECREATION -SPACE FOR NEW research ques-tions: How can the dual nature of the city bereconciled in a way which is positive for theless powerful? How is it possible to improvesynergy and connections between the oldnucleus and the rest of the city?” Figure 9. Master plan Figure 10. Upgrading the street PATCHES: CONCEPT OF MIX- INFORMAL PUBLIC SPACE -LINKING HIDDEN PLACES AS NEW ATTRACHTION AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS42 urbanism week-PEDESTRINISEAS INFORMALROUTES SPACES INTEGRATED LOCAL AND GLOBAL STREETS ) -BROWNFIELS HISTORICAL PUBLIC (THE HIGH -CHANGING RESIDENTIAL TO MIX OF ACCOMODATION, COM-MERICAL AND HOUSING ACCORDING TO THEIR TYPOLOGY
  • 43. Figure 11. GIS map showing 500m radius (10 minutes walking)Figure 12. Upgrading the street urbanism week 43
  • 44. How did this workshop help you define your position as an Urbanist?KARIEN HOFHUISGijs Briet Sladjana Mijatovic Hanne van den Berg Laetitia MartinaMSC 3 Urbanism MSC 3 Urbanism Graduated Urbanist Graduated UrbanistTU Delft student TU Delft student Former TU Delft student Visiting TU DelftWorkshop: Workshop: Workshop: Workshop:“Urban Criminality” by SITE Urban “Negotiate Design” by Province of “Young Starters” by Plein06 and “Young Starters” by Plein06 andDevelopment South Holland Young BNSP Young BNSP“This workshop helped me to get a “I learned that my ideas as an “I found it a nice workshop because “I found the workshop very interest-better perspective about the respon- urbanist cannot be realized if I you get to talk to people who were ing because in order to become asibility that we as future Urbanists don’t understand who is involved, facing the same choices as I a young professional urbanist youhave, as well as our opportunities. who you have to convince and couple of years ago. They told us apparently need to be professionalThe speaker developed a perspec- negotiate with. The profession is how they made that choice, and how from the start, also with your finan-tive of urbanism, which made us much more political and economi- they worked it out. The workshop cial stuff.realize how important it is to do this cal than I anticipated, making good ‘Young Starters’ consisted out ofand to take this into account. Our argumentation extremely important. three groups led by professionals I want to start my own business andprofession is not only about creating who each made a different choice in it was good to hear from other youngbeautiful designs, but also about The workshop itself involved role their career path. There were groups professionals how they handle theirhow to get there. The workshop did play, where everyone was given led by independent urbanists. One financial administration, and hownot involve a lot of discussion, but a paper with a role on it. Every- group was led by a person from the they create a network for future pro-mostly showed what the speaker one had to argue their position, municipality and one group took an jects. It is sometimes difficult to askperspective of the issue was. which for me was the protection of urban design point of view. money for my assignments, because nature. This turned out to be very I enjoy the work that I do.It was definitely good to hear from a hard because I had no money and Per group we discussed the argu- The workshop was discussingguy in social housing rather than just had to convince other parties to ments to choose for this path in in groups the different fields ofa visionary Urbanist talking about his help me. your career. What do you actually urbanism by bringing in differentawesome design.” do when you work for instance as young professionals who all work I had to use strong arguments and an independent urbanist? I think in a different field of Urbanism, the play with words.” this is a relevant question for all government, urban design practices students. It is good to know what and independent starters. your options are. The workshop confirmed that I am an urbanist, and I want to stay an It might not have changed the way I urbanist. In order to do so you have see myself as an urbanist, but it was to participate and be active. You relevant to see, and hear, how the have to think on a wider level.” different fields of Urbanism are in practice.”Gijs Sladjana Hanne Laetitia44 urbanism week
  • 45. Having considered the position of the Urbanist within a continuous state of change,we end this section of Atlantis on the Urbanism Week 2011. Atlantis #22.4Urban Landscape, to be published in January will continue with the socio-spatialcontributions of the Urbanist to the city.In the next section we will continue to explore the seemingly invisible economic forcesthat shape our cities.The City is becoming explorative urbanism series #3 Ben Cerveny, James Burke and Juha van ‘t Zelfde vurb www.vurb.euThe Medium is the Metropolis information that are always growing and trans- environments and characteristics that giveThe age of ubiquitous computation is con- forming. We are only now beginning to develop a city its texture and unique life, the needsdensing around us even as you read this. The the tools that allow us to see these patterns of of citizens often evolve beyond the pur-various systems throughout a modern city information over huge spans of time and space, poses or constraints upon which buildingsthat you probably interact with everyday are or in any local context in realtime. or infrastructure were initially constructed.beginning to maintain persistent memories The problem of designing urban redevelop-of their own use, communicate with each Just as the industrial age transformed cities ment to meet new needs without disruptingother about their status, and even reconfigure with the addition of towers to the skyline and the texture and life of the city has frustratedthemselves based on your dynamic needs. far-reaching transit networks, the digital age many a planning department. will bring new urban-scale infrastructure intoIn the same way that social networks and dig- everyday experience. Where the products of Digital culture has been evolving strate-ital representation have had profound conse- industrial urban evolution were huge physical gies to approach its own development chal-quences on the cultures of print, music, and manifestations that celebrated the magnitude lenges. The production of complex pro-video, so too will the urban fabric of the city of urban culture, the digital era is instead pro- grams like operating systems require theitself be transformed into an information lay- ducing equally impressive manifestations that orchestration of countless intricate tasksered, collaboratively shapable medium. live “in the cloud”. across hundreds of participants, while the building of massive online references likeCivic Information Systems Collaborative redevelopment Wikipedia combine the efforts of thou-The modern city is built not just upon physi- The city is forever changing. While it is sands. We can build tools that provide thecal infrastructure, but also patterns and flows of essential to preserve and nurture many same massively collaborative framework 45
  • 46. around the transformation of the city itself.Urban Systems LiteracyAs a culture, we are evolving more and moreways to perceive patterns in complexity.Most of our scientific pursuits in the last halfa century have been in mapping the behav-ior of complex systems. We have even devel-oped an entire field of entertainment, gamedesign, to tap the enjoyment we instinctivelyfeel in understanding ‘rule spaces’. Thesenew literacies can now be focused on theweb of relationships that make up a city.Modeling techniques popularized by sci-ence, and made both popular and cultur-ally meaningful by game design, can now beused by people on the streets to get a betterunderstanding of what is shaping the worldright around them.Responsive EnvironmentsWithin a dynamic urban infrastructure, city-scale services like power, data, and transpor-tation begin to adapt in realtime to the chang-ing needs of the public. Potentially, otherdigital services like projection and audio sys- Figure 1. View over the city of Barcelonatems, or even the transformation of physicalspace, could be layered into the public sphere.What are the mechanisms by which these ser- and design research concerning urban com- the Netherlands, highlight the frequencyvices are provisioned by the tasks that citizens putational systems. The VURB founda- of empty office and state-owned propertyutilize them for? tion, based in Amsterdam, provides direc- reminding us of the huge waste of space in tion and resources to a portfolio of projects our cities; dusty, static spaces hidden awayUrban Interface Policy investigating how our cultures might come behind thick doors under lock and keyAs the city becomes the site of dynamic sys- to use networked digital resources to change from city neighbors who would wish totems that can provide services and transform the way we understand, build, and inhabit reuse them.environments in public space, it is imperative cities. Of these projects, two are highlightedthat we consider carefully the ethics and poli- here: Vacant Amsterdam, a study for expos- At the same time there exists a rich traditiontics of these infrastructures. In the smart city, ing empty state-owned spaces via network- of hybrid spaces and within many cities a con-what is written as programmatic software ing technologies to local communities; and tinual ebb and flow of old being appropriated‘code’ can easily become de facto ‘law’ as it Urbanode, a prototype for discoverable ser- for reuse. The arrival of networked technolo-imposes permissioning schemes and identity vices in public space. gies has resulted in new sites and services con-regimes on its participants. So far, the inter- tinuing these rich tradtions while updatingnet, and the open source software that powers Vacant Amsterdam: Platform for cities how we go about reclaiming empty spaces,much of it, has remained remarkably adapt- VURB Foundation together with partners from the enervating rise of pop-ups to smallable to the ideals of democratic and egalitar- will explore the reuse potential of vacant communities and issue networks.ian societies. Every infrastructural advance, urban space through tools like social net-however, goes through a watershed moment works. This scan of the near future will give Exposing empty state-owned spaces via net-where the governing design principles of the urban planners and civil servants as well as working technologies to local communitiestechnology itself begin to influence the types state-owned property managers insight and VURB Foundation is investigating how net-of societal experiences they might produce. the possibility to see real demand for space worked technologies working as a civic ser-We need to attempt to understand the cul- reuse and experiment with how resource allo- vice may gather and make visible unusedtural ramifications of such infrastructural cation would change under the impact of net- buildings and their progeny, rooms and corri-design decisions in this context. worked technologies. dors, as a low level digital architecture which can be used by others to negotiate reuse andVURB Space and the City increase the “refresh rate” at which citiesVURB is a European framework for policy Surprisingly, two projects, in Spain and reallocate space. The project will aim to help46
  • 47. “Citizens will begin to gain the ability to affect their environmentin new ways, using city services the way they would use a digitalapplication in an online environment.” Urbanode world prototyping of scriptable public space, Citizens will begin to gain the ability to affect where environmental controls like lighting, their environment in new ways, using city ser- audio, and projection can be controlled via vices the way they would use a digital applica- a local javascript server. This local server tion in an online environment. Transportation can then present scripted applications, built systems, lighting systems, public media hard- around specific tasks and user scenarios, asidentify citizens urban spatial hunger while ware like active signage and sound-systems dynamically discoverable services to citizensworking with partner organizations like local will become objects available for activation, in the space, whether via a mobile browsergovernment and housing organizations to control, and coordination by tools and ser- or through gesture and voice commands.make the connection between law, space and vices that citizens use in their everyday lives. Ultimately, the aim of these projects is toits responsible management and availability. Through collaborative interaction with such understand the implications of ‘digital expe- tools, users of public spaces can configure them rience architecture’ as an aspect of urbanThis project is then meant to augment for specific temporary functions and even design, where public space becomes dynami-existing practises and communities, of begin to ‘perform’ space together. cally adaptive to the needs of its occupantswhich there are many, as an exploration and the city weaves together a mesh of theseinto how these might co-exist. We ask Prototypes for discoverable services in dynamic locations into a platform for citi-whether the fallow ground of vacant city public space zen-enabling network applications.space can be repopulated and made to a One of our main research objectives atfar great extent accessible to citizens? Can VURB is to explore the possible dynamics VURB has just completed an initial devel-we reappropriate more urban fallow space between a digitally empowered citizenry opment effort toward enabling such pro-to its inhabitants at a reasonable price and and their increasingly ‘smart’, reactive grammable spaces. The Urbanode project, aeven maintained by volunteers? public environment. What types of network research partnership with Digitale Pioniers, services in public space will become insti- begins the process of creating public systemA network of vacant spaces tutionalized public infrastructure, taken software by wrapping the controls for light-VURB Foundation intends to build a social for granted like transit systems? How will ing control systems, such as those found insoftware platform prototype listing the empty public and private domains of network ser- theaters and nightclubs, in a javascript pro-buildings (or the parts of them that are) in the vices interact? Who will be allowed to make gramming framework. Recently, a prototypecity. Citizens will then be able to join this net- changes to environmental systems in public of this system has successfully been deployedwork and express demand for reusing such contexts? And whose role is it to make any for testing and development in the Melk-spaces using voting, discussion and simple of these decisions? weg, one of the premiere venues for liveconversational and design tools. This will music in Amsterdam.be developed in partnership with local gov- In order to investigate these questions,ernment and organizations already running VURB has embarked on a series of soft- Spatial Object Modelhybrid spaces. ware development projects to enable real- Javascript is well on its way to being the 47
  • 48. Figure 2. Control interfacedefault choice of lightweight scripting nota- In this scenario, let’s suppose there is only services data, mobile device polling, or sensortions for all types of webservices. It has one called “Light Commander”. The user data] to attributes of environmental media-become common practice for any large-scale selects this application and the browser tion like lighting or audio. Let’s suppose thesocial networks, streaming media services, retrieves the appropriate web interface, spotlighting on an obelisk in a public squareand informations systems to present a pub- which initially presents a schematic view is programmable using Urbanode. A citizenlicly accessible javascript application pro- of the lighting in the space, with each light with permission to control those lights couldgramming interface, or API, so that third color-coded to indicate whether it is under build an application that displayed realtimeparty developers can call on their functions or the control of the venue operator, another sporting information using abstract colorread their data in any program. In HTML5, user, or available to be controlled. The user patterns and sequences. As citizens enteredthe latest specification for web browser func- taps on an ‘open’ spotlight and is presented the square, they could consult their mobiletionality, javascript takes on animation capa- with a control interface with a color wheel, devices, open the Urbanode browser, choosebilities with the concept of a canvas that the directional controls, sliders for focus and the “SportsMonument” application, and learnapplication can draw to, as well as the more brightness, and light pattern icons. There what the color mappings represented (say atraditional mechanisms for creating dynamic might also be a timer counting down a short soccer match in which the team colors of theapplications by manipulating the Document interval until the light reverts to ‘open’ and team in the lead would be displayed, brighterObject Model. In Urbanode, we start to must be re-acquired. depending on how big the lead is).apply these same document-related scriptingparadigms to space itself. How do you write Environmental control “Welcome to the 20-teens, here at last.”applications in javascript that treat space as a Environmental control is oriented around These examples are by no means an exhaus-canvas? What does the Spatial Object Model, locations within the space, rather than spe- tive catalogue of possible uses of the Urban-or SOM, look like? cific pieces of controllable hardware. In the ode infrastructure. On the contrary, we hope scenario we will consider here, let’s imagine this initial framework inspires a whole rangeUser scenarios a restaurant in which each table has network- of uses, many surprising to us. We plan toIn thinking about designing for programma- accessible properties like “mood” or “energy continue adding to the catalog of environ-ble spaces, it might be useful to consider a few level”. When the diners first sit, they can open mental services Urbanode can control, start-user scenarios. In this first pass at understand- the Urbanode browser and scan a symbol on ing a broader range of lighting equipmenting the design opportunities, lets look at use the table with their phone’s camera to log-in and eventually audio hardware and projec-cases in 3 separate categories of interaction: to that space. The application presented is tors. This kickoff phase in collaboration a simple scrolling list of mood choices like with Digitale Pioniers marks a strong start1) Direct Manipulation “romantic”, “party”, and “family”. Each to an ongoing investigation of how we will2) Environmental Control choice dynamically effects the table-specific build and live in the public spaces of the3) Ambient Information lighting brightness, color, and variation over future. Or, as our dear friend and inspira- time. These mood choices might also recon- tor Bruce Sterling responded to the endlessDirect manipulation figure the music stream or other audio, and opportunites for Urbanode:Direct manipulation is perhaps the most also be displayed to the staff on a separatestraightforward example. A user might monitor so they might choose to service tables “Man, that’s for sure. Welcome to the 20-teens,come into a danceclub or other venue and differently depending on selected mood. here at last.”open their Urbanode browser on theirmobile device. The Urbanode browser Ambient informationwould query the local server and return a Ambient information applications serve as This article has previously been published in Volume #28:list of applications available in the space. ways to map data from network sources [web- Internet of Things.48
  • 49. Crisis of the Dancing CityVincent SchipperEditor ArchisWe have been told, the crisis has taken its toll and the wheels of devel-opment, progress, modernization and the hopes of urban scale better-ment have come to a grinding halt. In tandem, the spectacle of num-bers incites fear of a fully urbanized society. Presently, and globally,we occupy urban spaces with the hope to address the increasingly vio-lent vortex represented by those numbers. When confronted at such ascale, we lose sight of some of the details.We are often confronted with images of increasingly confined livingspaces, degrees of squalor and bereavement (especially in a time ofbanal consumption, and consumption taken for granted) that wesimply will not find acceptable. It is from this vantage point that weaddress urbanization. Our world is increasingly urbanized, humanscontinue to move in troves from rural or suburban to urban settings —or, cities expand to engulf other types of spaces. When considering thegeneral trend of urbanization, this is the reality. We cannot escape thefact that our western world is further urbanized. However, things arecomplicated. Western Europe, though the ratio of urbanized versusnon-urbanized populations is increasingly in favor of the urban, thisdoes not necessitate that urban density qua human habitation becomesincreasingly stifling. Considering that general population of urban set-tings in highly-developed nations is projected to see relative declineover the next few decades, namely those in China and India (the latterbeing better classified as sprouting satellite cities), while European andthe developed sector (the United States and Western Europe) remainfor the most part stable qua growth.Granted, but which crisis are we talking about? The sovereign debt ment is increasingly an urban challenge. As cities grow, making thesecrisis is raging, the crisis of architectural billing, we are all confronted improvements becomes more complicated.”by a plethora of variations on what could be going wrong or what willgo wrong. However, the core of this exercise is that this condition has This is our context.created (for an increasingly marginalized group, but with great reper-cussions) a tension in urban thought. Urbanists look at the city from Movement for a city is as blood flows through us. However, unlikea birds-eye view, looking to answer its riddles, and architects (with the human body there is no centralized heart from which to pumpsome exceptions) lose sight of the bigger picture when considering life. Central government structures, major regional bank head-local solutions. Aren’t both professions collapsible? quarters and the like cannot be considered the heart of cities. What pushes movement is in fact inherent in every subject and object pop-We can extract the increasing importance of the cross section of archi- ulating the urban environment; the devil is in the details. Here it istect and urbanist from the UNFPA’s mission statement (from their also important to point out that we should not only refer to physicalState of the World Population 1996 report) “Improving social and eco- arteries –such as roads, tram lines, or subterranean passages – therenomic conditions for all people and promoting sustainable develop- is clearly far more conceivable. Rather the frames of social move- 49
  • 50. "What pushes movement is in fact inherent in every subject and object ment must also be considered in this way; ‘Modernism’ in the American dance means observable in economic terms, social stagna-take parkour for example. One could even unswerving and unsentimental directness of idea tion prevailed. The stagnation of the mod-go so far as to say that social flows are thor- presented in a style wholly dictated by that idea, ernist project was not only the immobilityoughly more encompassing than their physi- with everything ruthlessly whittled away that of the structures themselves, but the move-cal counterparts. is non-essential to the main structural lines. … ment that these structures evoked had been Be the idea great or small, beautiful or ugly, it reduced to a mechanical movement; havingThis is in no way a unique thought, but it stands forth naked and unashamed. In other lost most social dimensions.must be reiterated. Today, perhaps more so words its style of presentation is absorbed by thethan ever before, due to the banalization of idea and becomes transparent. (Margaret Gage, Though it is easy to level criticism as such,techno-utopic views of the future city, the “A Study in American Modernism”, p. 230) one must concede that it is difficult to imag-intricacies of movement underlined by the ine a city in movement when one cannotidea that people move as much as building The modernist project from the viewpoint immediately see the expected changes.move is being further lost. At the coattails of universalism and design to total comple- However the stagnation presented above isof the increased interest in techno-dystopists tion, embodied in itself a condition of stag- reiterated today, ironically enough, throughsuch as Fuller, the modern project seems to nation. Framed within the image of utopia, hyper-urban development as we can seebe rearing its head. Rather than follow the an end of history, or loss of flux, ruin was in China (but also in Berlin). To stimulatelines set by past critiques, narratives that nei- undoubtedly never the imagined conse- movement in a city, things must then bether punctuated fully enough the necessary quence. However, here we must be careful, built, and built quickly. This must then beopposition against master plan urbanism nor not to conflate the stillness of dance with understood for the most part to be due (forprovided a lasting critique of the modernist the general understanding of stagnation. many cases) to a belief in that stagnation ofproject, we must make a quick foray into an We commonly understand stagnation as a city is the stagnation in architectural oraltogether different metaphor: Dance. In the it is inherent to capital decline; a condition urban development projects. Why would itcurrent context, no one is dancing anymore that we can argue had caught the social and then be ironic? Simply put, the hyper-devel-— no people, nor buildings. All things con- urban setting of modern nations following opment of a city is based in the belief in thesidered, the following comment seems apt: industrialization. Whereas movement was stagnation of an urban setting, which then50
  • 51. populating the urban environment; the devil is in the details."fills the urban setting with increasingly stagnant builds, creating a very best metaphor for the urban performance.stagnant environment. To break from this circular spell, it wouldseem that we must return to the intricacies of movement. As the city moves centimeter by centimeter, and sometimes erupting in violent waves of change, the dancer too moves in almost unnotice-Perhaps the best metaphor to use, in this context, is that of Noh able increments; as described by Donald Ritchie.Theater. A long, drawn-out, hour-long accelerando, ending in the incandescenceBefore diving into the performance of the body, we should take of dance; a gradual, almost imperceptible movement from molto largonote then also of the accessories. Apart from the theatrical cloth- to prestissimo: this is the tempo of the Noh. To try and watch the tempoing often associated with Noh Theater, the mask is perhaps the grow is like trying to watch the hour hand of the clock move, ike tryingepitome of nuance. to watch flowers open. (Donald Ritchie on Noh Tempo, “Notes on the Noh”, The Hudson Review. p. 72)The Noh mask is legendary for its power of mystery and exquisite beauty.Its expression is always “on the verge” of crying, surprise secret emotion. To consider a city as stagnant because there is no visible change in itsViewing the masks was a powerful experience—hundreds of faces gazing facades ignores one of the most important elements of an urban envi-into the ceiling. (Jadwiga Rodowicz, “Rethinking Zeami: Talking to ronment, for whom and by whom the city is built. The social move-Kanze Tetsunojo”, TDR Summer 1992, p. 98) ment through a space plays an important role in the physical make up, but also in the movement/change of social relations inherent with theCould we not say that as an accessory of the urban environment, the urban structures. Through the increased focus on the self-reference ofsurfaces of objects and subjects that surround each other, ought to be a building or of the physical urban environment is a return to modern-thought of as not static or defined, but rather performing a series of ist convictions, though through a focus on the technicalities of tech-changes through a simple change of angle. Returning to Edward Soja, nological developments; whether they pertain to sensor technology oris not the relation of such a performance then the epitome of the socio- new materials. We don’t dance because we try to make building dancespatial dialectic? This performance is of course acted out; one could for us. Shouldn’t we not dance ourselves, and accept that the time andeven say uttered, through a gradual process, one that is perhaps the scale of the city or of architecture is not human. 51
  • 52. Osong Bio ValleySensitive Relationship with Nature, Functionality and AuthenticityTU Delft students won third prize in a com-petition among professional groups in the‘Osong Biovalley International Competition’,a large open professional competition. It calledfor a new bio research city next to the new gov-erning city of Sejong in South Korea.Generally speaking in Korea, ‘Bio Valley’refers to an area which consists of concen-trated research, education and industry. Butthis is too narrow a view only focusing onfunctional aspects and thereby neglectingcity, nature, environment and human living.Our proposal starts from redefining the con-cept of ‘Bio Valley’, stating that any proposalfor a Bio Valley should consider the factorsof urban context, nature and human livingbefore any planning takes place.We proposed designing the new ‘Bio Valley’with the primary natural elements (mountain,field and water) of the area. The four areasdivided by railways were redesigned, introduc-ing a multi-functional linear spine, which linksto the existing area as well. The main designideas (Figure 1) are made up of a landscape ori-ented approach, a compact spine across the rail-road, a compact city around the KTX (high-speed train) station, flexibility of extension andmixed use along the main axis (Figure 2).Both the city structure and building typologiesare planned flexible to accommodate the needsof the future. The phasing plan is organised fortwo scenarios, depending on the future eco-nomic situation of the region. Figure 2. Main axis in the station areaFigure 1. Design concept52
  • 53. Sanghyun Lee (tudelft urbanism MSc 3) Yongki Kim (tudelft urbanism MSc 1) Hanyeol Baek (univ. stuttgart) Figure 3. DesignFigure 4. Living in the valley Figure 5. Master plan 53
  • 54. Physicist cracks city’s formulaInterview with Geoffrey WestAccording to Professor West, there is an urgent need for a science of Professor Geoffrey West is a theoretical physicist,cities to complement the traditional social sciences and economics former president and distinguished professor ofof cities. In an interview with The New York Times in December 2010, the Santa Fe Institute. He also taught at StanfordProfessor West claimed that urban theory is a pseudo-science with- University and worked at Los Alamos Nationalout real scientific principles. He embarked on the topic of cities with Laboratory and is a member of the World Knowl-disregard for any existing city theory. After two years of research- edge Dialogue Scientific Board. In 2006 he wasing data from cities in the USA, Europe and China with regard to listed in the top 100 of the world’s most influen-the number of gasoline stations, flu outbreaks, restaurants, crimes, tial people in Time magazine’s Time 100. After hisroads, cables and the walking speed of pedestrians, he arrived at retirement he decided to focus on cities.a straightforward formula to explain the systematic logic of cities,known as the Economy of Scale.How, as a physicist, did you develop a particular interest in cities? Economy of scale in a nutshell“Before working on cities, I became interested in the rather extraordi- The metabolic rate of a creature is equal to its mass. Ifnary scaling laws that had been discovered in biology by Max Kleiber in the mass doubles, the metabolic rate increases only bythe 1930s. These scaling laws proved that there is systematic behav- 75 percent.iour to biological phenomena. An “When a city doubles in size itexample is the strong relationship When a city doubles in size, it requires an increase ofbetween the size of an organism resources of only 85 percent. This means that big citiesand its metabolic rate. The contin- save on roads, cable networks, gasoline stations etc. gains a degree of 115 percentuous feedback implicit in naturalselection optimises the system so When a city doubles in size it gains a degree of 115that less energy per cell is needed percent of socio-economic quantities. Examples are an of socio-economic quantities.”if the organism’s size doubles, this increase in innovation, walking speed and savings, yetis called sub-linear scaling. These also crime, traffic, disease and waste. All increases byscaling laws can be applied to 115 percent.subsequent problems in biology from natural growth to cancer, ageingand sleep. And complimentary to that is the underlying network theory, It does not matter how big a city is, the scaling lawwhich dictates that the pace of life decreases with size in a system- remains the same. A new citizen suddenly has a 15%atic way. This means that as you get bigger, things systematically take increase in productivity. This is why people move tolonger. The speed and rates of processes slow down in a systematic bigger cities. The more people move to big cities theway and so on. This is all due to the dynamics of networks. more it encourages other people to come into the city. The city is a catalyst of economical prosperity and inno-For about ten years we developed a mathematical underlying theory vation. If cities get bigger, everything speeds up. There isfor these scaling laws. Then we started wondering whether these scal- no analogy in biology on this aspect.ing laws can also be extended to socio-economic organisations, like54
  • 55. new one to the population, then this is expressed as Y = R N + E (dN the population growth rate. This leads to the general growth equatiofor example in cities. Cities include network crime were systematically higher per capita dN(t) ! Y0 $� ! R$systems, just like in biology, such as infrastruc- when city size doubled. This is termed super = # & N(t) ( # & N(t).ture, buildings and electrical lines. However, linear scaling. The bigger you are as a city, dt "E% "E%the social interaction between people is an the more you have per capita. The super Figure 1. the Urban Growth Equationeven more important network. The question linear scaling law impliesstructure captures the essential features contributing Its generic that if city size dou-was whether city network systems also mani- bles then on the average you will have a 115 adaptive systems. They are all manifestationsfest scaling phenomena just as in biology. We � percent increase in these socio-economic of social networks of various kinds. additional contributions can be made, they can be incorpowondered whether there are some universal quantities. You gain an extra 15 percent. laws that transcend the obvious differences We believe that this magic number of 15, However, the data we use for research is frombetween individual cities. What was quickly approximately, is also derived from the social metropolitan areas. This (see very averaging Infor interpretation of the parameters Y0, R and E has a Supportingmade apparent is that cities do indeed have networks that underlie cities, but we have not effect on any city. We see the city as a unitscaling laws!” yet been able to prove this. The workwww.pnas.org, for generalization). The solution the PNAS web site, on cities and yet of course there are different urban in general is still very much work in progress; typologies such as the core, the rings and the“When we look at cities, the infrastructural much work still needs to be done. One of suburbs. We would need more specific data in 1part, the gas stations, the length of roads and the things we are doing is constructing and order to deconstruct some of a city’s general % 1" ! (Y . Y + Rthe length of electricity lines all have clear N (t ) = & 0 , N 1" ! ( are to 0 to the finer (1 of a )t ] developing the complete theoretical frame- + data if we 0) " get ) exp[ " grain " ! city #analogies in biology. They all behave in a sub- work, incorporating a derivation of this R - R* & 15 and do the same analyses for individual neigh- # E $linear fashion. Which means that the bigger a percent rule. Knowing where it comes from, bourhoods of a city.”city is, the fewer the gas stations and roads what determines it and why it is not 35 per-need to be. The scale remains the same. In cent for example is important.” Would you therefore encourage more avail-some sense, like in biology, there is some able open-source data?optimisation going on in the city. The scaling Does the economy of scale also accountlaw for biology indicates that as size dou- for neighbourhoods? “Open-source data is crucial. It is currently dif-bles, only 75 percent more energy is needed. ficult to find and sort out the data relevant toLess energy per cell, per capita is needed as “What is remarkable about the economy our analyses. In general, data is everywhere, yetthe size of the organism increases. The scal- of scale is that its scaling laws are inde- people do not produce geographically system-ing law for cities implies that if you double in 12 pendent of a country’s history, geography ised data that is easy to comprehend. To somesize, all infrastructural works for example will and culture. Although cultures are differ- extent you have to harvest the information. Oneonly grow by 85 percent. Thus you save about ent, there is universality in social interaction of the reasons why we made a comparison15 percent. It even becomes predictive to and in how human beings group together. between 360 cities in the USA is because theythe extent that you can tell me the size of a However, despite geography and history, all possess good data sources. However, open-city in France, for example, and I can tell you the scaling law presents an idealised aver- source information has many non-trivial aspectsapproximately how many gas stations that city age view on how a city should be perform- such as privacy issues and data abusers.will have. So in an extended way, in terms of ing. Yet some cities are not living up to Nevertheless I can assure you that we des-urbanism, it is good to have many big cities expectations. We looked at how the top 360 perately need a serious science of cities tobecause you are saving on all resources and USA cities were performing relative to their complement the traditional social sciencesinfrastructure. And incidentally a city produces size, from New York down to cities with only and economical sciences of cities. In my opin-less carbon dioxide per capita if it is bigger. 40,000 inhabitants. We analysed and ranked ion a science of cities is a somewhat mathe-This is what economy of scale is all about. them according to the scale laws according matical predictive quantitative framework. This Nevertheless, when we looked at socio- to several variables such as wages, patents relies very heavily on data not only to motivateeconomic quantities like wages, the number and GDP. Some cities were over-performing it and reveal underlying regular behaviour, butof aids cases and the number op patents while others were under-performing in cer- also to test the theoretical development andproduced then these had no simple paral- tain respects in relation to their size. Yet it the theoretical structures that we invent. It islels in biology. Yet we found that there was is misleading and even dangerous to think thereby important that we start to think care-strong evidence of scaling again, of system- of these various phenomena as being totally fully about what data we need, how we acquireatic behaviour. Wages, numbers of patents independent. They are all interrelated, they it and how various governments at all levelsregarding innovation, aids cases, disease and are what we call highly interacting complex can help in that area.” “It even becomes predictive to the extent that you can tell me the size of a city in France, for example, and I can tell you approximately how many gas stations that city will have.” 55
  • 56. “... we desperately need a serious science of citiesto complement the traditional social sciences andeconomical sciences of cities.”What makes a city performing well?“A major factor of good performing cities is that they create a kind of facilitative role by encour-aging innovation and risk, which is very hard to do. If you can encourage innovative ideas then Professors West’s recipe for a suc-people are more willing to take some risk, which in the end really stimulates cities. A crucial cessful city:aspect of cities is being able to look ahead and open up to diversity. One of the great character-istics of cities that make them different from companies is that as they grow they tend to open 1. Understand where your city is situ-up space for opportunity. The amount of diversity increases and the buzz increases. The more ated within the economy of scale andyou stimulate openness, the greater the response usually is in terms of the socio-economic life why it is under-performing or over-of a city. If cities do not allow for greater diversity and opportunity as they grow then this will performing on certain aspects (e.g.have a negative effect on the city.” how wages ought to be according to the city size).What makes a city under-performing? 2. Understand that the reasons“What we have learned is that cities have a long persistence time, which means that it is very underlying these city aspects aredifficult to change them. We discovered, to our astonishment, that under-performing cities have people. Cities are the physical mani-been under-performing to approximately the same degree for decades and over-performing festation of the interaction amongstcities visa versa. That is why successful cities are typically multi-dimensional. There is a spec- people.trum of industries and activities that continuously change and evolve. That does not mean thatcities cannot find something very successful. Some cities are very much like companies. They 3. Invest in welfare and exploit inno-stick with something successful instead of constantly opening up and rather than becoming vative ideas. Risk and speculationmore multi-dimensional they become more one-dimensional. That is the companies’ problem. of innovative ideas between peopleFor a company it is very difficult to move out of that one-dimensionality. One-dimensionality increases the health of a city.is somehow the fate of companies. So if the external environment changes they are unableto adapt because typical administration and bureaucracies dominate. Companies are mostly 4. Culture is a small part of thedominated by the culture of economies of scale, the efficiency of sub-linear scaling, like in biol- economy in a city, yet culture plays aogy. Cities have super-linear scaling, a culture of wealth creation and innovation, which leads to critical role in feeding the industrialopening up, growth and prosperity.” network. One stimulates the other.Professor West has legitimatised big cities on the basis of economies of scale in terms of sub- 5. Attract and keep innovative andlinear and super-linear scaling phenomena. With the expansion in today’s data-cloud it becomes creative people. If the city starts toincreasingly interesting to extend the knowledge of sub-linear and super-linear scaling behaviour loose these people it is a warning forto include the finer grain of cities. Thanks to the research being done into economies of scale we an uncertain city prospective.are one step closer to understanding what cities are really about. EDWIN HANS56
  • 57. Another Six Endlessly Open CitiesAlex LehnererThese cities are dedicated to those of you who obsesscertain, very specific tropes and topics within the dis-course on the contemporary city. They are about exces-sively open metropolitan aggregations within which thelimit is never an issue. However, given the huge amountof current investigations and interpretation on the topicof the city, not a single city nor world would satisfy suchdemand for excitement – so, if one is not enough, howabout six of them? And yes, we believe that almost anyseemingly relevant urban topic can be detected on oneof these six themed city globes.The globe depicted here are, from left to right: the City ofthe Continuous Roof, the City of the Continuous Band,the City of the Invasive Flora, the City of the GoldenGlobe, the City of the Eternal Commute, and The City ofthe Cul-de-sac.The globes are a collaborative effort by Liliana Aguirre,Andrew Brosseit, Renee Ciolino, Alex Lehnerer, RyanHollon, Janis Rucins, Matt Vander Ploeg, Lluis Victori,produced at the University of Illinois at Chicago, 2009. 57
  • 58. MarketSpaces Tim Peeters Graduation project Explore Lab 10How does one protect something against its and organizationally, while also protecting Figure 1: Marketspace. Like anemones and barnaclesown success? Alaba Market, one square kilo- open spaces in the market fabric. It attempts on a shipwreck, structures attached to the armaturesmetre of vibrant and completely unregulated to empower the individual, while operating will quickly dissolve the boundary between the intro-economic activity close to Lagos, Nigeria, is preventively on a larger scale. duced and the indigenous.in danger of collapsing: open space withinthe area is rapidly disappearing because of Within the market, a series of spaces becomeaggressive private entrepreneurship, erod- designated marketplaces: safe havens for theing the public domain which is vital for the public and those vendors that depend onexistence of the market. Something must be public space for their activities - those whodone to protect the market against itself - and sell telephone cards on street corners andthe bad news is that traditional planning just can afford nothing but simple chair-and-won’t work in environments like these. umbrella makeshift shops. While around these plazas spacemaking business will go onBeing completely undesigned and unregu- as usual - dynamism, clogging and all - thelated, urban space within Alaba Market is squares themselves become vibrant tradingconstantly being changed by the activities of grounds. By becoming centres of bustlingthe individual user, who operates more or market activity, these plazas will serve asless autonomous within the larger system of starting points for the development of a new,the market. Economic activity goes hand in pedestrian-based circulation system in thehand with entrepreneurial opportunism and market: it will generate an infrastructuralperpetually unstable urban conditions: ven- system connecting the plazas.dors are constantly building, expanding andadapting their stores. The plazas are defined using concrete ele-Architectural space within the market can ments: columns, slabs and beams that arethus be seen as the cumulative residue of an shoved against existing buildings to form bor-infinite number of decisions made by autono- ders between marketspace and plazaspace.mous agents on a very local level, influencing These elements act as armatures: vendors canthe global scale of the market as a whole only use them to attach self built roofs, structuresvery indirectly. Although this in itself is not and small stalls. An extremely flexible, evera bad thing, it does put “ownerless” – public changing market place emerges: the arma-– space within the market under permanent tures empower lower level salesmen (whothreat of annexation by private initiatives. by definition do not endanger open spaceSince nobody directly benefits from public because of a lack of means to erect large per-space, nobody defends it - but when too much manent buildings), whose activity will keeppublic space disappears the functioning of the plazas busy and open. On and aroundthe market as a whole becomes a problem. In the armatures, a whole new landscape of eco-effect, the market might eventually suffocate nomic activity emerges, blurring boundariesitself. between what has been ‘designed’ and what has been appropriated, improved, changed,This project tries to do two things: firstly, to and adapted over and over again.acknowledge the value of inherent flexibil-ity and the ability of people to solve physical MarketSpaces proposes an unpredictable andproblems themselves, and secondly to cana- in many ways unimaginable future: one inlize all too aggressive private expansion. It which everybody can fully manifest his or heraids individual initiatives both structurally spatial potential.58
  • 59. Figure 2: Analysis of different vendortypes within Alaba Market. Goingup means slowing down: as financialmeans increase from left to right, sodoes the amount of claimed privatespace. The more successful the market,the less public space remains – destroy- Meansing opportunities for the lower ranks Mobilityof vendors. Private Space 59
  • 60. Epilogue: Taking PositionInterview with Eric LuitenIn this section at the end of each Atlantis we look back at the contents of the issue to sum- Eric Luiten is a landscape architectmarize, reinterpret and add some final insights to the discussion. In an interview with Eric and professor of Heritage & SpatialLuiten, professor of Heritage and Spatial Design at Delft University of Technology we dis- Design at the TU Delft since 2005, acussed some of the themes present throughout this issue and in the Urbanism Week, from chair initiated through the Belvederethe perspective of the landscape architect with a focus on heritage. He explains the need program. He is also advisor on spa-for a distinction between the discipline and the professional field, our paradoxical nature, tial quality for the province of Southand the traveller and gardener within every one of us. We hope this epilogue will form a Holland, married, and a father ofsolid backdrop to reinterpret some of the key aspects laid out in this issue, and to continue three. After graduating from Wage-the discussion until the next Atlantis on the Urban Landscape. ningen University he worked for Staatsbosbeheer and later H+N+SWhat has become apparent throughout this issue is that there are uncertain times ahead for Landscape Consultants.the urbanist. We should relearn our profession, but for that we must first understand what ourdiscipline entails. The forces that shape our cities and society seem to be similar to those that He spent four years in Barcelona,shape ourselves. working and positioning himself “I have the feeling that we are leaving decennia, if not a century, behind us in which a cul- within the discipline of landscapeture and a society of new housing, of new developments and of new things set the stage. This architecture, after which he returnedis perfectly illustrated by the period during which I was educated at Wageningen University for to the Netherlands and worked oninstance. We didn’t visit historical estates in the Netherlands, go out and look at old polders, two major projects: the New Dutchor visit 17th century windmills. No, we went to the Flevopolders, because those were the real Defense Line and the Roman Limes,public works, our only frame of reference. That and the modern city extension: Pendrecht, through which he ‘was immersed inOmmoord, the Bijlmer. That’s where we went to on our excursions. Because that was what the the Dutch heritage industry.’contemporary landscape architect was expected to know, and to what he or she would latercontribute. So when you graduated that was your work field. He is currently preparing two publications that deal with heritage;Now we are entering a century that will be about the opposite. We already have so much, how the first provides an overview andcan we make better use of that? How can we increase the durability, and find multiple uses careful analysis of a wide range offor what we have? What does this suppose for design? How can we develop this, how can we recent heritage projects, the secondbalance between demolition and newly built? In part this has to do with the current economic focuses on the cultivated landscapescrisis, but I have come to the conclusion that even if we walk away from this crisis without a throughout Europe, balancingscratch, this assignment will still be valid. between past, present and future. Although we are demographically still growing in population figures there is a form ofstabilization occurring. Within our country there will still be major shifts but ultimately the Luiten is involved in educationasymptotic increase of population is largely behind us. That combined with a more balanced through the BSc program Architec-approach to spending and investing I believe will play a much more important role in spatial ture and the MSc program Land-design. What’s the impact of this investment, not only for the building, or for the location, but scape Architecture and is promotorfor all the surroundings? for five PhD candidates. That will all add up to the fact that we will get used to the idea that 80 per cent of the hous-ing assignment will be realized within the urbanized area. This leaves maybe only 10 to 20 percent outside of it, which can be recognized as a form of city expansion. The Hague already hasthis policy for instance, and the province of South Holland will not even start negotiations withmunicipalities if a minimum of 70 per cent of the building task is not resolved within the city.60
  • 61. “We are no longer able to visuallyWhat this means is that we have The diagnosis should be moreall instantaneously arrived in a broad. “How come I can showerheritage issue, whereby our exist- with warm water in the morning, accept our actions and our achieve-ing stock becomes the focus of that I can wear clean clothesdevelopment. But changes in our every day, that I have a car, thatsurrounding make us restless, works, that I can bring my chil- ments. That’s the problem.”that’s something in our nature. dren to school? These are allPeople are by definition restless achievements of the last onetowards change, and that will hundred years, including the spa-become the precondition of what we’ll have to deal with in the coming tial, technical and constructive aspects. These are all things we wantdecades. Thats the message I give to students: ‘Prepare yourself; by to have and which we cherish. And at the same time we just cannotall means prepare yourself for the big issue called redesign, because seem to tolerate the visual effects of that, because that’s what youthat is what will influence the practice in the coming years.’ ” see when you look outside the window. My proposition is that we are, as a whole, incredibly confused. Fundamentally, existentially confused.Education We are no longer able to visually accept our actions and our“My contribution to education is that I make students aware of that achievements. That’s the problem. So we use a much more tradi-fact that there are at least two ways in which they have to deal tional panorama as a reference, whereas the factual developmentswith history. What does history mean for their location and for their are in the direction of this cluttering of the landscape, with raiseddesign? Which historic lines are visible in this area, building or ensem- power lines everywhere.ble? Which are crucial or essential, and how can those help to build aplan? That is the first position. I would like to connect that to an appeal: Let’s first determine for our- The other is that within the discipline itself there is also a tradi- selves that we are exceptionally paradoxical in nature, and that wetion and a history. There is repertoire, and when you design, whether make contradicting observations. The culture that we’re now all partyou like it or not, you’re always re-using your disciplinary antecedents. of produces all sorts of things. Why are we so reluctant about this,Material that is already there, plans you already know, or ones you and so critical towards? Maybe just asking that question is alreadycame across unknowingly but that seem to apply in your design. What enough. To make people think: ‘How does that relate to me?’I think we should convey to young designer is that they should make That in part perhaps is why we find that heritage is so important.clear to themselves how they position themselves towards history. We derive confidence from things that we know and that are fromWhether it interests them at all, and what inspiration they derive from the past, and less from things to come. In itself that is not so trou-it. And I do’nt mean this pedantic: ‘You shall take history into account.’ bling, as long as it doesnt lead to this great confusion as the oneNo, the advice is to contemplate and to try and position yourself, we are all in now. So it’s a nuanced, subtle kind of movement thatwhich is a difficult thing to do. History is a complex system; it’s an were all going through. It’s very interesting from the perspective ofendless supply of things that have happened.” the designer. Whereas the heritage conservationist is interested in the value assessment; what’s it worth, the designer is only driven byOur paradoxical nature one thing; increase in value. What’s the potential? How beautiful, valu-The Urbanism Week focused on the role of the urban designer in a able and productive can it be? That’s a very interesting clash. To betime of change. Professionals and academics gave their views on the confronted with people who trust in description and assessment, asprofession, on the role of the urbanist and on the position towards the opposed to the search for even better, or even nicer.”city, the landscape, and the discipline. One of them, Adriaan Geuze,has repeatedly expressed his concerns on how we are ruining our Making clear distinctionsman-made landscape, despite all our good intentions. The ferocity “The reality is dominated for a large part by what I call the profes-with which he presents his arguments is a good example of a more sional field; by commissions, by projects and their limitations, whethergeneral trend throughout the profession. it’s financial or legal. Well, that’s a dog eat dog world; that’s just one “Geuze seems to be in a permanent state of panic. That’s not big struggle. No matter if you’re a landscape architect, an urbanwhere I stand, although I understand what he is worried about. What designer, an artist or even a clown, you need to drag something out ofI find disappointing is that as an imported professional he doesnt get that which is worth the effort. There are definitely no recipes for that,any further than the notion of: it’s going to ruins. As a response he despite the efforts of Real Estate and Housing to make somethingbelieves there should be an authority that takes full responsibility for out of it. My experience is that it’s incredibly personal; with the rightthe quality of the Dutch cultivated landscape. That’s of course a very mix of people you can work miracles, but without that spark it won’tsuspicious desire. That for sure is not the way it will go. The Dutch amount to anything, despite all the models and calculation strategies.”will not just give up their democratic achievements, that’s no longerpossible nor desirable. We will not all support the spatial visionary The reality is very different from what is educated or researched, butwho draws it all out for us and shows us the right way. So it’s not what is unclear is where one ends, and the other begins.enough, his diagnosis is on the wrong scale and with the wrong “Part of it has to do with the distinction between the discipline andsense – the eye. Instead of panicking about what we see we should the professional field. I recently attended the doctoral defence cer-reflect on why it disturbs us.” emony of Fransje Hooijmejer, who did her PhD on the development 61
  • 62. of the Dutch city in relation to the manipulation of the subsoil. She extrapolates her findingsinto the future, and makes the appeal that we should go back to the Fine Dutch Tradition,and we should especially bring together Urbanism and Civil Engineering. I understand it as alandscape architectonic correction to the urban design of the last fifty years, which is that weshould consciously reason from the subsoil when dealing with the Dutch city. We should notjust make disciplinary but also material corrections. Things we closed off in the last fifty yearsshould be dug up again. The city needs to redefine its relation to its surroundings and its sub-soil, and there are plenty of ways to do so. That evokes a nice discussion which Han Meyer touched on during the public defencewhen he asked whether it was strange that we have now conceived a master track LandscapeArchitecture when in fact we should go back to this big integration. In my view he makesa false notion which is that the discipline of urban design is the same as the professionalfield that occurs outside. I believe you need “What this means is that we have all instantane-to keep those clearly separated.On one hand there is something called a dis- ously arrived in a heritage issue, whereby ourcipline; a trade, with people that representthis trade and draw their inspiration from thesame sources and traditions. On the other existing stock becomes the focus of development”there is a professional field with all sorts ofspatial problems, in which each disciplinetries to take hold of the others, struggles, andplays a game to walk away with the best possible result. If you continuously focus your eyeson the ball that represents the professional field, then you forget that there’s such a thing asdisciplinary responsibility, which either has an urban design, architecture or landscape archi-tecture background. And what we do here at the university is to convey that message, sowhen you graduate here as an urban designer, you know what that discipline entails. Youknow what you stand for, and you know what you can rely on. And with that you are capableof using this urban design luggage in almost all fields, tasks, assignments or development pro-jects that you come across. With it you can stand your ground and get the best possible result,related to what in your opinion are the essentials.”Dual personalitiesThis issue focuses on the economy behind our built environment, in relation to the urban-ist and his position within the whole. Different aspects have come to light, from theimportance of a distinction between field and discipline to the influence of the cur-rent economic crisis. But there are other ways to look at the current developments. “In my oration I gave a sort of amateur indication of where I think our recent interest in his-tory comes from. I said that in each person there are two persons hidden inside. One is thetraveller, someone who is searching for the horizon, and the other is the gardener, someonewho wants to know what comes out of the ground, and if he can eat it, so to speak. In theprevious decades we have all started travelling; to Europe, to the world, to the universe, and Ithink that we are now pulling back on this gardening leg. Understanding where are we actuallyfrom, who lived in our house before us; very basic search for roots, origin, sources. Both of these persons have symbols. Schiphol stands for the traveller, literally, and figu-ratively. The World Wide Web is another literal and figurative example of the traveller, withit the endless exploration of the universe. Our concerns about the quality of the landscaperepresent our gardener feeling. ‘I’m on my way to New York, but in the meantime I renew mymembership of the association for the preservation of natural monuments, because I find itimportant that the Green Heart stays open and green.’It’s just ingrained that we want to be both at once, both the traveling and the gardening, andthis has to be satisfied through material and symbolic signals. I think this extends nicely into thefact that landscape architecture currently has the wind at its back, because it’s a profession thatclaims to reconcile the programmatic aspects, those things that we have to do as a society, withthose qualities that we already have.” JAN BREUKELMAN & JAN WILBERS62
  • 63. Colofon Polis PartnersATLANTISMagazine by Polis | Platform for UrbanismFaculty of Architecture, TU DelftVolume 22, Number 3, November 2011Editor in ChiefJasper NijveldtEditorial team Polis Co-sponsorJan Breukelman Jan Wilbers Edwin Hans Mike Yin Sang Huyn LeeGuest editors Polis SponsorsRobin Boelsums Stefan KollerJorick Beijer Bart van LakwijkHannah Cremers Marta RelatsMike Emmerik Esther VerhoekKarien Hofhuis Editorial AddressPolis, Platform for Urbanism landscape architecture and urban designJulianalaan 134, 2628 BL Delftoffice: 01 West 350 +31 (0)15-2784093 Polis Supporterswww.polistudelft.nl atlantis@polistudelft.nlMagazine designRik Speel (www.rikspeel.nl)PrinterDrukkerij TeeuwenAtlantis appears 4 times a yearNumber of copies: 750 Polis ProfessionalsBecome a member of Polis Platform for Urbanism and 12N Stedenbouw HzAjoin our network! There are three types of member- Academie van Bouwkunst Amsterdam International New Town Instituteships, we distinct: Polis Students, Polis Friends and Atelier Dutch IslantPolis Professionals. As member you will receive our Atelier Quadrat Kraayvanger-UrbisAtlantis Magazine four times a year, a monthly news- BugelHajema MAXWAN Architects + Urbanistsletter and access to all events organized by Polis. See Bureau B+B Metropoliswww.polistudelft.nl for more information! Buro 5 Movares NL afdeling stedebouw Buro Maan NAI bibliotheekInterested in sponsoring Polis Platform for Urban- Croonen Adviseurs West NHTV Hogeschoolism? Please do not hesitate to contact Jorick Beijer, Cusveller Stedebouwkundige B.V. OD-205boardmember and responsible for Company Relations Dienst ROB Almelo Oostzeeat: jorick@polistudelft.nl Dienst Stedebouw en verkeer Almere Palmbout DN Urbland Plein06Disclaimer dRO Amsterdam PosadThis issue has been made with great care; authors and Ds+V Rotterdam Rein Geurtsen & Partnersredaction hold no liablity for incorrect/ incomplete DSO Den Haag Reitsma stedebouwinformation. All images are the property of their Enno Zuidema Stedebouw Rijnbouttrespective owners. We have tried as hard as we can to Grontmij vestiging Gelderland SABhonour their copyrights. HKB SVPISSN 1387-3679 Hulshof Architecten 63
  • 64. Announcements CalendarCalling all motivated Urbanists !! Lecture Philippe RahmGet involved as a POLIS board member for the 2012 season. 20 December 2011, 19:00We are starting to keep a lookout for our replacements coming Berlage Insitute, Rotterdamthis December. We have had an extremely successful year and arehoping to pass on our basis of hard work to some more hard work- Lecture Renny Ramakersing individuals. If you think you are interested in being a part of 10 January 2012, 19:00the Polis board, or the various commissions for the next year, please Berlage Insitute, Rotterdamsend us an e-mail or drop by the office located at BG West 350 . Future History: Amelia Jones&David SummersUrbanism week 2011 13 January, 2012. 8–10.30 p.m.Photos of Urbanism Week 2011 online!! Check the Urbanism Oude Lutherse Kerk, Singel 411, AmsterdamWeek website to re-visit Urbanism Week 2011.www.urbanismweek.nl Lecture Umberto Napolitano 24 January 2012, 19:00Join us Berlage Insitute, RotterdamWe find it important to work on the continuity of Polis’ exist-ence, regardless the fact that board and committee members come IFoU Barcelona 2012: TOURbanISM-toURBANISMand go. Although normally January is the time for a new board 25-27 January 2012we are already looking for our successors. Are you interested in TOURbanISM-toURBANISM is the title of the 6th Conferencebecoming active for Polis and develop your professional skills and of the International Forum on Urbanism that will take place fromenlarge your network? Please visit us in our new office or contact January 25th to 27th, 2012, at the Catalonian Politechnic Universityus by mail! (UPC) in Barcelona.Atlantis Archive Future Freedom: Paul Chan & Hito SteyerlThe Polis magazine Atlantis has a great history of already more 9 February, 201. 8–10.30 p.m.than twenty years. Unfortunately, due to the Faculty fire, we don’t Oude Lutherse Kerk, Singel 411, Amsterdamhave a full archive. After a request on the Polis LinkedIn groupa lot of former (board)members supplied us with their personal Future Museum: Hans Belting & Iwona Blazwickarchive, that now gives us the possibility to create a digital archive 8 March, 2012. 8–10.30 p.m.on the new website. Atlantis issue 22.1 and 22.2 are already there, Oude Lutherse Kerk, Singel 411, Amsterdamand more will follow soon! Future City: Rem Koolhaas (among others)Atlantis magazine editors March 2012. 8–10.30 p.m.The Atlantis aims to be a magazine linking the student world and Oude Lutherse Kerk, Singel 411, Amsterdamthe urbanism profession through interesting topics and contribu-tions and is distributed to all Polis members. Do you enjoy writing Opening 5th IABR: Making Cityor interviewing? Do you have lay-out skills? Becoming an editor 19 April 2012for Atlantis volume 23 would be a great opportunity! Contact Polis Netherlands Architecture Institute, Rotterdamfor more information.Please visit: http://polistudelft.nl/atlantis/P O L I SP O L I S P O L I S