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Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
Atlantis 22.2 urban form
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Atlantis 22.2 urban form

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Issue #22.2 of Atlantis is an endeavour in exploring urban form by displaying passionate ideas and urban design projects. We explored form on all scales with the cultural aspects thereof, taking into …

Issue #22.2 of Atlantis is an endeavour in exploring urban form by displaying passionate ideas and urban design projects. We explored form on all scales with the cultural aspects thereof, taking into consideration density, history, morphology, typologies, public space, urban techniques and transportation issues.
Chief-editor of volume 22 (2011)

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  • 1. ATLANTIS #22.2 August 2011 Luisa Calabrese 04 Han Meyer 08 EMU Zhang Qinyi 12MAGAZINE BY POLIS | PLATFORM FOR URBANISM Meta Berghauser Pont 16 Dena Kasraian 20 Vertical Asia 22 Seog-Jeong Lee 27 Xiao Liang 30 Amy Casey 32 Erich Raith 35 Leo van den Burg 37 José Beirão 39 Hans Teerds 42 Samantha Salden 44 Shift A+U 47 Explore Lab 50 Martin Dubbeling 52 Stefan van der Spek 54 Posad 56 Taeke de Jong 60URBAN FORM 1
  • 2. EditorialIn recent years, student work, as a reflection of the Urbanism department has, in The outline for Atlantis volume 22.my opinion, focused too little on urban form and too much on research and plan- If you have ideas and would like toning strategies. In the recent Archiprix 2011 competition for best graduate design contribute, please do not hesitate toplans the jury found it remarkable to notice the large amount of thick reports with contact us at atlantis@polistudelft.nl.high quality studies. The jury stated: ‘The shift towards the academic in designeducation has moved the emphasis from the design itself to its theoretical under- #22.1 Urban Societypinning. That said, the tie-up between study and design is quite often under par. Keywords: society, regeneration, politics,At times it seems as though there are two projects, a book and a visual presentation, housing, neighborhood.whose relationship is unevenly balanced.” This is not an unprecedented incident, asjuries of earlier editions perceived the same problem. In 2010 the jury uttered: “For ATLANTIS #22.1 April 2011those entries that gave much thought to research the jury often has to conclude that MAGAZINE BY POLIS | PLATFORM FOR UBANISMthe design is relatively weak when compared to the preliminary study.” Especiallyin Urbanism projects the research is there, but at the cost of the urban design. “Thespatial design is weak and the urbanist as choreographer and designer is all but URBAN SOCIETY 1absent.” This might be an inconvenient message for our discipline but we shouldnot turn a blind eye to it. The need to develop the craftsmanship in forming urbanplaces clearly sets itself forth. In my opinion the knowledge of the repertoire, like #22.2 Urban Formprecise knowledge of building typologies with its logic of access, determining block Keywords: form, density, typologies,depths and buildings heights, understanding of the requisite interstitial spaces and design, public space, urban techniques.natural lighting, as well as exercise in designing well-proportioned urban spaces,should be practiced much more to develop this craftsmanship. ATLANTIS #22.1 April 2011 MAGAZINE BY POLIS | PLATFORM FOR UBANISM However, when looking at recent results of Archiprix, and the Europan,there seems to be a renewed interest in form, especially on the intermediate levelof scale. According to the latest Archiprix jury “the urban design specialism haselicited a batch of mature plans. After a period when the quality of its gradua- URBAN SOCIETY 1tion projects was a cause for concern, urban design seems now to be back in anew role amidst its fellow disciplines.” Issue #22.2 of Atlantis is an endeavour in #22.3 Urban Economyexploring this revival by displaying passionate ideas and urban design projects. Keywords: globalization, urban economy, competitiveness, branding, market, role ofWe explored form on all scales with the cultural aspects thereof, taking into urbanism, foreign direct investment.consideration density, history, morphology, typologies, public space, urban tech-niques and transportation issues. Luisa Calabrese will open this issue by provid- ATLANTIS #22.1 April 2011ing five provocative propositions about urban form. In an interview Han Meyer MAGAZINE BY POLIS | PLATFORM FOR UBANISMtalks about the core chair of Urban Design. Meta Berghauser Pont explainsthe measuring of urban form. Seog-Jeong Lee of Hanyang University in Seouldemonstrates the recently completed project on the future city form of Seoul. URBAN SOCIETY 1Eric Raith of TU Wien and Leo van den Burg both discuss historical formsand their present-day meaning in Vienna. José Beirão gives us an insight inparametric urban design, while Amy Casey, a talented painter from Cleveland #22.4 Urban LandscapeUSA, elaborates her expressive work on urban forms. In an interview, Saman- Keywords: landscape, metropolitan, ur-tha Salden of Notre Dame University pleas for the importance of building ban-rural, biodiversity, border conditions.community forms. Stefan van der Spek discusses matters of public space, HansTeerds reviews a novel. Posad and Shift, young award winning offices, present ATLANTIS #22.1 April 2011 MAGAZINE BY POLIS | PLATFORM FOR UBANISMinteresting projects and insights derived from practice. Finally, Taeke de Jong ofTechnical Ecology and Methods will reflect on the topics discussed in this issue.Along these lines, the work of TU Delft urbanism students will be exhibited. URBAN SOCIETY 1Jasper Nijveldt2
  • 3. From the boardAs Polis board we are proud to present to you the second Committees 2011Atlantis of this year, issue 22.2 Urban Form. The first issue We could not be as visible as we are without the greatshowed us the impact of the magazine and the important effort of a lot of active students. In the last 5 months Polisrole it has in exposing Polis as an active study association. was able to organize a big trip to Vienna, excursions toThe basis of our mission statement is ‘… to construct a net- Antwerpen and Amsterdam-Noord, a double lecture onwork for intellectual transmission within the Department digital urbanism, the Roadshow on sustainable planning,of Urbanism and beyond. Connecting students, research- a casestudy on Spoorzone Delft and several drinks. Theers and practitioners, by exposing and investigating con- board wants to thank all the people involved in this greattemporary affairs and academic ideology. We will do this achievement, and trigger you to join us!by means of a magazine, organizing excursions, lectures,debates, expositions and other activities’. Atlantis is a great Education. This is a new committee that organizesinstrument to expose and investigate, correlating the fields evaluation meetings in all the directions of Msc educa-of education, research and practice. It has developed itself tion. Especially in these times of cutting down budgets,into an important part of our platform and supporting our our education is under great pressure and therefore weaims of this year. The second Atlantis of this year means should keep sharp and critical. Jenny Nauta & Noorthat we are already halfway our board year. Polis has organ- Scheltemaized a lot of different activities in the last 5 months andbecame an even livelier part of the Urbanism department Urbanism Week. This is another new committee,again. The Urban BBQ of June 29th is probably the best responsible for setting up the Urbanism Week 2011. Theexample of this transformation. Regardless of the start of Urbanism Week is organized by a big group, but alwaysholidays around 40 students of all sorts of disciplines and looking for others to join! Tülay Zivali, Arie Stobbe,nationalities joined us in the Delftse Hout! Jorick Beijer, Karien Hofhuis, Vera Konings, Tim Ruijs, Noor Scheltema.Meanwhile Polis is extremely busy in organizing theUrbanism Week 2011. The theme of Urbanism Week Big Excursion. After the great success of the big trip to2011 is: so, you are an urbanist?! This is an open ques- Vienna this committee has unfortunaltely stopped aftertion, sharply reflecting on the importance of the urban- the graduation of its members. From here we want toism discipline, looking back, but more importantly look- thank Maike Warmerdam, Alicia Schoo and Liselotte vaning into the future: What is your discipline? What does der A for all their effort! Interested in organizing a newthe ‘urban’ do for you? What is the profession really big excursion? Let us know!about? We can proudly confirm the participation ofspeakers such as Alfredo Brillembourg, Edward Soja, Lectures. This committee is looking for new enthousi-Rene Boomkens, Alexander DHooghe, Maarten Hajer, asts! Let us know if you want to join them and organizeTess Broekmans and Adriaan Geuze. Next to this Atlan- more interesting lectures! Remmelt Oosterhuis, Sylketis magazine you will find a flyer with more detailed Koumans & Thomas Paul.information. For updates, backgrounds and registrationplease visit: www.urbanismweek.nl Small Excursion. The small excursion committee will be losing some members in September so is of course lookingFor us it is of big importance to keep close contact with our to fill those gaps. More people means more creativity andmembers. The new Polis website is our main platform for possibilities! Hannah Cremers, Gijs Briet, Andre Kroese,sharing information. Besides this we put effort in keeping Verena Roell & Wieke Villerius.our Facebook and Linkedin pages as up to date as possible.These are great places to interact and share your fascina- Borrel. Maaike Zwart, Nazanin Hemmati, Ani Ska-tions. Keep in touch! chokova & Laurens de Lange.Urban greetings from the Polis board 2011, Atlantis. Jasper Nijveldt, Edwin Hans, Jan Wilbers, JanJorick Beijer, Karien Hofhuis, Vera Konings, Tim Ruijs & Breukelman, Yu Zhang, Mike Yin, Wang Jue & SangNoor Scheltema Huyn Lee. 3
  • 4. A key and a hero1An essay on the current state of urban design luisa maria calabrese‘Urban design is a powerful tool. It plays a key role in the Planning: accommodating quantities, solving technicalformulation and realization of strategic urban projects. It is problems through sound technical solutions, satisfyinga crowbar for innovation and a gate to unexpected solutions. the market demands and speculating on ‘new’ urbanIt has the capacity to serve as a medium for negotiation and identities through the experimentation of ‘new’ urbanconsequently leads to strong, stimulating and simultaneously models3. The motto was and is ‘order, control, techniqueopen-ended plans, leaving margins for evolution and adapta- and economic feasibility’; all of this lately spiced up withtion; contradictions can transcend into productive paradoxes. a flavor of ‘sustainability’, the unavoidable byproduct ofWhile urban design is the ‘key’ to the strategic urban pro- global issues.ject, the ‘hero’ is urban space itself. No matter how good anurban design might be, in the end it is merely addressing the This awkward situation begs a number of questions.endless capacity of and possibilities existing space offers, such In the best academic tradition I offer five propositionsas making use of the resourcefulness of space and the medi- regarding two specific questions: the possible role ofating capacity of space, strategic urban projects deal with urban design in contemporary (Dutch) urbanism andurban space and urbanity remaining, by definition, related the role we (urban planners and urban designers) couldto an urban place. Organisation, servicing and management play in ongoing planning processes. I choose my posi-of city form are consequently the main tasks for urban policy tion. I challenge you to single out yours.and fundamental dimensions for a vast majority of strategicurban projects. They are structured in a manner by which proposition 1the essential principles and concepts – derived from the spe- There is no present and no future for Urban Planningcifics of the context as well as related to an interpretation of without Urban Design.sustainability – are not lost.’Bruno de Mulder et al., A Project of Projects (2004: 196) Planning through politics, policies and bureaucracy is doomed to fail. The present Dutch situation speaks forThis issue of Atlantis highlights the ‘old question’ of itself. The Ministry traditionally appointed to produceurban form and the role of Urban Design2 within it. large-scale planning policies, countless paperwork andThis is not without reason. In the past decades remark- toolboxes lost its raison-d’être and has been shut down4.ably negative opinions were voiced on the urban con- Infrastructure Planning wins 1-0 on Urban Planning;dition and particularly on public space. In the 1990s and even worse than that, public money is currentlyMichael Sorkin’s well known Variations on a theme invested in road development instead of in improvingpark was given the subtitle ‘The end of public space’. public transportation. People’s needs and people’s voicesSoon thereafter Rem Koolhaas spoke of the ‘evapora- are unheard, whilst developers and politicians talk end-tion of public realm’ in his cult essay The Generic City, lessly. Effective normative tools are missing, especiallyand Bruce Robbins named his book The phantom of at those scales of design and interventions where it’spublic realm. all about ‘quality of life’. Historical heritage is usually considered a burden; therefore demolition is easier thanThis wave of publications has made it seem as if urban restoration. Urban composition is arbitrary, even unnec-form – of which public space is the most targeted aspect essary when developers and politicians are satisfied with– has suffered permanent erosion and loss of qual- the allocation of functions. Urban Design disappears andity, and is no longer a matter of concern to Urbanism. Architecture takes over. ‘It’s all about the process’, theyTrue? True. We do not need to take overseas exam- say. Should we still believe it? Recent history teaches usples to admit it. We just need to open the window and that only a few of those planning processes survive thelook outside. The Dutch case – with a few exceptions – ‘polder model’ and finally get built5.shows that the making of the modern and contemporary I usually dislike catastrophic thinking and especiallycity has been characterized mainly by basic pragmatism writing about urbanism, however the present and espe-and bird-eye views. Four concerns were, and in my cially the future of our cities and territories ask for aview still are, leading decision making in Dutch Urban radical change. In my view, urban designers need to get4
  • 5. more engaged in realizing such change through designknowledge, which means producing fewer words andmore meaningful drawings. Design is engagement.Design is politics. A better urban form needs participa-tion, smartness, quality and flexibility. A durable urbanform needs durable design. We need to stop supportingblue print planning and big promises. It’s time to focuson creating tangible facts on the ground. In order to doso we should learn to do many things at the same time:we should have the courage to test our ideas in con-crete and detailed design (each scale asks for a differentknowledge!) even when we are not asked to do so, to runrisks, and to anticipate the future by means of meticu-lous scenarios. Urban designers need to enter fearless and aggres-sively into the arena of the real challenges, confronting,contemplating, setting the agenda and engaging thedialogue. Urban designers need to re-think their pos-sible role(s) within the actual planning processes. Mostof the tools we need to influence Urban Design in prac-tice with, exist within the present planning system, but Figure 1. Project from Vertical Cities studio, more info on page 22.we are not explicit enough in using them. It’s our taskto make Urban Design evident and effective. We must knowledge by communication and participation. Urbanas well show the awareness that creating quality spaces design is also a tool for negotiation towards a workableinvolves more than just us. Other roles involved in synthesis of conflicting realities. Design helps in the for-making a development happen also have an influence on mation of agreements and becomes, in some instances,the environment and this is often forgotten. a legal instrument. Thus, urban design is an essential component that steers the entire development process ofproposition 2 strategic urban projects.Urban Design is an inevitable necessity. Urban design is premised upon a fundamental rethink-Realizing strategic urban projects sounds almost like a ing of the discipline of urbanism following the ‘crisis’mission impossible. They have to comply with an entire of modernist planning methods in the post-war welfarerepertoire of difficult criteria. A strategic urban project state and various self-critical reflections that occurredhas to be structural, multi-dimensional, visibly inno- amongst professionals in the 1970s and 1980s. Unlikevative and beautiful. The recent developments in the the modernist master plan, urban design in general anddesign discipline offer some necessary help. The rein- the strategic urban project in particular, are not consid-vention and resurrection of urban design over the past ered final. On the contrary, they are seen as intermediatefifteen to twenty years has reinvigorated the field by steps, mediums that explore the potential of urban sites,reformulating the roles and methods of urban design. allow for the achievement of qualitative consensus, andExperiments and projects in a wide range of contexts safeguard and accentuate existing spatial qualities. Theyand situations have demonstrated the essential role of are structured in a manner by which the essential princi-urban design – proved through the development of stra- ples and concepts – derived from the specific reading andtegic urban projects. The fact that urban design literally opportunities of sites – are not lost throughout the longcontributes to shaping the city is evident – it deals with and complicated development process, while also allow-forms, the quality of urban space and built form. At the ing for flexibility to deal with changing circumstances.same time, there are a series of other tasks for urban Urban design, vision-making and strategic urban pro-design that are perhaps less visible, but by no means less jects start as ‘designerly’ research. The process is initi-important. Urban design is more inclusive than design ated by a penetrating reading of the site, in which its his-of objects as such. Urban design is investigative and can tory, characteristics, the structural grounding of the sitebe termed ‘design by research,’ which, amongst other in the urban morphology and the problems and oppor-things, includes the acquisition and use of local social tunities of the given urban site are analysed. Designerly 5
  • 6. research explores the identity of the study area and crea- have territorial effects outside its area of intervention (detively speculates upon the possibilities to reorganise or Solà-Morales, 1989). Each urban project must have thedevelop the site with qualitative urban spaces and urban ambition to constitute a partial contribution to a consistentactivities. A variety of fields of knowledge are deployed overall strategy. The formulation of this wider strategyin this analysis: urban history and morpho-typology, can be considered a project in itself. This wider strategy isurban ecology and landscape, societal issues, such as the what Busquets has called a ‘project of projects’, a concretepower game of decision-making or processes of inclu- demonstration of the way in which local projects can besion and exclusion, architecture and urbanism, and, last part of a wider constellation of projects. This distinctionbut not least, local social knowledge concerning daily life between projects and ‘projects of projects’ correspondsin particular places. From the initial stages, architectural to what in the French tradition is understood by ‘pro-knowledge is present as a way to question the existing jets urbains’ and ‘projects de ville’ respectively. A ‘projetrealities and spatial structures and the desired interplay urbain’ is the expression of concrete intentions to go outbetween future urban space and urban functioning. This and build an urban fragment. Projets de ville, in contrast,type of research work oscillates between analysis and are as such not realized. Apart from not-counting excep-synthesis, between vision and action, between intuition tions, one does not make cities, but one builds parts, bitsand rationality, between the global scale of the city and and pieces. However, as argued by the ‘urban project’ tra-the actual scale of a building, and between an existing dition, that in itself should not keep us from developingand desired spatial structure. projects for the city, from reflecting on the future form of the city, from constructing ‘projets de ville’ as the horizonpropositions 3 for and the context in which fragmentary projects can beIf we do not re-learn how to design at the intermediate evaluated (De Meulder, et al., 2004). This view concursscale Architecture will soon erase Urbanism. with Salet’s (2006) definition of strategic projects as stra- tegic devices with collective missions, visions and plans,Is design one whole from the spoon to the city? Most attempting to settle or stimulate certain joint courses inarchitects would answer yes. What is the answer of individual actions.urbanists? The idea that architects would pursue,throughout their career, a multidisciplinary/multi-scaleproduction is not a new one: they have always looked "Most urbanism students lack indeedbeyond the boundaries of their discipline, appropriatingmaterials, methods and processes from other industries not only design knowledge, but alsoas needed. Often in history they disguised themselvesas artisans, scientists, artists and philosophers all at the basic design skills to be able to work atsame time. In the 1920’s, the Bauhaus founder WalterGropius famously declared that architects should design the intermediate scale."everything. His school cultivated a totalizing conceptin which Architecture was only one aspect of design. Itpromoted the idea of the architect as someone who could The city produces grey by itself. Strategic urban projectsand would design buildings, cities and objects all with are of no use if they only add to the greyness of the city.the same involvement6. On the contrary, strategic urban projects must make a fundamental difference and in that sense they are usu-Contemporary (Dutch) Urbanism thinks differently. ally very visible. They change the face and perceptionScale matters only if it is big. Design matters only when of the city. Strategic urban projects are indicators ofit is regional and metropolitan. Processes are ‘designed’ future development, producers of identity. They supportmore than the physical world is. No hidden or manifest and strengthen the identity of the city and its inhabit-ambition to ‘design a spoon’ in urbanism. Why? ants. This characteristic necessitates considerable design In his essay Urbanism at the turn of the century (2000), skills and aesthetic sensibilities, qualities that are oftenJoan Busquets talks clearly about the importance of the neglected in urban development initiative.intermediate scale in contemporary urbanism, the scale ofthe urban project. According to Busquets the urban pro- propositions 4ject is a type of project that focuses on an urban fragment, Urban form goes beyond morphology. Urban form isas a starting point for tackling wider ranging problems in about the use that people make of space and the meaningthe city. It is situated on an intermediate scale and should they attach to it.6
  • 7. The city should express the needs of the people and the large-scale issues, the planning and technical aspectsrespond to them, including the need to build up a collec- are openly privileged upon design. A few quick insightstive memory. By analyzing existing places and the com- in what (urban) design is are offered, however there isplex relationships between their constituent parts we not enough space and time to elaborate in depth on whycan learn to recognize and create the qualities of a rich (urban) design is a powerful tool to steer planning pro-and stimulating urban environment. This means on all cesses. There’s no time to reflect-in-action9, neither toscales, on all levels of scale, a city should accommodate find out why “urban design is the ‘key’ to the strategicchange with respect to the past, present and future. urban project and why the ‘hero’ is urban space itself”. On the other hand, a city consists of certain scale (De Mulder, 2004).levels. Each level should have a structure that accommo- Notesdates change in the next level. Each structure should be 1 I borrowed this title from an essay by Bruno de Mulder et al., A Project of Projects (2004: 196).precious to the ones who use it. For example, the scale 2 One important aspect of urban form is the way urban programs are shaped on the ground,level of the neighborhood should have precious street in other words, the way they are composed and ‘designed’ in order to be used.patterns and accommodate changing use of the streets. 3 The Dutch New Towns, the Vinex, American style CBD’s, etc..The street should be precious in its own. As well as 4 After over thirty years the Dutch Ministry of Housing and Planning (VROM) has beenbuildings should be. merged with the Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructures in 2010. 5 Examples of lengthy processes are the South Axis in Amsterdam and the missing link of the A4 motorway in Midden Delfland.propositions 5 6 In Italy the method ‘Dal cucchiaio alla citta’ (“From the spoon to the city”, Ernesto Rogers,Designing at different scales should be taught consistently 1952) was born precisely from the meeting between the nascent Prussian industry and thethroughout the curriculum to all students at our faculty, visionary educational model developed in Dessau. This utopian sentence defined an attitude that Italian designers have developed and sustained since the 1950’s. This philosophy foundnot only to architects. its ground in the optimistic belief that a newly-born industrial production once applied to Architecture would be able to produce a better and more affordable standard of living for many people. This social approach was deeply engaged in the political dialogue with a grow-Lately I noticed a blooming production of toolboxes7 ing post-war country in need of progress. A famous example of this design philosophy wasand oversized metropolitan strategies as main subjects of the light switch that Castiglioni designed in 1968 for VLM, which he used to call “his littleour graduating students in the Urbanism master track. secret”, because this easily missed piece of inexpensive hardware was for him the ultimate anonymous design typology that improved the quality of life in millions of European apart-Sadly few of them choose to develop a project, I mean, ments.a design project well-articulated at different scales 7 Toolboxes are catalogues of standardized rules for urban (re)development and a methodol-of interventions, from strategic planning to convinc- ogy to apply them.ing strategic design. At first I thought that the reason 8 I say ‘most of’ as we can see a clear difference in design knowledge and skills between MSc students who were previously trained as architects (abroad) and students coming from ourwhy this happens is that there is not enough interest in own Bachelor program.design, especially at the intermediate scale. I thought 9 In this well-known book Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design forthat the notion of urban form is outdated, as it’s all about teaching and learning in the professions (1987), Donald Schön argues that professional edu- cation should be centered on enhancing the practitioner’s ability for “reflection-in-action”,planning processes. that is “ learning by doing and developing the ability for continued learning and problem However, talking and working with our students, solving throughout the professional’s career”.I realized that design knowledge is what is missing at Referencesspecific scales, not their interest. Most urbanism stu- Busquets, J. (2000) Urbanism at the turn of the century. BNSP, The Fifth Van Eesteren/Vandents8 lack indeed not only design knowledge, but also Lohuizen lecture 2000, Amsterdam, pp. 3–20basic design skills to be able to work at the intermediate Calabrese, LM (2006). Urban eyes; het stedelijk project en de stedenbouwkundige dienst.scale. That’s why, when it’s time to choose a graduation Stedebouw & Ruimtelijke Ordening, 04 (2006), 1-5theme or Lab, they mostly go for a toolbox instead of for Claessens, F., & van Velzen, E., (2006). De Actualiteit van het Stedelijk Project. Stedebouw & Ruimtelijke Ordening, 4, 32-37a strategic project. One explanation to this – in my view De Sola Morales, M. (1989) Another modern tradition. From the break of 1930 to the mod-- embarrassing situation is ‘what you teach is what you ern urban project. In: Lotus, No. 62, pp. 6–32get’. Is it a matter of curriculum structure and content? De Sola Morales, M. (1987) La secunda historia del proyecto urbano. In: Urbanismo Revista,It might be. On the other hand, it’s also a matter of offer No. 5, pp. 21–40and demand. Students should learn to firmly ask for Koolhaas, R. (1994) “What Ever Happened to Urbanism?”, in S,M,L,XL, OMA, (with Bruce Mau), The Monicelli Press, New York, 1995, pp. 959/971.what they need to become professionals who are capa- Meyer, H., Hermans, W., & Westrik, J., (1998). Stedebouw onder Nieuwe Voorwaarden:ble of seeing the city from multiple viewpoints and who Stedelijke Transformaties in Amsterdam, Rotterdam en Den Haag. In Bekkering, H.,relish working with interdisciplinary teams. et. al, Stedelijke Transformaties: Actuele opgaven in de stad en de rol van de stedebouwkundige discipline, Delft, Delft University Press, 73-93 Rossi, A., (1966). L’Architettura della Città, Padua, Marsilo.From our (teachers) side, we should reflect upon our Salet, W., (2006). Framing Strategic Urban Projects. In Salet, W., & Gualini, E. (eds.),choices as educator. In my view, the present curriculum Framing Strategic Urban Projects: Learning from Current Experiences in Europeanchooses for a vision of urbanism as a pure process, where Urban Regions, Oxon, Routledge, 3-20. 7
  • 8. The fundamentals of Urban Design and the permanent ‘crisis’ Han MeyerIn the previous Atlantis issue we interviewed Prof. Dr. to budget cuts, because as a department Urbanism hasVanstiphout on the new chair Design as Politics. For this grown a lot, having more professors than Architecture,Urban Form issue we approached Prof. dr.ir. Han Meyer much to their dismay. Which seems off: when comparingof the chair of Urban Design, theory and methods. This the number of Master students, Urbanism has only a frac-chair focuses on Urban Form, how urban form in the tion of that at Architecture. We can argue why this is notNetherlands is perceived, influenced and taught and how so surprising, especially in the past much more researchit can be designed and transformed in actual practice. was carried out at Urbanism and we are not only here forHan Meyer explains the background of the chair and the sake of the Master students, but for a larger audience.the profession in light of the Dutch context. He gives his Either way, we will have to shrink down, which will probablyviews on the relation between Architecture and Urban- mean that when De Hoog leaves, we lose that niche in theism and provides insight into his education and research. regional scale. There might be other ways to get this back,The main line running through the interview is that the but I can’t say too much about that at the moment.’absence of a strong common sense on the fundamentalsof the discipline is an important reason that Urbanism in ‘Not only is it hard to translate “Stedenbouwkundingitself has never been a self-evident discipline and finds Ontwerpen” linguistically, but also because what we callitself permanently in crisis. That is why the core-business Urban Design in the Netherlands hardly exists abroad. In aof the chair is focused on the research, teaching and lot of other countries there is actually a very strong sepa-publishing of the fundamentals of urbanism. We con- ration between Urban Design which is the specific designclude the interview with a list of books that are a source of the urban projects, and what is immediately calledof inspiration to Han Meyer. Urban Planning, mainly focusing on zoning and operating on a more abstract level related to Urban Economy. TheBACKGROUND OF THE CHAIR idea that you can make a design for a very large area that‘To explain what the chair of Urban Design stands for, I includes a street plan, a worked out allotment plan, andfirst need to dwell upon the name Urban Design. This is even includes guidelines for building heights, form andimportant because for as long as I have been with the chair size of the buildings with their programmatic layout, that iswe have had the discussion on how to translate Stedebou- actually typically Dutch.’wkundig Ontwerpen into English. The essential idea in thelate 80’s was that Urban Design is a field that has to deal ‘The development of this Dutch discipline has everythingwith both theoretical and methodological aspects and for to do with the development of the Dutch territory, whichthat you need a core chair, which is the chair that I cur- as a delta could only be made inhabitable by approach-rently hold. Aside from that two more chairs are required ing it very systematically. Systematic in the sense of anto cover the more specific niches. Henco Bekkerings chair, immediate spatial and technical division, something whichStadsontwerp, is called Urban Design with the idea that it emerged already in the 15th and 16th century and muchfocuses mainly on the lower scale in relation to Architec- stronger here than in other countries. This is also theture and the urban project. The larger regional scale is cov- reason our discipline has at least as much overlap withered by the chair which is held by Maurits de Hoog.’ Civil Engineering as with Architecture. In other countries you see that Urban Design is actually an enlarged form of‘This idea is still relevant. However it has to be revised due Architecture, because there Urban Design originated from8
  • 9. the Architecture faculty. It is pretty much the largest scale rything that has to do with it, something we don’t reallythat Architecture can handle, and when it gets bigger you teach anymore. Students who are graduating now andend up in Geography and Spatial Economy. come across traffic design assignments still have to dis- Here in Delft it emerged not only from Architecture, but cover very basic aspects like dimensions of roads, turningalso strongly from the Civil Engineering faculty. From those circles for parking, etc. These are basic skills that studentstwo niches something emerged in the 20-30s that was should already be equipped with. I think there should becalled Urbanism and Urban Design. This particular histori- a very clear distinction between the fundamental aspectscal development needs to be explained abroad as to what and a cloud of other aspects that are interesting and canwe mean here by Urban Design. It is very difficult to put be added. Perhaps we should work on that more andjust one title on your business card. restore that balance. In terms of education this distinction At a given moment we thought of Urban Compositions is not always clear, especially in a situation where everyoneas a term because it explains partially that it’s about spatial finds they have something important to say, and in whichcompositions, about spatial form and about structure. Then we are perhaps too democratic and liberal by giving eve-again, lately I am more inclined to just say Urban Design; ryone their say.’perhaps it is better to say Urbanism. I’ll leave the exacttranslation up to you.’ BACKGROUND AND CRISIS ‘A lot of things are changing and to be honest I think‘In the last twenty or thirty years, research in Urbanism urbanism is permanently in crisis, which is actually quitewas for an important part comprised of Spatial Planning logical. You have to realize that urbanism has never reallyresearch, so the influence and occasional dominance of been self-evident, both as a discipline here at the school,what is normal in Anglo-Saxon countries is something that as to how the discipline emerged in the Netherlands. Inwe did not entirely escape from. We from the urban design the period when the BNS (Union of Dutch Urbanists)angle also did research of course, but did not have such a was founded and the large cities started to get their ownlong tradition in the publishing and making of articles and planning departments, there was an enormous discussionthe like. Therefore the bulk of this came from the Spatial going on, and there were many doubters concerning thePlanning corner. If you go back even further, before the sense of special organizations on urban design and urbanmiddle of the 20th century and partly during the fifties, planning. Currently, a large change is taking place in thethen you do see that the profession contained all sorts of Netherlands concerning the tradition of project basedaspects from Civil Engineering, but also a lot of things typi- development, a process which entails the development ofcal for the University of Wageningen, like soil studies and neighborhoods all the way through to completion of thevegetation studies. Those courses were all part of the cur- last dwelling. This tradition was built up predominantly inriculum, but disappeared over time. When I studied here in the 20th century, culminating in the 80 — 90s with thethe seventies we still had a course on site preparation, but VINEX developments. With the help of the crisis this tradi-when I came back twenty years later it had disappeared.’ tion is now coming to an end. It’s essential to say ‘with the help of’ because arguments against this approach to theFOCUS OF THE CHAIR profession have existed for long, but are being taken much‘One of our main projects now is called “de Kern van de more serious now. They have everything to do with pleasStedenbouw”, or “the essence of urbanism”, in which we Carel Weeber held twenty years ago for more freedom toask ourselves what the fundamentals of our profession small private initiative, and calls for more flexibility in theare and in what ways this is relevant for now and for the urban economy and culture. Conditions should be createdfuture. What we basically state is that an important aspect that allow all sorts of developments to flourish, rather thanof the essence is knowledge of the more technical aspects fix everything now, pouring the plan into a casting mold.of the profession, and the ability to deal with specialists In our book series on the kern van de stedenbouw, onefrom different technical specializations. This way you don’t of the important messages we try to convey is that for abecome completely dependent on the demands of the civil very long time Dutch Urbanism consisted of an approachengineering experts which might be difficult to translate in which a very strong spatial form is designed, but withininto the urban plan. With some basic knowledge you can which there are still a lot of possibilities for private initiative.provide both rebuttal to and a better integration of these So the post war period in which the approach of strictdemands. The same goes for traffic engineering and eve- planning and the management and control of the overall"...to be honest I think urbanism is permanently in crisis" 9
  • 10. shape of very large areas came into vogue is actually a it a) is realised, and b) also functions well…’sort of intermezzo if you look at the longer term. That’swhy it’s very relevant to look at this tradition again in the ‘I happened to read an article recently in de Groenecoming period, not to copy all sorts of old forms but to Amsterdammer, in which IJburg was enormously patron-learn from certain principles, to rearrange these to be used ized. They interviewed residents stating ‘it’s boring, there’sin the 21st century.’ nothing to do on the streets, it’s empty, there are street kids terrorizing the place’. I think the case of IJburg was aARCHITECTURE VS URBANISM clever move by the municipality of Amsterdam in order to‘I think that by definition architects are interested in the meet the very high residential demand of people to live incity, and that they have always tried to intervene and even Amsterdam and moreover I think the urban design is oneclaim parts of the terrain of Urbanism. That issue is as old of the best examples of recent urban design in the Nether-as the difference between Architecture and Urbanism. But lands. However every new neighbourhood just needs timein principle an architect designs buildings whereas the to become a real part of the city. First there is the wholeessence of Urbanism is to design conditions for the place- building process, which in the case of the harbour islandment of buildings in such a manner that it also benefits the IJburg actually went quite fast: it took only fifteen yearscommunity as a whole, instead of just the private owners from the first design to construction. But to allow this dis-of buildings. My predecessor Jan Heeling explained this trict to develop itself into a living part of the city severalvery clearly for the first time in his inaugural speech: the more decades will be necessary.’distinction between architecture and urbanism is directlyrelated to the distinction between private and public. ‘On a very general note I think it is very important for cities The hard part is that you have two things to consider. If a that they retain sufficient critical mass, to prevent whatproject is being executed and buildings are realized within is happening now in American cities like Detroit. Detroita couple of years, the short-term interests in an urban plan obviously is a very radical example, but then again thisare often about the connection of these buildings to the decay permanently threatens a city like Rotterdam. Whenpublic space. At the same time you have to consider the the critical mass of the population declines below a cer-long term. What will happen in and to those buildings? The tain threshold limit, it directly affects the retail sector, cin-program can change over time and become something emas, health centres, hospital, etc. The city will then entercompletely different in ten to twenty years, on the other a downward spiral, for instance in large parts of Americanhand even whole buildings can be replaced. But once an cities there is simply nothing to do. The collective inter-urban plan has been designed it is much harder to change, est of a community is very directly related to maintainingso before you actually can start talking about the trans- a critical mass in a city, and that can only be maintained byformation of an urban area a lot of time has passed. The keeping the city attractive. This is a very direct challengeimportant thing with an urban design is that it has to con- for urban design: to ensure that the whole does not falltain a high degree of durability, in the sense that it has to apart and if possible, to condense it.’last long and should be able to absorb all kinds of changes.’ EDUCATION AND RESEARCH‘Related to that, in one of the first lectures of the urban ‘Lately Im more involved in the graduation studio Delta Inter-fundamentals I state: if you want to become famous, you’d ventions, which is more about the relation between urbanbetter not become an urban designer. Because for most design and the very large task of the delta programme howpeople a building is very recognisable, but the fact that to control the delta. When you add up all of the componentsthere is an urban design is often taken for granted. ‘Yes, of the delta programme a huge spatial transformation of theof course there are streets and the buildings are in a row Netherlands is not unlikely, but you have to take care that– or not.’ That those things have been thought out, that it won’t turn into something horrible. The main question is:people carefully drew it all is not so obvious. But when how can you be on top of that, guide the process and usethere is suddenly a very strange or special building pop- this transformation to your advantage. Let’s embed waterping up, the reaction is much more clear and the building is management and flood protection in such a way that we aredirectly associated with the name of the architect. To sum left with better pieces of city and landscape.it up Urbanism has to face two aspects that are not always In my research there are actually two main lines, whicheasy. The first is this lack of recognition and the second is are related to one another. The first is about the essenceits long term character. With a bit of luck, a building is com- of urbanism, focusing on how our profession really devel-pleted within a few years and the architect sees the result oped and what the meaning of that is for the future. A veryof his work. Concerning the urban design however, before important part of that is the Dutch situation, which at the10
  • 11. same time is the second line. Over time our profession has down.’ As Hurricane Katrina passed through the Gulfalways been intertwined, how can you exploit that inter- Coast region, New Orleans’ federal flood protectionconnectedness in the future, taking into account that we failed: 80% of the city flooded. ‘There is this doublehave had to build our cities in a marshy delta and also have assignment: how to make a clever new water manage-to keep developing them in the future. That last part, the ment system and how to get the city back, inhabited byforward-looking research is actually the most important, and functioning for its citizens. This is a very honourablewhich I try to develop together with a number of PhD stu- task, but just as important is that this task gets properlydents. We would like to combine the layer approach (often addressed here in the Netherlands. We are thereforeused as a pictogram but forgotten shortly thereafter) with working on a project commissioned by NWO, which isa scenario approach: to investigate what developments in the Dutch organization for scientific research, to developthe long term are both possible and conceivable in climate a methodology for integral planning and design in theand spatial change and how those two should be interwo- South-Western delta, the area between Rotterdam andven. On that level of scale it is vital to develop a robust Antwerp. This is necessary because we observe that thenew spatial structure which at the same time allows great specialized sector-approach still reigns in our nation’sflexibility in its use. Combined with the small-scale oppor- spatial policy. There are nature people, water people, porttunities of city and surrounding (water) landscape this is people, safety people, urban planners, and so on. In thisactually the central theme the graduation studio Delta specialization trend it is increasingly difficult to develop aInterventions tries to address.’ kind of integrated approach for a spatial area like a delta.’ Since this integration is one of the fundamental aspects‘As a consortium named Dutch Dialogues comprised of of Urbanism, you could say that this too adds up to theurbanists, civil engineers and engineering and design importance of reconsidering the fundamentals of Urban-firms from practice, we were asked to help reconstruct ism as an answer to those who state that the discipline isa large part of New Orleans, which is still largely torn in a crisis. (JB & JW) SELECTED READINGS Melanie Mitchell – Complexity theory, a opposed to the artificial manipulation of the guided tour landscape – the first wins.’ ‘Our visiting professor Juval Portugali Edmund Bacon – Design of Cities researches self-organization in relation to complexity theory, which is a very important ‘In the sixties a bulk of meaningful literature theme for our discipline. In this book the with high importance today was written by author describes the complexity that rises in authors such as Jane Jacobs, Christopher all scientific disciplines from the mid twenties Alexander and Kevin Lynch. In my view, century until the turn of the century where Edmund Bacon belongs to this list with they all come to a stop and reflect upon their his Design of Cities. In this book Bacon as evolution. An inspiring read.’ head of the Urban Development department in Philadelphia is confronted with migrat- David Biggs – Quagmire, Nation-building ing citizens away from the city center and and Nature in the Mekong Delta infrastructural monsters. To come up with a new plan he travels through time to create a ‘A book in which the Mekong delta is the fascinating systematic research-by-design. subject and the way it is incorporated This belongs to the mandatory list of must- into Vietnams everyday life and the way it reads for any urbanist. Moreover, I often served as a defense mechanism against the show this book to students to show how you oppressors. The interwoven relationship of can translate a theme into a drawing in the the Vietnamese and their landscape could most convincing way.’ not be overcome by attacking nations. This is a strong metaphor for the strength of the landscape and the reconciliation with it as 11
  • 12. 12
  • 13. Farmin zhang qinyi (EMU)Paris 2030 / shaping the city with open space european postgraduate master in urbanism (EMU) Studio: Frontiers (MSc4 Thesis) Tutors : Bernardo Secchi, Daan Zandbelt & Henco Bekkering Location: Paris, FR/Hongkong, P.R.C Type: Regional Planning Size: 2,500 sq km (XL) Project farmin is located in Paris based on a parallel comparison with Hongkong. The name is derived from farmax, maximized density, where farmin stands for minimized density. farmin is about using open space as a backbone of urban and infrastructural development. Open space is used in different ways as centralities, con- nections and interfaces in all levels from territory, district to neighborhood. Nevertheless open space functions as a structuring city layer that connects with the urban enve- lope and the green rhythm of Paris throughout all levels. Two concepts are developed: A 2-km city and a 15-km city. These describe the city forms by both the distance from the city centre to the xl open space and the distance between different urban compositions such as cbd, single family housing and social housing. These city forms which are defined by open space can consequently have an impact on society. Socially diversed climates can be achieved from a city form that provides all kinds of open space everywhere, especially those xl ones. The concept is to interpret the ecologic principles into an urban version and use this to guide the organization and design of the open spaces. Project farmin is both flexibile and specific. It is flexible in the sense that it addresses several strategic key con- cepts which are illustrated through designs in different scales, rather than build up a fixed master plan for con- struction. At the same time it introduces a clear syntax of the open space focusing on connectivity and accessibil- ity. The open space is no longer like a field with free- standing high rises, as in Le Corbusier’s Plan Voisin, but embraced by its users and providing them with collec- tive yet distinguisable identity. 13
  • 14. Problem: open space structures the city EMU (European Postgraduate Master inThe size and distribution of open space can define the character of a metropoli- Urbanism) is a joint program offered bytan area. The xl open spaces are almost all located on the outskirts of Paris, the four European universities: UPC in Bar-city is therefore shaped as a circle with a heart and a periphery. In Hong Kong, celona, Spain; TU Delft in The Nether-however, those xl open spaces are located parallel with the city, which shapes lands; KU Leuven in Belgium; and IUAVthe city in a linear way. in Venice, Italy. All four universities are inclined to link their didactic topics toHypothesis: open space and social segregation their direct cultural environment with itsOpen spaces are magnets. The individualising way of living makes large open traditions and contemporary challenges.spaces attractive areas, large open spaces located in the outskirts polarize the That leads in Barcelona to small scale ur-city. Can a more porous and isotropic city in the term of open space, in which ban transformations and territorial trans-the whole city has sufficient and equal accessibility to all kinds of open space, formations of culutral landscapes.Wherehelp to form a more mixed and stable society? in Venice cultural heritage and the ‘città diffusa’ are central topics, students in Leu-Concept: HKs in Paris ven work on the mid-sized European cityHK’s 2-km-city condition leads to a more sustainable and integrated society. and deltas facing climate change. Even-Can we insert large open spaces with a nature and suburb-like condition in tually Delft’s focus is on the (Randstad’s)Paris in order to provide opportunities for alternative ways of living? Can we metropolisation and delta condition. Thefinally have a metropolis with a Paris city center, and tiny HKs around it? A postgraduate master course is a design-new Paris 2030? oriented program, which focuses on strat- egies and design for cities and territories.Project: Patches + Linear City The aim of the program is to produceFirst of all, big patches of open space are defined out of the brown fields. The highly qualified, university-trained urbanleftovers are used in two ways: some of them are organized as borders of those designers, physical planners and research-patches as an interface to enhance the communication and movement across the ers (www.emurbanism.eu/). Atlantis askedborders. The remainings are organized into corridors to connect all the patches. Daan Zandbelt to pick a recent project ofAs a result, the project could be re-defined as patches and a linear city. EMU to demonstrate.14
  • 15. Paris Hong KongOpen space shapes the city 10 km 5 0 suburbia périphérique CBD centre 15 km Paris current + PARIS: 15 km city 15 km 0 HK: 2 km city 0 bay 0 2 km centre 1 luxury housing Paris 2030 2 km suburbia 2 kmHypothesis: open space and social segregation Concept: HKs in Paris = + [ + ] Project = Patches + Linear City 15
  • 16. Measuring urban formmeta berghauser pontFor many, the notion of ‘measuring urban form’ will sound disturbing.Urban form is about visual images of cities, experiences, feelings, memoriesof place, thoughts and intellectual constructs anchored in the realm of thearts and the humanities. Anne Vernez Moudon however gives in the paperUrbanism by numbers (2009) a good argument to study the urban environ-ment quantitatively as it offers urban designers the opportunity to practicetheir art with its due precision. Urban density is one of the measures that is used frequently in urban designpractice, but is also questioned by many as it relates poorly to urban form (Alex-ander 1993, Forsyth 2003). The use of a concept with such a large “warningdisclaimer” is disturbing. The Spacematrix method has contributed to a clari-fication of the existing Babel-like confusion in the terminology currently being Figure 1. Spacematrix with floor space in-used by urban planners working with urban density. The most important con- dex (fsi) on the y-axis, ground space indextribution of the Spacematrix method is, besides a clear definition of density, that (gsi) on the x-axis, and network densitydensity can be related to urban form and other performances and that urban (n) on the z-axis (Berghauser Pont andform is thus measurable. Haupt 2010).SpacematrixSpacematrix defines density as a multi variable phenomenon and makes a cor-relation between density and the built mass (urban form). Spacematrix uses thefollowing measures: floor space index (fsi), ground space index (gsi), and net-work density (n). fsi reflects the building intensity independently of the pro-grammatic composition; gsi, or coverage, demonstrates the relationship betweenbuilt and non-built space; and the density of the network, N, refers to the con-centration of networks in an area. Measures such as open space radio (osr) orspaciousness, the average number of floors or layers (l) and the size of the urbanblocks (w) can be derived from these three main measures. These three mainmeasures are represented in a three-dimensional diagram, the Spacematrix(figure 1). Separate projections of the Spacematrix are in the present contextnecessary due to limitations in data management and representation (and thuscommunication) of the results (see for instance the fsi-gsi plane in figure 3).Figure 2 shows three examples on how different an area can look like with one Figure 2. Three different types of urbanand the same density of 75 dwelling per hectare. When applying Spacematrix for areas with 75 dwellings per hectare (fromdescribing the density of these three examples we get a more accurate descrip- left to right, 1-3, see position in Spacema-tion. In all cases the fsi is the same (based on mono-functional areas and 100 m2 trix in Figure 3).1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 33 3 316
  • 17. per dwelling), but the gsi in the left case is relatively high. rounded by large open spaces (marked as a circle named In the middle case, gsi is medium, whereas in the right “F”). In particular post-war housing areas inspired by Le case the gsi is low (Berghauser Pont, Haupt 2010). Corbusier’s La Ville Radieuse design principles belong to Figure 3 shows the position of the three examples in the this category. Conversely, urban areas with a high gsi but fsi-gsi plane of the Spacematrix diagram. Besides fsi on low fsi (marked as a circle named “C”) tend to be low rise the y-axis and gsi on the x-axis, the measures osr and l are row houses with small gardens, but also industrial areas included as gradients that fan out over the diagram. osr cluster here. The multi-variable definition of density describes the spaciousness (or pressure on the non-built makes it thus possible to quantitatively describe the dif- space), and l represents the average number of storeys. ferent urban environments. Although the examples have one and the same fsi, their position in the Spacematrix is different due to the differ- These types of urban environment do not have rigid bor- ences in gsi, osr and l. ders, but slowly transform from one to another. What is most important to understand is that the conditions The diagram in figure 4 shows, based on empirical sam- set by density very much influence the performance of132 Chapter 4 ples from various locations in the Netherlands, and Berlin a built environment. It is suggested that performance- (Germany) and Barcelona (Spain), where different types based descriptions of urban fabrics could become more of urban environments are located in the Spacema- URBAN FABRIC TYPES important than the traditional image- or activity-based trix. The environments with both a high fsi and gsi are descriptions. Instead of naming low-rise block types or An urban fabric type can be viewed as consisting of a specific combination of, on the one hand, a network type (defined by N, buildings dominated by perimeter areas with mid-rise b, and T) which describes the basic layout of the ground high-rise strip types, the fabric type could be described planblocks. These areas are marked the other hand the building type (defined and the accompanying series of islands, and on as a circle with the letter and prescribed solely by its Spacematrix density and the by FSI, GSI, OSR and L), which describes the infill of the islands. “E”. Conversely, urban areas with both low fsi and gsi The amount of network needed to access the islands is incorporated in the density figures performance characteristics embedded in this density. on the scale of the island and the urban fabric. The difference betweenof low rise (marked as a circle named “A”) tend to consist island and fabric Performances that are discussed in the book Spacematrix. density is an indicator of the amount of network space (T ) needed to access the islands. single houses with large gardens. Areas with a high fsi In order to grasp the consequences of adding network to the islands, the nine archetypes f Space, Density and Urban (Berghauser Pont and Haupt that but low gsi earlier are positioned again in thehigh-rise but this time adding the were discussed tend to be areas with Spacemate, buildings sur- 2010) are parking, daylight access and urbanity. density calculations on the level of the fabric (Figure 22). The GSI and FSI values on the scale of the fabric are all lower than on the scale of the island because of the added tare space. Many more performances of urban fabrics could and But the different building types still retain unique positions in the diagram, and, when all other should be researched and related to density in the same Dutch samples are included, the clusters can again be 8 discerned to represent the different 3.0 FSI building types (Figure 23). L 13 12 11 10 9 7 6 5 manner, contributing to a better underpinning of urban 2.5 plans and designs. OSR L 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 4.5 FSI 2.0 4.0 1.5 0.25 Instead of creating images, urban professionals will then 3.5 OSR 3.0 1.0 0.35 be more involved with defining the conditions under 2.5 3 2 1 0.50 0,10 0.75 which specific qualities are most likely to be realized. 0.5 2.0 1.00 1.5 Figure 22. In the Harvard Design Magazine reader Urban Plan- 0.0 Nine archetypecal 0,15 samples ning Today such a conditional approach to planning is 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 GSI 0.60 1.0 in the 0,25 0.5 0,35 0,50 described when it defines the future role of governments Spacemate diagram 0.0 on the scale of Figure 3. The relationship0.30 0.00 0.10 0.20 between gsi, fsi, osr and l in Spacematrix 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 GSI 0.80 as establishing intelligent and flexible guidelines, or the island and the (positions rise point to Figure 2) (Berghauser Pont andhigh rise point low 1-3 refer mid rise point Haupt 2010). fabric. incentives (Saunders 2006). These guidelines should not low rise strip mid rise strip high rise strip island low rise block mid rise block high rise block prescribe solutions or particular built forms, but should fabric define principles or performance criteria that leave the L 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 FSI 3,5 OSR designer free to be creative in solving design problems 3,0 0,15 (Punter 2007). 2,5 2,0 1,5 E 0,25 The performance of the built landscape 1,0 F D 0,35 There is among many researchers and professionals a con- C 0,5 , B 0,50 , 0,75 sensus that compact settlements are more sustainable than 1,00 A 0,0 sprawl, and that denser cities, be it with high rise or with Figure 23. 0,00 0,10 0,20 0,30 0,40 0,50 GSI 0,60 Building compact mid-rise solutions, will somehow halt an unsus- types in A point type, low rise D street type, mid rise the Spacemate B street type, low rise E block type, mid rise tainable increase of consumption of transport, energy and diagram on the C block type, low rise F hybrid point/street type, high rise resources (Newman and Kenworthy 1999; Jenks 2000). scale of the fabric. Newman and Kenworthy demonstrated that in low- Figure 4. The various types of urban areas (scale: urban fabric) in the density cities in North America energy consumption per FSI-GSI plane of the Spacematrix (Berghauser Pont and Haupt 2010). inhabitant for transport is far higher than the same energy 17
  • 18. used by Europeans, and even more so when compared to very high-densitycities in Japan (see figure 5). North Americans are almost totally dependent onthe private car, while the Japanese in general cluster in higher densities and areable to sustain a more efficient public transport network. However, denser urban environments do not automatically mean less trans-port and energy consumption. Distances between homes and places of work,regulations and fiscal policies probably have far greater impacts on car use thanthe mere physical layout of cities and regions (Neuman 2005). If the argument isturned around, though, one has to admit that dense settlements are a necessaryprerequisite if we are to aspire to a radical cut in car and lorry transportation.Only dense settlements offer feasible circumstances for the large investmentsneeded for a more energy-efficient and environmentally responsible movementof goods and people. Such settlements are also the only environments that canbe successful when it comes to healthy and sustainable modes of transportation, Figure 5. Urban density and transport-such as walking and cycling. related energy consumption. Accessibility Radiuses Figure 6. Difference between Accessibility 500-1000 density of blocks, mixed- Radiuses 2500 use to mono-functional 500-1000 5000m (Berghauser Pont and Mash- 2500 5000m hoodi 2011). Figure 7. Accessible areas of a block are unique. They cover 500, 1000, 2500, and 5000m distance from the block and [ [ Meters are dependent on network 0 1.125 2.250 4.500 configuration (Berghauser Meters 0 1.125 2.250 4.500 Pont and Mashhoodi 2011).Based on these findings, we can conclude that fsi plays a than 2,4 ha, residential density should be more than 54distinctive role in predicting energy consumption related units per hectare, and distance to the closest grocery storeto transport. In what sense the other density measures are should be less than 440 meter. The finding that less thanof importance, and thus urban form on the micro scale, is 440 meter could “make or break” an environmental sup-unknown. In other words, does it matter whether density port to walking was maybe the most powerful lesson thatis realized through arose from these quantitative analyses.i) high and spacious developments versus Based on results of a study in Rotterdam by Berghauser2) low and compact developments with similar high Pont and Mashhoodi (2011) concerning mixed-use envi- densities. ronments, we can conclude that fsi in mixed blocks is significantly higher than in mono-functional blocks.Walkability research done by Moudon et al. (2006) shows The fsi is 27% higher in the mixed blocks than in thethat besides residential density, also block size, presence mono-functional blocks.of proximate grocery stores, restaurants, and retail facili- When considering all the mixed blocks the share ofties are strongly associated with walkability. The find- floor area used for commercial services such as shopsings of this research show that quantitative thresholds, and restaurants show the highest difference with thein this case to support walkable neighborhoods, need to mono-functional blocks, followed by the share of culturalbe defined with great precision: blocks should be smaller function, social services, offices and industries. In other18
  • 19. words, the service function and especially the commer- the most distinctive, where it differs 39% between mixed-cial functions dominate the mixed blocks. The share of use and mono-functional blocks. As general conclusion,work is less spectacular as can be seen in figure 6. The mixed-use blocks are more likely when the fsi of the blockshare of housing reduces significantly in the mixed is higher and the block is located in an area with greaterblocks. A mixed block has 21% less gross floor area for provision of different land use classes.housing than a mono-functional block. This is not sostrange as the other functions need more space in order A recently developed block in Rotterdam has a rela-to make the blocks mixed. tive high fsi and is planned with a mixed program, What is also found is that this reduction of residential but is located in a walkable neighbourhood (radius 500floor area within a block is compensated for by an increase meter) dominated by housing (figure 8 & 9). It is there-of residential density in the proximity of the block in fore questionable whether this planned mix will on thequestion. This can be studied by measuring the accessi- long run survive as not all conditions are optimal for able residential density. Accessible density (Ståhle 2008) mixed-use block.takes into account both the gross floor space of an area(for instance the urban block) and the accessible floor area Conclusion and discussionwithin a certain radius (see figure 7). Measuring urban form is to many designers frightening, but could - as is shown here - be of great value to betterBy doing so, the density of a low dense block can increase in underpin design decisions. The complexity of designingcase it is embedded in a high dense context. Or vice versa, cities makes that we will never find (and we do not wanta high dense block can have a very low accessible density to find it, do we?) the formula for the best city, but weif it is extremely segregated from its context. Comparison can understand the performance of the city better basedbetween mixed-use and mono-functional blocks shows that on quantitative analysis. The most important conclusionmixed-use blocks have a higher accessible density in all the is the need for precision and accuracy in dimensioningradii and land use classes (Berghauser Pont and Mashhoodi the physical neighbourhoods. In addition, the knowledge2011). The difference is more distinctive in lower radii. In how a local change in urban form has effects on the city aswalking distance the accessible commercial service density a whole, and vice versa. Based on this knowledge we canis 77% higher in mixed-use blocks than in mono-functional guide the future city with smart urban rules prescribingblocks. Within biking distance, the presence of work is performances instead of form. Alexander, E. R. (1993), Density Measures: A Review and Analysis, in: Journal of Architec- ture and Planning Research 10(3), pp. 181-202 Berghauser Pont, M. Y., Haupt, P (2010) SPACEMATRIX, Space, Density and Urban Form. Rotterdam, NAi Publishers. Berghauser Pont and Mashhoodi (2011), Studying land-use distribution and mixed-use pat- terns in relation to density, accessibility and urban form, ISUF conference 2011, Montreal, August 26th -29th 2011 (forthcoming). Forsyth, R. (2003) Measuring Density: Working Definitions for Residential Density and Building Density, in: Density Brief, 8 2003, Design Center for American Urban Landscape, University of Minoesota. Jenks, M. (2000), The acceptability of urban intensification, In: Williams, K., E. Burton, et al., Eds. (2000), Achieving sustainable urban form. London, E & FN Spon.Figure 8. Mixed-use block (Wolphaertsbocht) measured on block Mashhoodi, B. (2011), Bio-inspired Design Support for Enhanced Mixed-use Potential. Un- derstanding the relation between urban form and mixed-use development by means of bio-level (Mashhoodi 2011). inspired computation, first year PhD presentation TU Delft. Moudon Vernez, A. et al., (2006), Operational Definitions of Walkable Neighborhood: Theoretical and Empirical Insights, Journal of Physical Activity and Health 2006, 3, Suppl 1, S99-S117, © 2006 Human Kinetics, Inc. Moudon Vernez, A., Lee C.(2009), Urbanism by numbers. A quantitative approach to urban form. in: Making the metropolitan landscape: Standing firm on the middle ground. Ed. by Jacquline Tatom, Jennifer Stauber, New York, Routledge: 57-77 Neuman, M. (2005), ‘The Compact City Fallacy’, in: Journal of Planning Education and Research 25, 11-26. Newman, P. and J. Kenworthy (1999), Sustainability and cities: overcoming automobile de- pendence, Washington, Island Press. Punter, J., 2007. Design guidelines in American cities: conclusions. In: M. Larice & E. Mac- donald, eds. 2007. The urban design reader. Oxon: Routledge. pp. 500-516. Original text from 1997. Saunders, W.S., 2006. Cappuccino urbanism, and beyond. Harvard Design Magazine, fall 2006 / winter 2007, p. 3.Figure 9. The same block is mono-functional measured on the scale Ståhle, A. (2008) Compact Sprawl: Exploring Public Open Space and Contradictions in Ur-of a walking neighbourhood of radius 500 meter (Mashhoodi 2011). ban Density, Stockholm; KTH. 19
  • 20. The urban capacity of the WestlandTowards a systematic measurement of capacity forintensification of dwellings and activities dena kasraianUnder the topic of compactness, strategies for intensifica- weak to strong points which show the range of least to mosttion of dwellings and activities are high on the agenda. favorable spots for being intensified.The capacity for multi-According to Randstad structuurvisie 2040 there is a functional intensification will be derived from the combi-growing need to provide more space for living and work- nation of the different categories.ing in the Randstad. On the other hand there are fears ofextra congestion and over-crowdedness in the large cities The final superimposition map plays the role of a masterof the Randstad. These are the reasons and needs which plan of the area which suggests the degree (intensity), loca-motivated this graduation project. tion (priority) and program of intensification. It tries to find solutions for the Randstad’s demand forspace outside the borders of the main cities but within the 2. Small scaleexisting built-up area, in order to make the most out of At the local scale an inventory of the existing morphol-the existing potentials. It claims that the policies for inten- ogy is provided. For each sample, three scenarios of low/sified development, with the aim of reaching the compact medium and high intensification are predicted and quanti-city concept, would be more successful if they can answer fied (within a limitation of urban rules and using existingthese questions: samples).Where should the intensification take place (quality)? 3. Combination Eventually, the intensification capacities of the large andWhat should the program be (land-use)? small scales are combined to quantify the amount of den- sification.How much should the amount of intensification be(quantity)? This method is not dependant on a specific location, the end result of the proposed methodology is a proposalThis project introduces a systematic approach to locate and for a master plan, which helps to locate and quantify theevaluate the potential locations for intensification of each strategies of intensification and provides a glimpse of pos-program or mixed uses. Part IV) Applying the masterplan —The study model sible futures for policy makers and other stakeholders and The interventions may vary from small changes (expansion, annexation andthem to communicate. allows inll) in the areas with lower potential to total demolishment and replacement of the existing fabric with highlyMethodology dense interventions, in areas with high intensication capacity.1. Large scalea) Within the context of Westland (as a case study), andthe categories of dwellings and amenities, companies andglasshouses, several decisive factors for intensification aremapped in a gis database (e.g. public transport, densities,goods’ transportation network).b) Values are attached to the elements within each layerregarding their relative importance (e.g. in the “publictransport” layer, the areas closer to the stations valuehigher). Later, different weight factorsVI) Applying the mas- to the Part are applied terplan, studymodelexisting layers (e.g. the layer “degree of urbanity” weighsmore than the “noise pollution”). 143c) The valued layers are super-imposed to provide a capac- Figure 1. Plan drawing, after applying maximum intensification to aity evaluation for intensification. The result is a gradient of part of Wateringen, Westland. The new additions are in red.20
  • 21. Figure 2. The step by step procedure of assigning values for intensification of dwellings. The gradient of yellow to red colors shows the location leasto 1. Small scale —Quantitative estimation o estimation to most favorable for the intensification of dwellings.rio1. Small scale —Quantitative estimationio 1.1.Small scale —Quantitative estimation Small scale —Quantitative Existing situation Existing situation Low intensication Low intensication Medium intensication Medium intensication High intensication cation High High intensi Existing situation Existing situation Existing situation Low intensication Low intensication Low intensication Medium intensication Medium intensication Medium intensication High intensication Highintensication intensication Existing situation Low intensification Medium intensification High intensificationw housesw housesww housesow houses Reference #1 Reference #1 Reference #1 Reference #1 Reference #2 Reference #2 Reference #2 #2 Reference #2 Figure 3. Example of morphology inventory and quantitative estimation of low,Reference #1 high intensification. medium and Reference 4.4.Single-familyrow houses ((2.5 level )) ) 4.Single-family row houses ( (2.5 level ) 4. Single-family row houses 2.5 level 4. Single-family row houses (2.5 level ) Single-family row houses 2.5 level Plan area Plan area Plan area Plan area Footprint Footprint Footprint Footprint GFA GSI GFA GSI GFA GFA GSI FSI FSI FSI OSR L L OSR OSR LL dwl/ha dwl/ha dwl/ha Plan area Footprint GFA GSI GSI FSI FSI OSR OSR L dwl/ha dwl/ha Existing situation Existing situation No 3 Existing situation Existing situation No 333 No No 34817 34817 34817 34817 7966 7966 7966 7966 20937 0,22 20937 0,22 20937 0,22 0,60 20937 0,22 0,60 1,28 0,60 1,28 0,60 2,62 1,28 2,62 1,28 2,62 40 2,62 40 40 40 Existing situation Low intensication No 3 34817 7966 10631 20937 0,22 0,76 26578 0,30 0,60 0,911,282,50 2,6251 40 Low intensication Low intensication Low intensication 10631 10631 10631 26578 0,30 26578 0,30 0,76 26578 0,30 0,76 0,91 2,50 0,76 0,91 0,91 2,50 51 2,50 51 51 Low intensication Growth 10631 33% 27%2657836% 27%0,76 -29% 00 2,50+11 51 0,30 27% 0,91 Growth Growth Growth 33% 33% 33% 27% 27% 36% 27% 36% 27% 36% 27% -29% 00 -29% -29% +11 +11 +11 Medium intensiGrowth Medium intensication cation Medium intensication Medium intensication 33% 10956 10956 10956 10956 27% 36354 0,31 36354 0,31 36% 1,04 36354 0,31 1,04 36354 0,31 27% 0,65-29%3,310 70 +11 1,04 0,65 1,04 3,31 0,65 3,31 0,65 3,31 70 70 70 Medium intensication Growth Growth Growth Growth 38% 38%10956 38% 38% 74% 74%3635441% 73%1,04 -49% +1 3,31+30 70 74% 74% 41% 41%0,31 73% 41% 73% -49% +1 73% 0,65 -49% +1 -49% +1 +30 +30 +30 High intensiGrowth High intensication cation High intensication High intensication 38% 11125 11125 11125 11125 55625 0,31 1,5973%0,42 -49%5,00+1 107 +30 74% 55625 0,31 55625 0,31 55625 0,31 41% 1,59 1,59 0,42 1,59 5,00 0,42 5,00 0,42 5,00 107107 107 High intensication Growth Growth Growth Growth 40%11125 40% 40% 40% 166% 41% 165% -67% +2 5,00+66 107 55625 0,31 165% -67% +2 166% 41% 166% 41% 1,59 166% 41% 165% -67% +2 0,42 165% -67% +2 +66 +66 +66 Growth 40% 166% 41% 165% -67% +2 +66 102 102 102 102 102 Figure 4. 1:1000 Model, after applying maximum intensification to a part of Wateringen, Westland 21
  • 22. Vertical Asia msc urbanism, architecture and real estateAsia is the urban centre of the world. Although levels of urbanization are higher Vertical Cities Asia project by TU Delftin Europe or North America, in Asia almost as many people live in urban areas Studioleader: Mitesh Dixit (OMA)as opposed to the rest of the world combined. Moreover, the current total isprojected to double over the course of the next generation. More than half of Supervisors: Henco Bekkering,the world’s most populous cities and urban regions are found in Asia. Equally Luisa Calabrese, Kees Kaan, Henri vanimportant, Asia is a site of new and emerging urban forms, phenomena and Bennekomexperiences, but also the site of problems of sustainable urban development.In recent graduation projects Atlantis noticed an increasing interest in Asia, spe- Participating universities:cifically China. From 120 urbanism graduation projects of 2010 and 2011 nearly The Chinese University of Hong Konga quarter is a project in Asia (Repository consulted 8-7-2011). In this section we Tongji Universitywill show the results of the graduation studio Vertical Cities Asia as well as a Tsinghua Universityrecent graduation project by Xiao Liang. We also interviewed a professor of University of TokyoUrban Design at the Hanyang university in Seoul who is also the project leader National University of Singapore (host)on the future vision of Seoul. Delft University of Technology ETH ZurichVertical Cities Asia competition University of California at BerkeleyAsia is at a crossroads. Either existing urban architectural models will continue University of Michiganto be recycled with devastating effects on land, infrastructure, and the environ- University of Pennsylvaniament or new models of urban architecture will be formed to take on the specificsof Asian urban development over the next five years. The international Verti-cal Cities Asia Competition set out a brief to several international universitiesincluding TU Delft to investigate ideas and theories in urban growth and archi-tectural form. DEMOGRAPHY POPULATION (million persons) POPULATION DENSITY, China 2006 (persons/sqkm) URBAN POPULATION (%Every year, one square kilometre territory will be the subject of the competition. 90 1400Goal is to house 100,000 people, providing the living and working environment. 80 1200This area sets the stage for research and investigation into urban density, ver- 70 1000ticality, domesticity, work, food, infrastructure, nature, ecology, structure, and 60 800program – the very tenants of a new environment compressed into a crucible > 900 50 800 - 900 40of urban and architectural invention. This year the theme of fresh air will be 600 700 - 800 600 - 700 30explored. The playground is Chengdu, a fast growing city in the west of China Chengdu 500 - 600 400 400 - 500 20 300 - 400(figure 1). The city tripled its urban area since 1990 (figure 2). Its population 200 200 - 300 100 - 200 10 50 - 100grew from 8 million to 12.2 million today. 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 0 - 50 0 1970 1975 1980 context |GROWTH China United States European Union source: Worldbank Figure 1. Rising city of Chengdu source: ... China United StatesOn the next pages we show the three TU Delft entries that were sent in to POPULATION - 2010 1990 with members as Kencompete with other universities. The international juryannual growth (%) LIFE EXPE 80Yeang, Wong Mun Sums en Alan Balfour called it a close call, but in the end X3 3 Harbinthe team from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) 2,5 75was awarded the first prize with the winning entry titled ‘Symbio City’. The 2 Huhhot Beijing 70project ‘The Wall’ from the TU Delft took the second prize. China’s Tongji 1,5 TaiyuanUniversity took the third place. 1 Shanghai 65 Xingping Suzhou 0,5 Nanchong 60Vertical City Asia is a shared educational programme of the master tracks 0 Chengdu Changsha Taizhou 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 CangnanUrbanism and Architecture. Main mentor of the TU Delft entries is Mitesh -0,5 Shenzhen 55 1970 1Dixit. He works for OMA leading the office in London, and he is guest Xiamen China -1 POPULATIONteacher at the Architecture department of the faculty of Architecture TU China United States European Union World source: Worldbank population 2005 population 1990Delft. Other tutors were Henri van Bennekom, Luisa Calabrese, Kees Kaan Figure 2. Growth Chengdu 1990 - 2011 source: McKinsey Global Instituteand Henco Bekkering. POPULATION urban agglomoration, 2009 (million persons) + 250%.The red in the south is the -site. GROWTH size and speed, 1990 2005 AGE popul (1.265 milli Suzhou fast Xingping Taizhou22 Cangnan Nanchong Shenzhen Huhhot 65+ 6,9 % Nanchong Taizhou Xiamen Suzhou 15 - 64 Changsha Xiamen Tiayuan Harbin Chengdu Beijing Shanghai Chengdu Cangnan Changsha Shenzhen Harbin 0 - 14 Huhhot
  • 23. Agropolis joeri slots, roald roelofs, xin dogterom & drazen krickovic Our proposal counteracts on the trend of loss of arable land as one of the major concerns in the world due to rapid urbanization. Without intervention, this trend will result in a (global) food crisis. Therefore, the intention of this proposal is to preserve as much of the existing arable land as possible, while still dealing with Chengdu’s urban expansion and the housing demands of its rising popula- tion. In the Agropolis, urban and rural life are brought Figure 1. Vertical agriculture together. This highly dense vertical city occupies only 1 km² of land, yet houses 200.000 people when it has com- pleted its growth phases (figure 1). Urban agriculture can be found throughout the vertical city (figure 3). Local pro- duction could be one step towards limiting the causes ofn the air quality problem. By composing the city with block modules (for flexible lay-outs and usage), maximum roof gardens and terraces are created (figure 4). Living like a true ‘Agropolitan’ would mean having the best of urbanss section life together with the best of rural life. Figure 4. Block modules 40m 20m 40m 20m 40m 40m 20m 40m 20m 40m 340m Figure 3. Vertical agriculture 23
  • 24. The Wall bart van lakwijk, jasper nijveldt & herman pel AVERAGE SPEED city centre, Chengdu (kmph) AIR QUALITY per season, Chengdu 2009 MAJOR POLLUTANTS load inner city Chengdu 2009 25 winter If we would project the estimated population growth in 20 140 120 100 Chengdu in the same space-consuming manner as the last 28% 80 15 biking 60 46% 40 decade, we would almost need to build a second city of a 10 autumn 20 0 spring 26% 5 similar size by 2030. But the current fingermodel of the city 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 PMIO SO2 NO2 will grow out of proportion, precious land will be eaten, average during rush hour resulting in urban sprawl and traffic congestion. Because PMIO NO2 summer SO2 measured measured measured of the growing distances the inhabitants become more Figure 6. Decreasing speed (kmph) Figure 7. 2,5 times more com- WHO guideline  NO2 WHO guideline SO2 WHO guideline dependent on cars and more ring-roads need to be built. pared to WHO standards WATER QUALITY Mintuo River Traffic jams and an increase of air pollution will be inevi- fingermodel doomsday 40 THE WALL 35 table (figure 6 & 7). Chengdu’s development will gradually 30 25 20 slow down, become more congested and will decrease in 15 10 5 livability and efficiency. The finger model is no longer sus- 0 best I II III IV V worse VI 2008 2009 tainable. What if we stop the urban sprawl by densifying GRID the current city edge? We call this edge the Wall (figure 8). 156 KM2 西南财经大学 ANNUAL WATER USE, Chengdu 2001 Western grids like the famoustransition between landscape and city The Wall makes the (total 335 million m3) Manhattan grid are based on FINGERMODEL CHENGDU DOOMSDAY PROPOSAL: THE WALL AIR QUALITY POLLUTERS TACKLING AIR POLLUTION INTEGRAL SYSTEMblic western values. Big openings, vistas, and newly developed court- manifest. Starting from the Figure 8. Main line of reasoning The Wall can not only give the opportunity to accommodate the projected population growth, but it TRANSPORT enlightenment where individuality the Wall feels porous and open. yards (figure 9) make sure is also a series of parallel strategies that truly can have the potential TRANSPORT TRANSPORT DENSITY DENSITY LOCALISED FEEDER SYSTEM LOCALISED FEEDER SYSTEM GREEN HOUSES GREEN HOUSES and devotion to heaven and god to tackle bad air quality. The main URBAN GROWING CITY SPRAWL URBAN RELIES ON CAR GROWING CITY USE contributors to bad air quality today SPRAWL RELIES ON CAR USE are transport and industry. The Wall residential 36% are important, the architecture will cut emissions and capture before it blows freely into the air. By connecting nondomestic 46% the existing metro system with the ? nonrevenue 18% reflects this with buildings that are The Wall can not only accommodate the projected popu- O2 ? wall, an expanded public-transit will CO2 O2 be provided, thus radically decrease CO2 elegant, impressive and vertical. dependency on the car. This new transport system will be the backbone China’s historical values are different. function as 156 KM2 lation growth, but it can also a framework for of the Wall. Also by clustering industry EXISTING METROEXISTING SYSTEM UNDERGROUND PARKING CARBON CAPTURE EXISTING METRO SYSTEM UNDERGROUND CARBON EXISTING 9 MAJOR POLLUTANTS load ratio, ACID RAIN, Chengdu 2009 AIR POLLUTION, Chengdu 2009 in the Wall the total system becomesh METRO SYSTEM PARKING CAPTURE METRO SYSTEM inner city Chengdu 2009 more sustainable. Sharing energy, EXISTING SEPERATED SYSTEM THE WALL - CLUSTERED SYSTEM 9 EXISTING SEPERATED SYSTEM THE WALL - CLUSTERED SYSTEM MAJOR POLLUTANTS load ratio, ACID RAIN, Chengdu 2009 AIR POLLUTION, Chengdu 2009 waste, heat and CO2 capture systems ga ason, Chengdu 2009ratio, OR POLLUTANTS load inner city Chengdu 2009 28% Starting with Confucius’s values context. The Wall will not be dealt applying ideas in a larger MAJOR POLLUTANTS load ratio, ACID RAIN, Chengdu 2009 9 8 7 ACID RAIN, Chengdu 2009 AIR POLLUTION, Chengdu 2009 AVERAGE SPEED city centre, Chengdu (kmph) AIR POLLUTION, Chengdu 2009 will have a big influence on air quality. The wall will have different spatial WATER CONSUMPTION by activity of the collective, the architecture r city Chengdu 2009 inner city Chengdu 2009 8 6 25 URBAN AREA Chengdu (sqkm)(sqkm) AREA, Chengdu outcomes on each specific location. It MILLION PEOPLE AVERAGE SPEED city centre, Chengdu AVERAGE SPEED city centre Chengdu (kmph) (kmph) URBANhe 46% 9 reacts on the local soil, vegetation and INDUSTRY 7 5 9 winter INDUSTRY activities litres used on would contain the loss of arable land 28% 8 program in the city. INDUSTRY with as separate masterplans or buildings with air purifiers, 6 4 8 400 140 20 toilet ushes 10 - 15 responds to this in forms that spring Loss 46% 26% 25 7 5 3 120 2005–2025, 100 28% Central government % 6 4 2010 2010 2006 2030 20072030 2008 20502009 2050 7 2010 350 shower (per minute) 15 - 35 target minimum for 2010 –7 28% 12.2 16.7 acid rain frequency 20.3 6 15 biking AGRICULTURE OTHER INDUSTRY DWELLINGS EXISTING INDUSTRY GREEN HOUSES INDUSTRY DWELLINGS bath (full tub) 150 80 Hub and spoke 46% 26% PH of precipitation 20 INDUSTRY DWELLINGS EXISTING GREEN INDUSTRY DWELLINGS Supercities –8 5 3 300 emphasize enclosure and separation. INDUSTRY HOUSES 60 PMIO SO2 NO2 URBAN 2006 46% AREA 2007 2008 normal PH 2009 2010 5 COMMERCIAL AND RESIDENTIAL HEATING laundry machine (full load) 160 - 220 4 dishwasher 25 - 55 air conditioners or more ingenious techniques, but it is an –20 40 acid rain frequency 250 2050 27x27 KM Distributed growth 20 26% Townization –22 PMIO SO2 NO2 3 PH of precipitation normal PH 4 15 10 biking CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS dishwashing by hand (tap running) 110 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2030 20x20KM 015 2020 2025 spring 200 The domesticity of a Chinese family 0 10 26% acid rain frequency 3 shaving (tap running) 20 - 30 2006 2007 5 2008 2009 2010 A B C D red PMIO SO2 NO2 PH of precipitation normal PH 10 150 52% A B C D O2 brushing teeth (tap running) 10 - 30 HO guideline acid rain frequency O2 WASTE A B E integral plan with a series of parallel strategies (figure 10) PH of precipitation 27% is build up as a micro cosmos of WASTE 100 A B CO 2 COLD E PMIO SO2 NO2 normal PH 0 5 CO2 CO2 COLD HEAT 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 HEAT economic reform industrialization, export, Global, CO2 F 50 C average during rush hour manufacturing FDI D C F G TRANSPORT Chinese private life. This means D G 0 0 INDUSTRY 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 summer buildings do notcan have the potential to tackle polluted air! that truly have to be Source: Chinadaily, 2010 Source: China Statistical Yearbook, 2009 Source: Environmental Protection Agency, 2007 EXISTING SEPERATED SYSTEM THE WALL - CLUSTERED SYSTEMstitched Figure 9. Courtyard typologies Figure 10. Integral system SO2 average during rush hour EXISTING SEPERATED SYSTEM THE WALL - CLUSTERED SYSTEM asured measured es higher than WHO guidelines. 2 WHO guideline SO2 WHO guideline If the current fingermodel continues under the same Expanding the current fingermodel does have negative implications. If the wall has a density of 100.000 people per skqm it The main polluters are transport and To truly increase air quality the polluters must be tackled at the source by clustering the system. Both An integral system of the existing public transport conditions as last decades, the urban area almost needs to Precious landscape will be eaten and the car-based traffic system offers the possibility to let the city grow to 27.5 million, industry. for transport and industry. and industry with the new Wall will greatly benefit double. will stop working. without expanding the city. air quality.nearity VI necessarily vertical and high towards WATER CONSUMPTION volume, 2001 (million cubic meters per day) WATER PRs the ntuo River NOISE POLLUTION, Chengdu 2009 the sky, but are rather focused on NOISE POLLUTION, Chengdu 2009 Collective typologies. Vientiane Phnom Penh the collective. A flexible grid with a NOISE POLLUTION, Chengdu 2009 Phnom Penh Vientiane 西南财经大学 Kathmandu Kathmandu Ulaanbaatar Ulaanbaatar basic grain of 30x 80 metres will take 西南财经大学 IV V worse VI Colombo Colombo NOISE POLLUTION, Chengdu 2009 Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur on the specifics of China´s urban Ho Chi Minh Jakarta Ho Chi Minh ChengduSE, Chengdu 2001 西南财经大学 development and allow for flexibility. Dhaka Chengdu Dhaka Jakarta y a big ) Osaka Delhi Osaka Karachine is Karachi The biggest part of the wall can Tashkent Manila Hong Kong Tashkent Delhi have a residential 36% gradually grow and is more developer Hong Kong Seoul Seoul Manila driven. Developers can easily buy nondomestic 46% WATER Chengdu nonrevenue 18% built area Shanghai Shanghai WATER Chengdu water 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 strips along the spine and build their vertical city Asia site built area domestic nondomestic water WATER Chengdu vertical city Asia site million cubic meters per day) WATER PRODUCTION volume, 2001 (million cubic meters per day) WATER CONSUMPTION per capita, 2001 (liters per day) own paradise. This will make the wall built areaTION by activity water Phnom Penh vertical city Asia site Kathmandu eters per day) WATER PRODUCTION volume, 2001 (million cubic meters per day) Vientiane WATER CONSUMPTION per capita, 2001 (liters per day) Jakarta as a whole more feasible and invite litres used Kathmandu Phnom Penh 10 - 15 Ulaanbaatar Delhi 15 - 35 Phnom Penh Kathmandu 150 WATER PRODUCTION volume, 2001 (million cubic meters per day) Vientiane Colombo WATER CONSUMPTION per capita,Vientiane (liters per day) Jakarta 2001 160 - 220 Kuala Lumpur Dhaka Kathmandu Phnom Penh 25 - 55 Ho Chi Minh Colombo developers to show their enthusiasm Ulaanbaatar Delhi ) 110 Phnom Penh Chengdu Kathmandu Manilascape 20 - 30 Colombo Vientiane Vientiane Dhaka Jakarta Kuala Lumpur 10 - 30 Kuala Lumpur Dhaka Kathmandu Jakarta Phnom Penh Chengdu WATER Chengdu Ho Chi Minh Colombo Ulaanbaatar Osaka Delhi Ho Chi Minh Chengdu Manila built area and creativity. Colombo Karachi Vientiane Hong Kong Dhaka Kuala Lumpur north Kuala Lumpur Tashkent Dhaka Karachi water Jakarta Chengdu Ho Chi Minh Hong Kong Colombo Seoul Osaka Ho Chi Minh vertical city Asia site Chengdu Delhi Manila Shanghai Karachi Hong Kong Dhaka Seoul Kuala Lumpur Osaka Tashkent Karachi Jakarta Manila Chengdu Ulaanbaatar highest Hong Kong Seoul Osaka Shanghai Ho Chi Minh Tashkent Delhi Shanghai Karachi Hong Kong 3 Seoul 4 ION volume, 2001 (million cubic meters per day)surface water Tashkent 5 0 1 2 3 4 WATER PRODUCTION volume, 2001 (million cubic meters per day) 100 underground water Karachi 0 50 5 Osaka 150 WATER CONSUMPTION350 capita, 2001 (liters per day) 200 250 300 per Manila Ulaanbaatar Hong Kong Seoul Shanghai Tashkent Delhi Shanghai 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Seoul surface water underground water Phnom Penh Osaka Kathmandu Manila Vientiane Ulaanbaatar Jakarta Shanghai Tashkent Kathmandu Phnom Penh 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Ulaanbaatar Delhipine will surface water underground water Colombo Vientiane Kuala Lumpur Dhaka Ho Chi Minh Colombo Chengdu Manila Dhaka Kuala Lumpur Jakarta Chengdu Osaka Ho Chi Minh Karachi Hong Kong Tashkent Karachi Hong Kong Seoul Delhi Shanghai Current developers grid. Developers in the Wall. Seoul Osaka Manila Ulaanbaatar Shanghai Tashkent 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 nondomestic surface water underground water The Chinese cities grew If we would project the estimated population What if we stop the urban sprawl by densifying墙城 growth in Chengdu in the same space- the current city edge? We propose a new urban enormously last decades, consuming manner as the last decade, we ‘wall’ around the city. This ‘wall’ makes the spreading to almost infinity. would almost need to build a second city of a transition between landscape and city manifest. similar size by 2030. But the current fingermodel Big openings and vistas make sure the ‘wall’ Almost a billion people of the city will grow out of proportion, precious feels porous and open. The Wall can not only will live in the cities by land will be eaten, resulting in urban sprawl give the opportunity to further densify the city,AN BILLION 2025. A sharp, radical and significant course change and traffic congestion. Because of the growing distances the inhabitants become more dependent on cars and more ring-roads accommodate the projected population growth, but it can also function as a framework for applying ideas in a larger context. The Wall will刻准备着 to a new urban model is necessary to guide China need to be built. Traffic jams and an increase of air pollution will be inevitable. Chengdu’s development will gradually slow down, become not be dealt with as separate masterplans or buildings with air purifiers, air conditioners or other building techniques, but it is a integral planVertical Cities Asia July 2011 towards a balanced future. more congested and will decrease in livability with a series of parallel strategies that truly can and efficiency. The finger model is no longer have the potential to tackle bad air quality! The city of Chengdu forms sustainable. We have to look for a new urban the perfect study-case for model that cater to a greater population without this. compromising the quality of life. 0 1750 3500 7000 m Figure 11. The Wall will take on the specifics of city and landscape Figure 12. Central Spine 24
  • 25. Figure 13. The Wall on the site.Figure 14. Different relations with the landscape 25
  • 26. High society steven pootjes, kamran salim, exequiel mulder & dante borgoWe believe in the city as a catalytic component for theenvironmental preservation. Therefore fresh air foreveryone can only be addressed by a series of punctualinterventions on the city scale. We claim true sustainablegrowth by making the urbanisation far more efficient.This is the basis of our proposal.The proposal is to create a “sub-city“, in order to bal-ance the city and reduce the car depency (figure 1). Alsowe increase the cities density and efficiency, and there- MASTERPLAN // RENDERfore the air quality. This is because Chengdu relies mostlyon its centre. By providing new centralities wich will notcompete but complete Chengdu‘s city center. By propos-ing this we will increase the quality of living and contrib-ute to fresh air. Added to this, we integrated Chengdu‘sleisure and laidback culture to the new sub-city (figure 2& 3). We created a lush and relaxing city to live, but stillwith a very high density of 100.000 people. Figure 2 & 3. Leisure and laidback culture BUILINGS 2nd PLINTH LAYER 1st PLINTH LAYER BASIC PLOTFigure 1. Concept Figure 4. Model of new sub-citySECTION A - AFigure 5. Typical section B A26 A B
  • 27. Toward qualitative growth in Seoul Seog-Jeong LeeToday, Seoul is looking back at its revolutionary develop- an important role in the city not only in a quantitative way,ment during the last 40 years, and is exploring the poten- but also qualitatively. The city of Seoul began to realize thattial of an evolutionary, qualitative growth for the future. the physical form of the city is the outcome of urban cul-Atlantis interviewed Seog-Jeong Lee, who recently com- ture, and created several regulations to manage the city inpleted a project on the future form of Seoul. She has terms of beauty and quality.a multi-faceted outlook on Korean, Chinese and Euro- Nevertheless, there are several obstacles that need topean urban practice from her role as an urban designer be overcome in order to achieve these goals. There is still(she is partner of ISA Internationales Stadtbauatelier in a belief in an out-of-date modernism, where many people,Germany), professor (urban design faculty of Hanyang even urbanists, are convinced that tall buildings surroundeduniversity in Seoul) and as member of the city planning by vast open spaces are the only solution for achievingcommitee of Seoul. She holds strong views on the short- high density. This blind belief brought about great failurescomings of Korean cities and from her interesting, com- in the city and its architecture under the modernization ofparative view of east and west, proposes potent visions politics and society after the mid 20th century. The build-for their future. ing of new super blocks and iconic high-rise buildings over the top of the existing urban fabric has served to eraseWhat is the situation and are the key issues of Seoul in people’s memories of the city both physically and mentally.terms of urban form, density and public space? However, the city of Seoul has experienced a paradigm shift. Existing small urban tissue, street and public spaceSouth Korean urbanism seems to have focused in only a and urban compactness are becoming hot topics of debatetwo-dimensional way and has regarded the city as a plan- in Korean urbanism. This phenomenon can be comparablening subject with a quantitative process until even a few with a similar shift in the European urban planning para-years ago. Now, the city is gradually being planned in a digm of the mid 1970s.spatial way that takes into consideration people’s visualand emotional experiences. It is no exaggeration to say You have been working in Germany, China and Souththat previously there has been no attention on ‘urban form’ Korea. What kind of image and urban characteristicsor ‘public space’ in Korean cities. It is no wonder that these does the city of Seoul have in comparison to thesecities have not consciously urbanized, because agricul- regions?ture mainly supported the society of Korea until the midtwentieth century in terms of economics and politics, which Primarily, the term ‘dynamic’ comes up for the image ofmeans that it was a rural and not an urban society. Seoul. It can be seen as a non-stop 24 hour city with its ever-crowded streets, busy roads, night markets and so on.The city of Seoul has tried to become a global metropoli- In these days, the city is globalized and regarded as ‘thetan city from the 21st century. After the Cheonggyecheon city of opportunities for foreigners’. This multiculturalismproject (transforming inner cities highway with new public can be heard in the multiple languages of the announce-spaces) was completed in 2005, the project became ments in the metro. In spite of this, it is not easy to describea turning point that shifted the view on urbanism from a the image of Seoul’s physical form. The city has manyfunctional, infrastructural process to an emphasis on the historical locations and amenities that are only known byimportance of the public street, square and its representa- the locals. Visitors and newcomers can experience 600tive role in the city. At the same time, it is expected to play years of history by only visiting certain places such as the 27
  • 28. museum and old palace. The physical features of Seoul 20th century. Our strategies categorize Seoul spatially intothat we experience daily show a contrast between mas- three types: city core, residential area and nature on thesive tall buildings and old degraded buildings as well as edge of the city (figure 1).monotonous high-rise apartments. The confusion between‘old’ and ‘new’ in Seoul is the most serious problem, whichis comparable to Chinese cities. On the other hand, Seouland Chinese historical cities are entirely different in char-acter. China’s historical cities have an amazingly rich pastcombined with the urbanization and modernization of the19th and 20th centuries, while Seoul does not possess Figure 1. three main topics in the proposalsthese qualities as it stands today. Consequently, Seoul now needs to confront the majorissue of how to deal with fine urban tissues that could not City core: 14th century historical center and 21st centuryadapt to the radical urbanization that took place in the last centerfew centuries. The city now needs to create a strong urban The core of a city generally forms the main image of thatfabric that is accommodating towards Seoul’s past as well city, but Seoul’s urban center does not (figure 2). Thisas its future. 14th century historical area has not adapted well in terms of urban and economic development from the 18th cen-Recently, your team finalized the municipality project tury onwards and instead, development has shifted fromfor the city of Seoul. What are the intentions of the the 20th century to the south of the river. It is necessarymunicipality and the position of your proposal? to manage the historical center as the symbol of Seoul in order to restore its historicity and other characteristics.The city of Seoul is now struggling to be competitive with Also, we conclude that the core should extend outside ofother global metropolises. Seoul has begun to recognize the historical city wall and consider the expansion and evo-that the city needs to change its direction from quantitative lution of the city. So, we suggested that the new exten-growth towards a far more ambitious vision. sion of the core should go southward to the Han River, Our ambition is to remove the stigma attached to Seoul creating a clear legibility between a 14th century historicalas a ‘republic of apartment blocks’ driven by citizens’ per- center and a 21st century one. The 14th century historicalsonal financial motives towards a city that possesses center is defined as a walkable and compact urban areagenuine cultural value. Although these issues are certainly surrounded by mountains, and the 21st century center iscrucial, it is nevertheless impossible to solve them in the defined as a high-rise area with a park and waterfront.short term, like the work I have done in the last year. Time High-rise development is shifted to the 21st centuryand a long-term vision are the key ingredients for creat- center instead of cluttering the historical center. This kinding culturally valuable urban space. It is first necessary to of relationship is analogous to Paris’ historical center andmodify the way in which urban development is managed La Defense. The main issue regarding the historical centerbefore we even consider the physical fabric of Seoul. So is how to maintain the existing fine urban grain while forg-what we suggested in our proposal was for evolutionary ing a stronger organizational structure.urban remodeling instead of urban revolution. Residential areaWhat are the main issues and proposals of the project Currently Seoul’s housing types consist of high-rise apart-in general? ment complexes, detached housing areas, and old housing areas. The first is the most representative housing type inAbove all, my team tried to establish future images of Seoul; the second was built according to a planned gridphysical space in Seoul. It was our intention to change the pattern that now has a deficiency of parking spaces anddevelopment paradigm of function and infrastructure ori- public spaces due to the individual redevelopment of eachented urban reality towards city beautification. parcel into urban villas. The old housing areas are charac-However, beauty in this sense is about the composition terized by narrow alleys, a small organic parcel form, poorof urban tissue rather than creating a merely picturesque living quality, dense buildings and so on.environment. In this context, the main aim of our projectis to create a harmony between the underdeveloped old Based on this situation, we suggested basic, gradualurban structures of the Middle Ages with the modern interventions instead of total redevelopment. For theurban structures that were built towards the end of the apartment complexes, we propose to open up the gated28
  • 29. Figure 2. city core proposal: 14th century historical center and 21st century city centercommunities in the surrounding context, and diversify in urban areas, especially for the Han River. In the 14ththe urban and architectural space by adding or removing century, the river was used for logistics and recreation forbuildings and architectural elements. We thought that the the higher social classes. However, it became cut off fromsecond and third typologies could be modified into low- the southern and northern parts of Seoul after a mas-rise, high-density urban neighborhoods that conserve the sive urban highway was built along both sides of the riverexisting fine urban grain while also respecting topogra- during the late 20th century.phy and urban context. Now it is time to change the role of the river Han. ItNature on the edge of the city (figure 3) became the central location of the city geographically,The proposal for the edge between city and nature is due because of the city’s huge expansion towards the south.to a radical shift of thought on the importance of water Moreover, the waterfront will have a crucial role in defining the physical space and image of the 21st century center in our proposal. We also propose ‘artificial urban islands’ on some areas of the river in order to connect the north and south both spatially and programmatically. These islands also represent the old islands that were removed during the urbanization of the city in the 1970s. We expect these urban islands to work as stepping stones on the 1km wide river Han. What do you think about TU Delft’s Vertical Asia com- petition and what should be its main focus in your opinion? Vertical Asia? Why not Vertical Europe? I am suspicious towards these supposed ‘solutions’. Increasingly, Asia seems to be the place for the experimental high-rise works of western architects who do not consider the local Asian context. I think that our cities need to discover alternative ways to combine high density with urban quality withoutFigure 3. nature on the edge of the city: Han river proposal resorting to verticality. (MY & SHL) 29
  • 30. Re-public city Study case - Lujiazui F&T Zone,A strategic planning of public space Shanghai, China by xiao liangSince the reform and opening-up policy 30 years ago, the Chinese city hasundergone drastic change. To gain productivity and prosperity, the focus hasbeen mainly on economic development but the costs in the current dispersedChinese developer driven growth model are unacceptably high. Urban sprawl and a forest of monotonous high-rises determine the new Chi-nese city and Shanghai, one of the largest cities and economic centres in Chinaforms a perfect representation of this. Figure 1. Spatial concept of the final resultIn 1990 Lujiazui Finance & Trade Zone was established as the only national of international competition in 1992.developing zone in Pudong, Shanghai. As a result of the planning and Public-Private Partnership (figure 1 & 2) the area transformed from a piece of farmland to a dense urban district in less than two decades. Lujiazui’s skyline became Red Line - boundary line of infra- structure & landan important symbol of economic strength and urban ambition of Shanghai. Infrastructure - developed by government first However, the urban quality in between buildings has been ignored Building program - developed by private stockholder while govern- ment got money by lendingcompletely; public space and the living environment still are of poor quality. Public Space - separated by Red Line and ignored by both developersPublic space is generally mono-functional, spatially separated, highly privatizedand mostly inaccessible (figure 3). The main challenge to further develop the Figure 2. “Public-Private Partnership”districtis to improve the qualities and accessibility of the public space, in order to development modelre-public the area.Analysis shows that a better ‘horizontal relation’ is required (figure 4), byimproving this relation spaces in between the high-rise buildings will beconnected. It re-links the district with the waterfront, and also integrates dispersedicons. It provides the crowded district with a regained public experience, it will actas a counterpart to the vertical city. The proposal aims for an integrated horizontallayer of public spaces, which supports a variety of public life, culture and green. Figure 3. Vertical city in LujiazuiThe program to be added on top of this is divided into five types; green openspace, public space, waterside square, public buildings and semi-public space. Toorganize the spatial distribution of these parts a framework is developed.1 Most of the program is located within a newly developed main structurewhich provides more accessible semi-public space (figure 5).2 Three new layers support public life in between buildings. The local Figure 4. New horizontal relationshiptopography enriches this main structure, green open spaces are cut out and atstrategic points public buildings attract the public (figure 6).3 To give the structure a more Chinese experience, the spaces are organizedaccording to principles drawn from the typical Chinese Garden. Thiscomplements the global high-rise buildings (figure 7). The result is a new andimproved public space in between the buildings (figure 8)This project started with a focus on strategical planning, but the final result is moreon the intermediate scale. This is a representation of the current development inurban planning practice in China. Today, the focus is mainly on traditional urbanplanning, but one can see a shift towards the urban design. Figure 5. Main structure30
  • 31. Figure 6. Three layers in between buildings and river. Topography, Figure 7. The concept of the Chinese garden reinterpreted on the site.green open space and public buildingsFigure 8. Improved public sphere in Shanghai Lujiazui Finance & Trade Zone 31
  • 32. Boost - image courtesy of Amy Casey & Zg Gallery, Chicago Satellites - image courtesy of Amy Casey & Zg Gallery, ChicagoResidential Web - image courtesy of Amy Casey & Zg Gallery, Chicago32
  • 33. Painting precarious worlds amy casey - www.zggallery.comArtist’s Statement: July, 2011After any pendulum swing of chaos grinds to a slow halt, organization that goes into a citys creation and evo-there will come a time when you will have to decide if you lution, the constant shifting and adaptations and theare going to wallow in the rubble or take what remains sometimes hidden history of these changes, and a citysand create a new empire. dependence on civilian cooperation are things I like to think about. Reflecting this interest, burgeoning citiesBuilding upon recent work, I have been in search of a have begun to fill in the voids in my paintings. As in life,solid ground. A bit less kinetic than past work, I have with a sort of trial and error, some efforts work betterbeen trying to take what was left of the world in my paint- in making the whole precarious heap hum. I am consist-ings and create a stability of sorts, thinking about commu- ently fascinated by the resilience of life and our abilitynity ties and the security (or illusion of security) needed to keep going in the face of sometimes horrendous orto nurture growth. Cities are fascinating creatures that I ridiculous circumstances. My paintings celebrate this fas-am just beginning to scratch the surface of. The work and cination and my love of the urban landscape.Surrounded - image courtesy of Amy Casey & Zg Gallery, Chicago 33
  • 34. ViennaImpressions of a cityFrom 13 - 17 April, fifteen Urbanism students travelled to Vienna, Austria toexperience and analyse the city and its famous city ring road. Under guidanceof Leo van den Burg they toured the Ringstrasse, and in themed groups theelements of the Ringstrasse were analysed. Later on in the trip there was alsotime to reflect.Vienna seems to be a relatively safe and calm city, despite the amount of car traf-fic. Overall it has a relaxed atmosphere with little rushing in the metro system.There are no real ghettos and even in lower class neighbourhoods the build-ings are still fairly well maintained. There is a high degree of social control tocompensate this, as there are signs everywhere banning all types of activities.Residents of these buildings seem to be extremely fond of their home within thistype of planning. There is an overload of adornment on many of the buildings We begin to plan a new trip when theas well, giving them a very sculptural and cosmetic look. The buildings share schoolyear recommences. We do not yetsimilarities with typical Parisian and eastern European constructions. How- know the destination, but input is alwaysever, most blocks are very large, and together with a very open city layout of welcomed by e-mail.wide streets and few alleys, this leads to a lack of cosiness and variety in the city.Furthermore it lacks identity outside of the palaces, and the weight of history bigexcursions@polistudelft.nlcannot be felt clearly anymore.Pedestrian traffic is greatly hindered by the large scale infrastructure through-out the city and there are very few car-free zones. The Naschmarkt (a populardaily market) is in the middle of two roads, which hinders the functionality of itbut also boasts its popularity and position in the city. In contrast to this, it has ahigh quality public transportation system.The excursion was very educational and gave an intense and thorough experienceof the city. On the return journey by train an enjoyable few hours were spent inCologne. If only for the warm weather, the one element that lacked in Vienna.Figure 1. City centre of Vienna in 1873 (Lechners Vogelshau Plan 1873)34
  • 35. The Viennese Danube as a new cultural center Erich RaithThis interview focuses on the developments along the Danube river front in Prof. Erich Raith studied architecture at theVienna, showing both the history and the future plans for the city and the Technical University of Vienna, where heregion. Robin Boelsums, TU Delft exchange student in Vienna visited Prof. now teaches at the department of urbanErich Raith of the Urbanism department at the TU Wien to get some insights morphology (Stadt- und Siedlungsmorpholo-into these developments. With the new developments going on in Transdanu- gie), which was set up by himself.bia and in-between Vienna and Bratislava, the Danube area could become thenew centre of the city.Can you explain a bit about the history of Vienna?Vienna is a typical European city. Among others this means that the first devel-opment phase had its roots in the Roman Empire, in the form of a military base.The Viennese Danube was at the border of this camp, and was part of a defencestructure that continued all across Europe. Today the Danube is still a wild, rap-idly flowing river, but until 150 years ago it was not just one river, but an entirelandscape existing of hundreds of rivers without any possibilities for roads orbridges. The beginnings of Vienna were on the south side of this Danube land-scape, called Cisdanubia (figure 1). The Danube played an important role intransport and trade, but it was hardly possible to cross to Transdanubia, on theother side of this landscape. So back then, the river landscape functioned as anactual barrier between the two sides.Until recently people have always turned their back to the river, even fearing it.This fear was the result of the many high water catastrophes that have takenplace. At the end of the eighteenth century the population of Vienna rose, andthe city developed strong connections to the east, to the regions downstream. Inthe nineteenth century Vienna became an important industrial city. In that timeVienna’s population grew from 1 million to over 2.2 million inhabitants. It devel-oped inside the city walls, which is now the city centre inside the ring.Just outside the walls there was a circle of empty land, and beyond that the sub-urbs started, which at first were separate cities. This history is still clearly visible,legible, and people are still aware of the history that took place there. This timewas very important for city development, it also asked for drastic regulations ofthe Danube. It was the first time that the river was so radically changed. With manpowerand animals a new tideway was dug out, thereby reducing this enormous junglelandscape. This landscape could be used for new developments, also on thenorthern side of the river. Still, it was not fully protected against high tides, andstill Vienna was with its back to the water. 35
  • 36. Figure 1. Old aerial photo showing the Cisdanubia area near the DanubeVienna Transdanubia Bratislava Figure 2. Trans- and Cisdanubia region Cisdanubia in between Vienna and Bratislava After the First World War most European cities grew The Danube as a cultural centre is a very interesting sce- rapidly in population. In Vienna however, the population nario. The developments in Transdanubia are on-going, decreased. Where before the war over two million people which makes that the focal point of the city’s shift. When lived, now there were only 1.6 million people. This change the densities on both sides of the Danube become equal made it possible for Vienna to not think about how to a new centre can arise. At present there are already a handle the growth. Instead they had the opportunity to plan lot of special functions and landscapes situated along for urban renewal. the water. At exactly this place the new urbanism of the 21th century can be defined. Vienna could again be a What is the current situation of Vienna in relation to the mid-European metropolis. This time with the Viennese Danube? Danube as its centre. At this moment a magical, dramatic phase for urban devel- What will happen with the current centre? opment has started. Over the last three decades Vienna has finally begun to lose its fear for the Danube. Big devel- In this scenario it might become a huge museum or even a opments are taking place at the northern side, in Trans- theme park for tourists. The current Viennese renewal plan danubia. The river is regulated by different channels, like focuses on the establishment of a new twin city Vienna- the old Danube and the new Danube. Still the high water Bratislava (figure 2). This approach has radically changed, tides are visible, for instance in the Wienfluss that leads to because in 1994 – the previous city renewal plan – the the Danube. For most of the year it is a very small stream, municipality strictly focused on the area within the political but the water level can rise several meters in just two or borders. These two European capitals that are geographi- three hours. I have seen it rise almost catastrophically high cally close to each other can function as two magnetic about once every ten years. The waterways in Vienna are poles that attract new possibilities for the land in between. still a concern for people. The Danube landscape has been a border for thousands The Danube is not a border anymore, and I think it could of years, but can now function as a central park. There even be a cultural centre for the city. Take for instance the is a lot changing at the moment, for instance the radical Donauinselfest on the island in the Danube where a lot of change in attitude towards the river, which creates a lot of people come together, mainly from the east. During this great opportunities. The Viennese Danube can become the festival the Danube functions as a cultural space. cultural centre of Vienna with new urban forms, and the Danube landscape at the centre of this twin city can be a How can Vienna develop further? central park with new possibilities. (RB) 36
  • 37. The Ringstrasse leo van den burgUrban form and social structure.The development of the Viennese Ringstrasse began and ended with a revolu- Leo van den Burg is Assistant Profes-tion. In 1848, Europe was under the spell of a series of uprisings aiming for the sor at the Chair of Urban Compositionsreplacement of centralised state power by more liberal and democratic forms in Delft, and is currently working on aof governance. It was this pursuit to which the Netherlands, for example, owes PhD entitled “Aspects of Urban Designits constitution. In the Austro-Hungarian Empire the riots led to the fall of the in Inner City.Transformations in Dutchgovernment, the abdication of the emperor, a new constitution, the establish- cities, from the Fifteenth to Eighteenthment of parliament and indirectly, but very closely related, the construction of Century”the Ringstrasse.Already in the thirties of the nineteenth century, central Vienna had to contendwith a great lack of space. The historic inner city and the suburbs were separatedby a wide zone containing the city walls that was a popular place for Sundaywalks, but otherwise hindered traffic. It was an open secret that the walls shouldbe torn down to relieve some of the spatial pressure. The events of 1848 initiallyreinforced the belief that for military reasons demolition was not a good idea. At the same time, it sparked off a process that sealed the fate of the walls. Anew state had to be built, with all the necessary institutions: the new emperorwas honoured with a church, the army wanted new barracks and all Viennesewanted a new opera. It was unthinkable that buildings like these could still beaccommodated in the inner city. Planning began, but without coherence, direc-tion or consultation.It took nine years before the Emperor put an end to the uncertainty. It is mywish, he said, that the extension of the Viennese city centre is embarked uponas soon as possible, taking into account that appropriate connections are madewith the suburbs and with due concern for the layout and beautification of myresidence and imperial capital. The emperor gave permission for the demolitionof the ramparts and the development of what became known as the Ringstrassearea. The emperor’s phrasing has great political significance. At a time when many tried to weaken monarchic power, the emperor boldlycalls Vienna the capital of his empire. He takes the initiative in the tumult sur-rounding the fortifications, supplies everyone with sufficient space and thussecures his own position. His utterances are not met with great resistance. Onthe contrary: “Ganz Wien war dadurch in freudige Aufregung versetzt.” TheEmperor divides and rules. This closely links the construction of the Ringstrasseto the development of the Austrian state.The Ringstrasse became the arena where the major powers after the revolutionreached a necessary social compromise. The Ringstrasse helped shape the bour-geois-monarchist society of which she herself became the centre. The town hall,the parliament, the palace, the stock market, the university, museums, theatres,the opera, the art academy, a public park, but also speculative housing, every-thing found a place along the ring. She is the nineteenth century in a nutshell. Figure 1. The Ringstrasse and its public buildings, from: Mollik e.a.,’Planung undIf the Ringstrasse is the embodiment of a social compromise, should we then Verwirklichung der Wiener Ringstras-call her form a compromise too? The course of events following the dictates senzone’, 1980 37
  • 38. “If the Ringstrasse is the embodiment of a social compromise, should we then call her form a compromise too?” Figure 2. Altnerative plan Adolf Loos, from: Rukschio en Schachel, ‘Adolf Loos: Leben und Werk’, 1982.of the emperor gives reason to fear the worst. First, a built Ringstrasse, these buildings are located on both sides,design competition was organised from which no clear which results in much cross traffic and turns the streetwinner sprang. into a barrier. Many central institutions now face the old The jury then drew up a plan herself based on the three town, instead of being a part of it. In Loos’ plan a numberbest entries. This plan was changed several times in the of major streets are resolutely extended into the innerfollowing decades. A site visit raises many questions too: city, reducing even the significance of his ring road. Theis this a street at all, or is it a zone? Is it a barrier or a con- built plan lacks these cross connections. One of the rea-nection? Is it a series of spatial incidents along a road? It sons why the ring road area is such a prominent feature oftakes no great effort to identify weak spots. In oversimpli- Vienna – for better or worse – is because old and new arefied terms: the Votive Church is too far back, the Burgth- not so much connected, but permanently separated by thiseater too far forward, the square in front of the town hall autonomous body.is too big, the palace lacks a wing and all these institutionsare so loosely connected that it is indeed hard to call much I began this article by saying that the development of theof the Ringstrasse a proper street (should anyone care). Ringstrasse is framed by two revolutions. The RingstrasseBut these are all incidents. was the result of an emerging national consciousness. The same nationalism was the driving force behind theLet us rather ask whether the main structure is clear. My first World War. In June 1914, shortly after the last majorexperience is that with difficult questions like these, one buildings were finished along the Ringstrasse, the assassi-can always fall back on Adolf Loos. And sure enough, nation of the Austro-Hungarian crown prince in Sarajevoalso in this case the oracle of Vienna has some good sug- plunged the world into a thirty year crisis that completelygestions. As late as 1912, his studio produced an alterna- destroyed the society that created the Ringstrasse.tive plan to the Ringstrasse, more than fifty years after The social structure behind the Ringstrasse is gone for-issuance of the competition (figure 2). ever, but the street itself still stands. A visitor of the Ring Strikingly, with Loos, the ring road is projected much Road will see many beautiful things today, but what dofurther outward than in the executed plan. This places they mean? What is really missing on the Ringstrasse is notall the representative buildings on the side where they some formal resolution. What is missing is something thatbelong, namely that of the inner city. In the case of the makes the historic weight of these forms tangible.38
  • 39. Generative tools for flexible urban designjosé beirãoCities are non-linear systems quite difficult to manage research project called City Induction and refers to theand even more so to design. They are complex open sys- development of the generation module of an urbantems involving unpredictable behaviour generated by design tool for formulating, generating and evaluatinglocal and global agents. Suggestions found in expert lit- urban designs (Duarte et al., forthcoming).erature for dealing with this complexity point towardsdeveloping design tools and methods structured under Urban design is practiced with an extensive sup-the concept of flexibility. They demand a design prac- port of analytical tools which allows us to capturetice for dealing with change. Flexibility is the ability of a some of the properties of the urban context. Theresystem of adapting or responding to changes in the envi- are many kinds of analytical tools for such purposeronment. Ascher (2001) proposes as a strategy for new (Gil and Duarte, 2008) (Stolk and Brömmelstroet,urbanism the development of an urbanism of devices for 2009). The most common examples are based on geo-negotiating and elaborating solutions instead of design- graphic information systems (gis) which allow for sev-ing fixed layouts. eral kinds of spatial data analysis involving different types of data: morphological, social and economical.This article will show the main concepts underlying The analysis of topological characteristics of the urbanthe development of urban design tools and methods to space can be enhanced with space syntax techniquesaddress the production of flexible urban designs. The (Hillier, 1996) or route structure analysis (Marshall,term ‘flexible urban design’ is defined as: a set of urban 2005). These analytical procedures improve the design-design solutions for a specific urban design problem for- ers’ awareness on the characteristics of existing urbanmulation expressed through a set of interrelated design spaces or proposed design solutions. These methods canrules instead of the traditional fixed plan. The main be applied to the design context before designing or to aconcept is designing systems of solutions rather than a solution integrated in the context for evaluating of thesingle solution. design solution. In the beginning of the design processThe research shown in this article is part of a larger they enhance the designer’s awareness on the existingFigure 1. Model A – toolbars and several stages of a design process 39
  • 40. contextual conditions and at the end of the design process they allow to meas- Figure 2. Model B – several differenture some properties of the urban environment already updated with the pro- visualizations of design manipulations andposed solutions. The tangible meaning of the measurements obtained from output interfacethese methods is a subject for expert interpretation but constructs a clearlyimproved awareness on the characteristics of the urban environment beforeand after designing.It is common practice to confront a design proposal with other types of infor-mation related to it. The book ‘Spacematrix’ (Berghauser-Pont and Haupt,2010) dedicates its first half to understanding the role of density measures inurban design and planning and the second half on understanding the tangiblemeaning of density measures and derived properties in regard to morphologiccharacteristics of urban fabrics. In this research a model for developing a generative urban design tool wasdeveloped using as generative formalisms compound forms of shape anddescription grammars. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) are rule basedformalisms to compute designs. Rules start from an initial shape applyingshape transformations step by step to generate designs. Description rules applyto other characteristics of designs such as function, material or other aspectswhich semantically enhance the description of designs (Stiny, 1981).In the proposed design system designs are obtained by arranging typical urbandesign moves called urban induction patterns (UIPs). UIPs are organizedin a common structure following a design pattern structure (Gamma et al.,1995). The UIPs contain generative algorithms based on compound forms ofshape and descriptions grammars which replicate design moves that urbandesigners recurrently use in their practice. For instance, they can draw mainstreets, a promenade, an orthogonal grid or a radial grid (Beirão et al., 2011).A complete design is obtained when a complete arrangement of design movesaddressing all the requirements of the urban programme is selected. Infor-mal applications of these concepts for urban design education can be found in(Beirão and Duarte, 2009).40
  • 41. “These analytical procedures improve the designers’ awarenesson the characteristics of existing urban spaces or proposeddesign solutions.”2 models – rule based versus parametric update the system calculates density measurements andUsing the developed theoretical model, during the derived properties following ‘Spacematrix’ density indica-research two types of prototype tools were developed tors. This capacity of the model allows the designer to graspbased on distinct design platforms. in a very interactive way the relations between the proposed morphological approaches and density properties with veryModel A – developed in AutoCADCivil3D using the straightforward visual interfaces. (figure 2)VBA programming interface (Beirão et al., 2010). Inthis model a set of new commands for AutoCAD were Acknowledgementscreated and arranged in thematic toolbars: data inputs / J. Beirão is funded by Fundação para a Ciência e Tec-composition axis (main streets) / grids / transformations nologia (fct), Portugal, with grant sfrh/bd/39034/2007./ urban units / public spaces / function / building height J. Beirão is a member of the City Induction project also/ others. Each command corresponds to an urban design funded by fct, Portugal (ptdc/aur/64384/2006), hosted bymove which an urban designer can easily recognize by icist at tu lisbon and coordinated by José Duarte. Model Aname. The commands follow the formal definition of was developed in the context of the city induction researchUIPs adapted to the VBA programming language and project. Pirouz Nourian is co-author of model B.they generate representations of design moves adaptedto the design context. The representations are output in Referencesformats that can easily be inserted in the AutoCADMap Ascher, F., 2001. Les nouveaux principes de l’urbanisme:[la fin des villes n’est pas à l’ordre du jour], Éd. de l’Aube.platform. Point, line and polygon representations are Beirão, J.N. and Duarte, J.P., 2009. Urban design with patterns and shape rules. In Modelstored in separate thematic layers. Simultaneously, the Town, Using Urban Simulation in New Town Planning. SUN, Amsterdam.rules store information related to the design in a data- Beirão, J.N., Duarte, J.P. and Stouffs, R., 2011. Creating Specific Grammars with Genericbase which can also be accessed in the GIS platform. For Grammars: Towards Flexible Urban Design. Nexus Network Journal, pp.1–39.instance, geometrical descriptions of streets are stored Beirão, J. et al., 2010. Implementing a Generative Urban Design Model. In eCAADe 2010 Conference: Future Cities. p. 265.along with a hierarchic classification and attributes obey- Beirão, J. et al., 2009. The city as a street system: A street description for a city ontology.ing a pre-defined ontology structure (Beirão et al., 2009) SIGraDi 2009-Proceedings of the, 13, pp.132–134.(Montenegro, 2010). Therefore the model is capable of Beirão, J., Nourian, P. and Mashhoodi, B., 2011. Parametric urban design: An interactiveproducing design solutions and related quantitative and sketching system for shaping neighborhoods. In Proceedings of the Conference eCAADe 2011. eCAADe 2011. Ljubljiana.qualitative data. (figure 1) Berghauser-Pont, B. and Haupt, P., 2010. Spacematrix. Space, Density and Urban Form, NAI.Model B - developed in Rhinoceros using the Grasshopper Duarte, J.P. et al., forthcoming. City Induction: formulating, generating, and evaluatingprogramming interface (Beirão et al., 2011). This model urban plans. In Digital Urban Modelling and Simulation. CCIS Series Communicationsproduces parametric urban designs for a district area. The in Computer and Information Science Series. Springer-Verlag.model works with a set of geometrical inputs divided in Gamma, E. et al., 1995. Design patterns: elements of reusable object-oriented software, Addison-wesley Reading, MA.4 types: site (defined by polygons); composition elements Gil, J. and Duarte, J.P., 2008. Towards an Urban Design Evaluation Framework. In Ar-which are subdivided into main streets (defined by lines chitecture in Computro-26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings, Antwerpen. pp. 257–264.and curves) and focal points representing the location of the Hillier, B., 1996. Space is the Machine, Citeseer.neighbourhood centre, local squares, public buildings and Marshall, S., 2005. Streets & patterns, Routledge.city objects in general; a vertical parameter defines the max- Montenegro, N., 2010. Building a Pre-Design Ontology Towards a model for urban pro-imum number of floors; and a set of grid types (rectangular, grams.radial and recursive). Each of these geometrical inputs has Stiny, G., 1981. A note on the description of designs. Environment and Planning B, 8(3), pp.257–267.a set of associated parameter inputs. For instance, a main Stiny, G. and Gips, J., 1972. Shape grammars and the generative specification of paintingstreet has an attributed street width. The elements can be and sculpture. Information processing, 71, pp.1460–1465.replaced or moved at any time during design exploration Stolk, E. and Brömmelstroet, M., 2009. Model Town: using urban simulation in new townand the geometrical model is immediately updated. At each planning SUN., Amsterdam. 41
  • 42. On The Cavehans teerdsThere is a nice tradition of newspapers and magazines publishing lists of booksto take with you on vacation. This year the Dutch newspaper Trouw publisheda series of maps of the world, Europe and the Netherlands with correspondinglists of books for each popular destination, separated by genre. I have alwaysliked the idea of reading a novel related to the place I am travelling to – youreally get a better feel for the place this way than from burrowing throughLonely Planet all day.In this article I would like to draw your attention to The Cave, a novel writ-ten by the Portuguese writer José Saramago (1922-2010). This novel is notabout a specific city or country, but is a must-read for architects and urbandesigners alike.The themes of the novel are actually quite pessimistic. standards. But since he is a craftsman producing all of hisLike other works by Saramago, there is an exploration of pottery by hand, none of these are the same, let alone ‘per-the dark side of the human condition. Although it is easy fect’. The Centre cannot deal with this lack of uniformityto disagree with this pessimism, it certainly provokes the and terminates his contract, leaving him with no chancereader. And that is the power of literature – it expands to make himself a living in the apartment of his daughterour horizons on life, it feeds our understanding of current and son-in-law within The Centre itself.developments and our experiences; moreover, it addressesour understanding of what it is to be human. It is quite clear that the potter in this novel symbolises a life that is closely connected with nature, the earth and itsIn The Cave, Saramago confronts an old potter with the traditions, while The Centre symbolises a life dominatedemerging power that is the shopping mall he is produc- by an economic worldview and modernity. The novel caning for. Saramago simply refers to it as ‘The Centre’; a be seen to be about the struggle between natural life onhuge company housed in a gigantic building. It slowly the one hand and artificial life on the other. It is aboutbut surely absorbs all of the urban activities of the sur- cherishing craftsmanship, the personal and the uniquerounding streets. Small shops in the neighbourhood close over the mass-produced; it is about the grounding of spe-down, as they cannot compete with The Centre. Ordinary cific traditions and local geography versus modernity andpeople move inside, since it is so comfortable to live there. its placelessness; about authenticity versus artificiality andEmployers of The Centre are obliged to move in as well. about the unexpected and unplanned versus the planned,And since it is by far the biggest employer in the city and controlled and the mouldable.2 According to the book,still growing, it will eventually swallow the entire city in this is an unbalanced struggle: modernity is always at thethe future, except from a huge Industrial Zone where the winning hand. The climax of the book is the unmaskingproducts sold by the Centre are produced. In-between of life within a condition of modernity as a soulless one.The Centre and those zones there is an emerging slumwhere people live who cannot enter The Centre. “Here,every now and then, and in the name of the classical “They work together on thisaxiom which says that necessity knows no law, a truckladen with food is held up and emptied of its contents single goal, the success of thebefore you can say knife.”1 Centre - because in its successThe story makes it clear that The Centre, because of itssize can only deal with generic produce, which is continu- is also incorporated into theirously judged on its quality and perfection. As a supplier ofthe Centre, the potter’s products have to pass its stringent own success and future.” 42
  • 43. You don’t have to agree with the pessimism of Saramago buy products that are not durable but need to be replacedto recognize the threat for society of the emerging impor- again and again. The durability of the objects that sur-tance of security and control, as well as the temptation rounds us is, according to Arendt, of upmost importance.of entertainment in our daily lives. Life in The Centre Only in a stable world (where, we, as individuals canmoves ‘inwards’ because of the importance of security and fit in to the flow of history) can politics be sensible. Thecontrol and the longing for entertainment. Since the out- human artifice is an important element of this world.3 Inside world is dangerous and dull simultaneously, the life The Cave this striving for perfection leads to a decline ofin the interior is controlled, secured and organised. Eve- craftsmanship (how paradoxical that actually sounds). Itrything you need, even everything you didn’t know you leads to the proliferation of generic objects and a declineneeded, is around. It is the place to be where everything is of connoisseurship and the durability of things. The novelperfect. No politics are needed anymore. Nothing has to thus simultaneously is a plea for interest in and the qualitybe improved or organised; economic laws control every- of tradition, craftsmanship and authenticity – a plea thatthing. No personal opinion is needed either – there is only finds its echo in some recent, seminal publications as well.4the need to consume. Saramago’s critique is clear: a life,only lived in privatised terms is soulless. The third reason is that it becomes clear that the threat of shopping malls, gated communities, and all of theseThere are semi-public spaces inside of The Centre: ter- contemporary new urban typologies based on the aim ofraces, the beach, cafés, restaurants, cinema’s, casinos, security and control, in its essence is not the lack of diver-gardens, churches, and pools. These spaces only serve sity (or plurality, to use a more Arendtial term), the acces-one goal: the (economic) success of The Centre – and eve- sibility or spatial continuity an sich, but that it is about therything that disturbs this goal is abandoned. Within the attitude of the inhabitant and user of these spaces; an atti-Centre, there is no real room for developing your own tude that is fueled by personal experiences, and thus byopinions or expressing your individuality; no room for our daily environment.striving for personal goals or participating in issues thatare ‘bigger’ than your own life – politics is not possible. “We do not, after all, experience the city blankly, andJust be happy in your apartment with all the possibili- much of what we do absorb from daily life in the cityties that The Centre delivers you. If the Centre is a suc- (be it the long drag of the commute, the jostle of subwaycess it can deliver more possibilities and become more and crowds, the blandness of the shopping mall, the elegancemore pleasant to its residents and visitors. Thus workers or grandeur of certain forms of urban architecture, theand residents, owners and visitors are one happy family: panhandlers on the sidewalk, or the peace and beauty ofthey work together on this single goal, the success of the an urban park) surely has some kind of influence on howCentre – because in its success is also incorporated into we are situated in the world and how we think and acttheir own success and future. politically within it.”5There are three reasons that I consider this book as animportant novel within the fields of architecture andurbanism.The first lies in a literal reading of the text: the extrapola-tion of what it would mean for the human condition ifour lives played out in a shopping mall-like environment.It is a threat for political action and social involvement. 1 José Saramago, The Cave, London 2002, The Harvill Press Ibid., p.4The second reason is not so literally mentioned, but is 2 in Dutch: ‘het maakbare’. There isn’t a sufficient translation of this notion, maakbaar-quite important for those who design the human artifice. heid, but what is meant can be described quite well as believe that you can make’ or even ‘mould’ the future. This notion, which was at the heart of modernism, is questioned in post-What strikes me in The Cave’s critique of modernity is the modernism.way in which Saramago intertwines the changes in our 3 Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition, Chicago 1994 (2nd), Chicago University Press,daily environment (as the context of our lives) and (the Chapter ivway we produce) the objects surrounding us. This is a 4 As for instance in Richard Sennett, The Craftsman, New Haven 2008, Yale University Press; Sharon Zukin, Naked City: The Death And Life of Authentic Urban Spaces, Newconnection that was also made by the philosopher Hannah York 2010, Oxford University PressArendt. Fifty years ago she criticised the mechanism of a 5 David Harvey, ‘The political Economy of Public Space’, in: Setha Low and Neil Smithdominating economical worldview that urges people to (eds.), The Politics of Public Space, New York/London 2006, Routeledge pp.17-18 43
  • 44. Building community forms Samantha SaldenSamantha Salden is a professor of architectural design and not car based. So while Delft is a fantastic place forand the history of urban form at both Bachelors and pedestrians and cyclists, this is unfortunately not the caseMasters level at Notre Dame University. Her work and in many urban areas in the US which has a huge prob-teaching focuses on traditional cities, twentieth-century lem with urban sprawl that has been exported to too manycities, urban ideologies, innovations in New Urbanism parts of the world too.and the civic responsibility of the architect and urban- The goals of New Urbanism are to create walkableist in contemporary society. In May she gave a public places, buildings that work with one another to form publiclecture at TU Delft on New Urbanism and its importance space – as opposed to singular, object-like buildings – thattoday. act as a framework to support the street as a place for human interaction, to make cities more economically viableWhat is Notre Dame’s ethos regarding architecture by creating a variety of housing types, making a greaterand urbanism? social justice through good design. For example, by creat- ing opportunities for people to live in the neighbourhoodIt is about seeing architecture as part of a living tradi- they work in.tion and a living language. We see architecture and urbandesign really as part of one language. It’s about applying How does New Urbanism operate at the regionalthe same principles but at different scales and different scale?levels. We see ourselves and our students as servants ofthe community rather than servants of ourselves. So it’s A main focus is on connectivity – siting neighbourhoodsreally about, ‘how do we build a good community form along good routes of transportation. But we’re not talk-that’ll support the culture that will inhabit it?’ − not just for ing about a super highway but rather trains, ferries, thosenow, but for future generations. We study Western Classi- sorts of things. Connectivitiy also in the sense of creatingcism as a foundation but then we go into more vernacu- fine grain neighbourhoods, which means creating multiplelar and local traditions, looking at proportion and other ways to get from point A to point B. Another key focusthings as well. for the regional scale is preserving the natural environment Our students look at how historical solutions to climate, – looking at climate, topography, water issues and so on.cultural issues and so on meld with critical analyses of At the regional scale, density isn’t there for density’s sake.new materials, new methodologies and so on. So in terms There’s a common mentality in the States for everyone toof experimental work, for us it’s not just about doing the have a little bit of their own nature, their own back andconceptual side but to also look at financial structures, front yard. But if everyone has their own yard, no one haslegal issues and other things to make a sustainable citymore possible. “If you and I are not speaking theWhat is New Urbanism?It’s a design approach for cities that is based on the same language were not doingregional scale, urban scale, neighbourhood scale andbuilding scale, and recognising that all of these are interre-lated. It’s based on the belief that cities should be walkable well as a community.”44
  • 45. nature because there’s none of it left. So New Urbanism at ported in that radius, but most of our daily stuff will.the regional scale is about allowing natural land, agricul-tural land to be preserved while creating mixed, walkable Does New Urbanism specify a maximum distance forneighbourhoods at a variety of scales where people hope- something that is constituted as walkable?fully don’t have to drive. The typical physical measure is a five minute walk inThe Charter of New Urbanism specifies constraints any direction, or a circle of about eight hundred metres.on the maximum size and density of neighbour-hoods. So what happens when New Urbanism is Is New Urbanism becoming pervasive in the Unitedapplied to major existing cities? States and is it a part of government policy?New Urbanism happens in Manhattan all the time. Not Not as much as we would like but it’s getting there. Thereall of Manhattan is a forty storey building. Typically New is the LEED program in the States that is becomingUrbanism is practiced at four to six storeys. This is based required by many municipalities and government agen-on how far people are willing to walk if a building has no cies and institutions - universities and so on. One aspectelevator - you can walk ten storeys but do you really want of LEED is location and neighbourhood development andto? If you go to Boston, Manhattan, Chicago and other the Charter of New Urbanism is one of the main contrib-great American cities they’re typically three and four storey utors to that legislation. Unfortunately, it hasn’t becomeneighbourhoods except for a core of skyscrapers. New pervasive in terms of financial and legal structures - say,Urbanism doesn’t prohibit skyscrapers but they shouldn’t as a bank loan for building a community or building orbe the main fabric of the city. So if I’m new to a place I even buying a house. The system is still largely basedshould be able to intuitively move from, say, the train sta- on constructing fairly disposable buildings that you’lltion to the town centre. I should be able to identify the pay off for thirty years with your mortgage before it ischurch, the town hall, the train station as opposed to the then reconstructed as that is as long as that building willsupermarket. They shouldn’t be interchangeable. last. It’s also largely based on the trend that, as we are becoming an increasingly globalised society, we tend toWhat happens if a neighbourhood is thriving and move every five or yen years for work or school insteadreaches its maximum allowed size and density? of staying in the same community as our grandparents did. We have this very mobile mentality that leaves peopleThen we look at cellular growth. At a certain point we move to asking ‘why should I invest in a place if I’m not going toa new neighbourhood. It’s based on the ancient Greek model live there very long or my kids won’t benefit?’ We tend towhereby a new settlement is built elsewhere once the polis almost litter our buildings from one place to the next.has reached a certain size, typically of ten thousand people.Leon Krier has a wonderful diagram about urban growth - it Are there some principles in the Charter regardingshows a human form that can grow and grow, but of course urban and architectural form that try to combat thiswe don’t do that - we reproduce. With each new neighbour- prevalent attitude of disposability?hood there’d be a new neighbourhood centre with shops,offices and so on that come together to form a new city. The Charter addresses durability in both a cultural and physical sense. While it doesn’t prescribe specific materi-Does each neighbourhood therefore possess the same als and so on, it recommends the use of local materials inprogrammatic mix? order to minimise energy and transport burdens. But also in many cases, local materials tend to work with our cli-There might be a neighbourhood theatre, but in your neigh- mate better. There’s a reason why you build with adobe inbourhood you might have the main church, so they’re not all the southwest desert or with wood in New England andin one place. But typically the mix of uses in a typical neigh- so on. It encourages us to build objects that will last morebourhood would include things like the grocery store, the than one generation.post office, the hairdresser, the pharmacy - the basic needsof daily life. Most people should be able to work in their local Do these principles conflict with existing buildingneighbourhood and to walk their kids to school. But if I need codes?to buy a new couch or dining table, maybe I can’t buy thatdown the street - I might have to go down to your neigh- Right now, a wonderful small town or city centre like Delftbourhood to find the store I want, so not every need is sup- is illegal in the US because of parking requirements. 45
  • 46. Depending on the municipality you might have anywhere But won’t this desire for a visually interrelated urbanbetween one and two and a half parking spaces required fabric ultimately lead to the homogenisation of entireper dwelling unit. Requirements like these are preventing cities and regions?traditional urbanism in some of our greatest cities. So inChicago, you couldn’t rebuild Lincoln Park again because Unfortunately there is a cookie cutter mentality amongit’s illegal based on the number of parking units required developers right now, whereby a suburb in Georgia looksfor that neighbourhood. Now, if you’re going there by car exactly the same as one in Massachusetts, so the homog-for a dinner party on Saturday night, you’re cursing the enisation is already there. The goal is actually to pull backlack of parking spaces, but that’s why we have public from this and say that every house shouldn’t have thetransit, so we shouldn’t have to go everywhere by car. same vinyl cladding with the same size lot in every neigh-We’re not trying to eliminate the car – I love my car and bourhood across the country and across the world. TheI like to drive – but going to the grocery store to buy a goal is to lessen homogenisation and promote local coher-gallon of milk or mail a letter shouldn’t require me to get ence and legibility by referencing the local vernacular.in my car every time. With the way that New Urbanism adopts traditionalAre there any specific guidelines in the Charter with building crafts and vernacular stylistic traits whileregards to building form or is it more qualitative? largely ignoring advancements in building technology, could it not be argued that it is a rather nostalgic andThe Charter talks far more about qualities than about backward looking way of building?dimensions and physical characteristics. It talks about cul-tural issues, sustainability issues, streets that foster gath- The argument for using traditional building methods isering and legible, hierarchical spaces within a city. It’s when one of sustainability. The vernacular building is typicallywe apply these principles to a particular region that we a more durable and well functioning building. The ver-often add a layer called a pattern book or regulating plan. nacular developed out of local materials and of naturalNevertheless, there seems to be a prevailing image of the responses to climate issues. For instance the plantationarchitecture of New Urbanism as these dreadful pitched house with the big porch from the Old South of the USroof wedding cake houses... is not just a cultural affectation - the height of the rooms The pattern book is something that is locally calibrated inside isn’t because we’re fancier than the neighbours - itand in many cases it’s based on the vernacular tradition was because the climate is hot and humid - high ceil-of the area. So for the midwest, the architecture may take ings allow heat to rise, triple hung windows allow theinspiration from the typical farmhouse, but in a more urban air to pass through, the porch cools the air as it enterssetting you can have a very dense commercial storefront, the house. We’re not trying to tame mother nature, we’resometimes with flat roofs as well (although ideally pitched trying to deal with her in a way that doesn’t require a lotroofs with a gutter) - they can be brick, they can be adobe, of fossil fuels.they can be wood. The image you mention is indeed oneimage of New Urbanism, but it’s one of many. How does the vernacular deal with new building typol- ogies that weren’t there hundreds of years ago - forCan New Urbanism developments accommodate the instance, how do you do a vernacular airport?iconic starchitect building? I think that for airports, train stations, that’s where you doGenerally a strong urban fabric can withstand most things, push the envelope. The goal is not to make people feel likeit just can’t withstand everybody having their own idea. The they’re being shoved into a factory but should be part of aidea of New Urbanism is that buildings should be good great civic experience - spaces like Eero Saarinen’s airportneighbours, they should be able to talk to one another. terminal and Grand Central Station make us feel elevated.If you and I are not speaking the same language we’re For these kinds of structures we may need to deal withnot doing well as a community. Similarly, if our buildings new kinds of materials, different spans to relate to thecan’t talk to one another or be understood as interrelated scale of the aeroplane, the train. Although they might beit’s going to be a problem. Having that object building, much bigger, there should still be an emphasis on hierar-that unique inset within a larger fabric, that can happen, chical elaboration - so the train station doesn’t becomeabsolutely. Ideally that would happen more as an institu- perceived as more important than the town hall. This cantional element - the museum, the theatre or the church, as be done through scale, proportion, location in the city andopposed to each of us creating our own icon for our house. so on. (MY & SHL)46
  • 47. Open specificity shift architecture and urbanism The Western Garden Cities are being transformed with the square, while at the same time safeguarding its open-little regards for the original qualities of the modern city. ness, a new type is introduced: the so-called ‘pleingebouw’The open structure of the initial General Extension Plan (square building). An amalgam of building and publicof Amsterdam is replaced by a defensive form of urban space, the square building adds programmed mass as wellplanning that sources its ingredients from the pre-war as charged emptiness to the square. In dialogue with thecity. The result – a patchwork of gentrified enclaves – existing buildings and/or embedded within the infra-may be filling the indeterminate open space of the origi- structural network, a sequence of different square build-nal city, but is incapable of accommodating new forms of ings will enrich the open space: the podium, the colon-collectivity. The brief for the August Allebé Square offers nade, the canopy, the plan oblique and the frame.the opportunity to formulate an alternative strategy forthe ‘problematic legacy’ of the modern city that failed to The explicit programming of the masses and their spe-respond to demographic developments. This must be a cific design imply the use of adjacent public space with-strategy that sees the open city and its diverse population out fixing it. There will still be room for improvisation,not as a problem, but as a chance to forge new types of col- spontaneity and appropriation by different groups. Thelectivity and urbanism. result is a square-within-a-square-situation, where one is constantly reminded of the presence of parallel worlds,The design proposes a new spatial and programmatic of ‘the other’.composition that opens up radically on the levels of bothneighbourhood and network city. The potential of thesquare’s strategic position between the regional axes (A10, Design:metro and train) and the major thoroughfare (Postjesweg) Shift Architecture Urbanismis capitalized by spanning the square in between these dif- Thijs van Bijsterveldt & Oana Radesferent axes and by introducing programs that are relevant in collaboration with Harm Timmermans and Gustavo van Staverenon both regional and local levels. www.shifta.nlIn order to program and differentiate the larger space of photography: Daniel Nicolas 47
  • 48. 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 7 7 5 5 7 5 7 4 5 4 6 6 5 6 5 5 6 5 4 4 4 4 2 2 3 3 33 3 2 2 3 2 22 1 1 1 2 3 3 1 3 3 1. parking 2. delivery 1. parking 1. parking 1. shopping collonade 2. delivery 1. parking 3. storage 2. delivery 4. commercial space delivery 2. 2. commercial space 3. commercial space 3. storage 1. shopping collonade 3. office floor 4. supermarket 3. commercial space 5. supermarket 4. commercial space 2. commercial space 4. parking 5. community centre 4. supermarket 6. metrosquare 5. supermarket 3. office floor 6. housing 5. community centre 7. platform 6. metrosquare 4. parking 7. social arena 6. housing 8. housing 7. platform 7. social arena 8. housing Metro square Collonade Podium The coexistence of different groups and activities transforms the square into an urban “coulisse landscape” where one is reminded of the existence of “the other” The specific design and explicit programming of the masses imply the use of the adjacent public space without fixing it; view from the colonnade on a market day 48
  • 49. 8 8 7 5 4 7 5 8 4 8 7 6 7 66 3 5 4 6 5 3 4 4 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 2 4 2 4 2 2 12 4 2 1 3 2 3 1 2 1 22 2 1 1 1. parking 1. parking 2. covered event plaza 2. dressing rooms 3. culture cafe 1. parking 1. foodcourt 1. parking 3. wet floor 4. tearoom 2. covered event plaza 2. commercial space 2. dressing rooms 4. wellness 5. film house 3. culture cafe 3. hotel 1. foodcourt 5. dry floorwet floor 3. 6. mosque 4. tearoom 4. housing 2. commercial space 6. dinette wellness 4. 7. skylobby 5. film house 3. hotel 7. terrace dry floor 5. 8. eventcentre6. mosque 4. housing 6. dinette 8. oblique plane 7. skylobby 7. terrace 8. eventcentre 8. oblique plane Table λ Oblique plane The car parking and logistics is reorganized and topped with a social arena The Tabletop accommodates halls to be rented out by the neighborhood The square is announced and physcially linked with the Postjesweg through an urban antechamber 49
  • 50. The metamorphosis of Coolsingel, or the benign demolitionof the City explore lab/archiprix 2011 nominee Urban contextPlan of Coolsingel: the alienating metamorphosis (runway and planes) embedded in the centre of Rotterdam.Beurstraverse and landing strip Post office terminalSection Cityhall area50
  • 51. lieke van hooijdonk, elsbeth ronner, lilith van assem Studio: Explore Lab 7 Tutor: D. Somers(www.lilithronnervanhooijdonk.nl) (MSc4 Thesis) E. Van der Zaag M. Van Dorst D. Sijmons Urban contextPlan of Coolsingel: the contemplative space after the airfield disappearsProspect of the newly generated space in the centre of Rotterdam: circus at Coolsingel Sculpture garden in the former post officeArchitecture has the habit of arriving too late and staying far too long. singel, the boulevard alters from a highway to a runway. To makeThis final-year project steps off from the paradox between the slow- a space for the planes, the area around Coolsingel transforms intoness of what is built and the transience of use. The metamorphosis of an airport. When the planes leave the city Coolsingel will returnCoolsingel, or the benign demolition of the City examines the essence in a new guise.of architectural metamorphosis. It uses metamorphosis to confrontthe consequences of a pointless hypothesis in an urban setting that in The rebirth of Coolsingel gives it the guise of a contemplativeturn burdens us with the question of architecture’s autonomy. space. The beauty peculiar to the newly created space lies in the paradox between the wholesale clearance of the street and theMetamorphosis is the poetic equivalent of transformation. Unlike compaction of the built fabric round about. The facade’s explicittransformation, metamorphosis marks the onset of a seemingly formal idiom with its openings for gateways and loggias reconsid-pointless change. In this project the subject of metamorphosis is ers the characteristics of an architectural urbanity not designed toCoolsingel in Rotterdam. By extrapolating the essence of Cool- a specific programme. 51
  • 52. Roadshow LecturesPolis symposium on sustainable urban design Martin DubbelingWith the statement “Every movement starts by foot” Laurens Tait kicked off Martin Dubbeling is a senior consultant,the second edition of the Roadschow Sustainable Urbanism – the Next Step. urban planner and urban designer at SAB,This traveling forum is devoted to sustainability, liveability and mobility and a multi-disciplinary office active in thethis edition was held at Delft University. Multiple lecturers from different dis- fields of spatial planning, urban planning,ciplines propose their view on actual and future mobility topics. This article landscape architecture and the environ-brings you an overview of this enterprising day. ment in Arnhem, The Netherlands. He is bureau member of ISOCARP and co-Vertical transportation chair of the comity on sustainable urbanTait, engineer at ARUP, reasons that every step in the mobility chain can be design and planning of the Netherlandseffectively influenced by small means. If reasoned from the point of perspec- professional organisations of landscape ar-tive of the pedestrian, countless possibilities open up, according to Tait. He chitecture and urban planning and design.illustrates this with examples in Brussels and Toronto. There the application Martin Dubbeling is one of the authorsof subtle improvements to the bicycle and pedestrian networks is encouraging of the publication “Sustainable Urbancity travelers to take different means of transportation from the car.Tait argues Design, Perspectives and Examples”.that the adaptation of a historic city to a car-free environment encourages theuse of other transportation modes, while simultaneously improving vibrancy,livability, sustainability and mobility. This principle has been common inEuropean cities but now starts to invade other world cities as well, citiesthat are very much willing to invest in car-free zones. Besides the classicalhorizontal movement, ARUP is also working on the optimization of verticaltransport. This is especially topical in Asia, where undulating areas continueto be urbanized in a high-rise manner. ARUP speculates on how escalators,elevators, cable cars and even funicular railways can link service areas withother activity nodes in the city. Things as such literally add a new dimensionto mobility and urban development.City RegionsProfessor Joost Schrijnen and Nanet Rutten from Delft University pier-ced the myth that the opportunities of our increasing digital society and eve-rything internet has to offer reduce the demand for mobility. Despite tele-commuting, video conferencing and software such as Skype the demand formobility continues to increase. Apparently we keep on moving albeit with dif-ferent motives and to different destinations than before. Keeping travel dura-tion limited is crucial to the success of the entire mobility chain. Schrijnen and Rutten compared metro and light rail connections in the citiesof the Randstad, Stockholm, San Fransisco Bay Area and Greater London. Stri-kingly, the transportation system of the Randstad barely fits together and servesa much wider territory than in the other regions, where there are more coherenttransportation systems and much shorter travel durations.Transit Oriented DevelopmentResearch into six transportation regions in the Netherlands shows that thereis still a lot to gain in improving the use of nodes and connections for highlyqualitative public transport. Already in the Southern Wing 80 percent of thespecified new city program can be realized around the stops of the Rands-tadrail, the light rail connection between The Hague and Rotterdam. This52
  • 53. transport link holds potential as a precedent for a com- Parking re-inventedparable copy in the Northernwing of the Randstad. According to Ernst Bos the quality of car and bicycle par- With the draft of the structure vision ‘Infras- king facilities in inner cities is poor and much needs totructure and Space’ in mind, Schrijnen proclaimed be done to improve them. A parking facility is often thethat highways between urban areas can easily be dou- first and the last impression a driver or cyclist gets whenbled. However, the car will ultimately jam the supply visiting a city. Ernst compared the parking garage to theroutes that feed traffic to the city. Light rail connections lobby of a hotel or an office, a place that should make youwill prove highly necessary to ensure mobility and livea- feel welcome. Although Ernst struggled to get his mes-bility in the city. sage for better parking solutions across to the audience, he did show a wide variety of succesful and less successfulThe next step parking solutions throughout the Netherlands.According to Martin Dubbeling, urbanist at SAB, the He furthermore proclaims that parking facilities shouldfuture holds many innovations for the field of transpor- get a righteous place in the mobility chain, when it comestation and mobility. Not only will cars get cleaner, more to the improvement of the availability, quality and safetyintelligent and mostly electric-powered, but cities will of an urban area. More opportunities should be sought inalso be able to oversee the numbers and location of parked future parking garages. Engineers should tackle issuesverhicles. Cities are succesful and sustainable if they such as combining storage of cars with the storage of heat,continue to adapt to ever changing circumstances, speci- cold air, rainwater or energy. Perhaps the batteries of elec-fied Dubbeling. For the coming decades these circums- tric cars even could help to collectively power a city.tances are by no doubt the interconnected topics energy,water and climate change. Throughout all levels of scale Dubbeling heads the BNSP+NVL Working Group on Moderator Machiel van Dorst of Delft UniversitySustainable Urban Development and is one of the authors concludes the second edition of the Roadshow with theof the book Sustainable Urbanism ‘The Next Step’. While observation that mobility involves all levels of scale:working on this book he noticed that the six incorporated from regional design to the design of public spaces to theprojects are complex inner urban projects, totally omitting design of the parking stand. Alternating between levels ofthe larger expansion areas of the Netherlands. It seems scale is more necessary than ever before. The quest for thethat market parties are more willingly to invest in well shortest possible travel duration (Schrijnen and Rutten),accessible inner urban areas than in places outside the city. the implementation of smart changes and innovations (Tait) combined with the restructuring of inner citiesCycling re-invented and easily accessible locations (Dubbeling) all togetherIn the past decades about 20 towns in France built new require an integrated urban vision.light rail systems. Traffic enginer Bas Govers of Gou- A strategic network of light rail and advanced networkdappelCoffeng indicated the significant improvement connections for fast and slow cylcing (Govers) and the qua-of public spaces along the route of these new reail sys- litative storage of cars and bicycles (Bos) all contribute to antems. Value of property around tramlines and tram stops easily accessible, liveable and sustainable city. It is not abouthas increased more than in any other city area. Ano- having to choose between car or bicycle or tram. It is mainlyther benefit of sustainable transport such as light rail is about the clever and sometimes visionary integration ofthe fact that it contributes to the reduction of both co² these transport modes into the city and the city plan.emissions and the use of fossil fuels. The transportationsector worldwide produces 15-25% of the co² emissons Martin Dubbelingand 30-35% of the total fossil fuels demand. But why build expensive rail systems if we can fitour bikes with electric motors? These bikes will go After the summer  ‘The Roadshow’ will visit Rotterdam, Eindho-faster and therefore have a much greater range than ven, Tilburg and perhaps also Leuven and Ghent (BE). The secondtraditional bikes. For short journeys electric bikes are edition of the Roadshow is jointly organized and sponsored by CUR-already quickly gaining a position as an alternative to NET, study association Polis, Faculty of Architecture TU Delft andthe car and public transport. Govers expects that this the BNSP + NVTL Working Group on Sustainable Urban Deve-trend will rise. However, in order to make the use of lopment. For information about the Roadshows please contact mar-electric bikes a big hit the existing cycle network needs tin.dubbeling@sab.nl. The next stages of the Roadshow will be an-to be expanded with bicyclehighways, charging points nounced on the website duurzaamgebouwd.nl, the knowledgeand storage facilities. network on sustainable building. 53
  • 54. Keeping track of yourself and your city explorative urbanism series #2 Stefan van der SpekThe Explorative Urbanism Series addresses new ways of What conclusions or outcomes can insight intodealing with the city through the use of new media and pedestrian performance lead us to?technologies. In this issue on Urban From we interviewedStefan van der Spek. He is an architect, researcher and ‘Gaining knowledge about processes of movement willteacher at the Urbanism department of Delft University extend our capabilities of designing. Behaviour can beof Technology, and has conducted extensive research manipulated by changing a movement pattern and offer-on pedestrian movement and the value of public space ing a different set for the city program. However, mobilitythrough the use of GPS technology. He has published in is a means to an end. The planned day to day activitiesbooks as ‘Street-Level Desires’ (2009) and ‘Urbanism on and destinations are what it is all really about. This alsoTrack’ (2008). involves the process of deciding what type of transporta- tion is appropriate for the trip. The problems with the cityIn November 2010 he and Pieter Schrijnen won a prize expansion and the big logistic processes involved arefor the most innovative scientific report (CBS) entitled stacking up. Whereas, if you try to keep things at a small‘The city of the near future: the origin of innovation.’ This scale and compact, you can work in a smarter way withreport illustrates how the organization of the city and its smaller quantities.’networks can facilitate the innovation of society. How do you envision the use of geolocation data?Will we ever fully understand pedestrian movementand behaviour? ‘First of all the available technology for geolocation data analysis will be different and easier to access and use‘Probably not. Because what makes pedestrians so com- than in its current state. At the moment it is a tedious pro-plex, yet interesting, is that pedestrians react sponta- cess to collect workable data. Ultimately we will benefitneously to their surroundings. All kinds of little human when electronic devices and services are interconnected.impulses make up the behaviour displayed. These impulses Identical to the capabilities of TomTom, we will be ableinvolve many variables like whether people are somewhere to get more information and recommendations basedfor fun or for Christmas shopping. When place and time on our locations. This geolocation data might also be ofare linked a lot of information can be subtracted by data-mining. However, data-mining is not a designer’s profes-sion. As designers we cannot work on this micro level of “Companies will be eager to invadedetail in human behaviour. It is essential for designers tofigure out what the effects of movement and behaviourpatterns have on public space. The way that city centers and mine this digital facsimile ofare used, but also the direct living environment. Neverthe-less, what we can do is frame certain aspects of pedes-trian behaviour. For now pedestrian performance in relation the physical self and the physicalto their context is mainly relevant. This involves all providedprogrammatic ventures within a city, which makes up thenetwork of public space.’ realm and will go unseen.”54
  • 55. relevance to people in terms of knowing how and where ide meters, measuring the amount of face-to-face meet-to find somebody else. This kind of media will become ings and how much time someone spends in public space.increasingly persuasive and important in our lives, despite Real life social interactions will also become measurable.the reluctance of people to accept and incorporate these Real life interactivity will always stay one of the things thatdevelopments into their lives. It can only be beneficial and catalyzes creativity in a city. Cities could also use theseessential to one’s own living environment in my opinion. digital feedback models to offer alternative roads when aEverybody has already become accustomed to sharing traffic jam appears, while at the same time checking thedata, mainly when it comes to social media. On the other capacity of the newly recommended road.hand we will be more cautious with the kind of data weshare. In my opinion data sharing is secure as long as However, societal processes change very rapidly. Sothe type of data can be controlled or when the data is people might again respond differently to their surround-anonymous. Companies will be eager to invade and mine ings after a while, this is something we cannot imme-this digital facsimile of the physical self and the physi- diately foresee. As a consequence we will always lagcal realm and will go unseen. For example, providing non- behind events with observations. Nevertheless interven-space bounded experiences such as unleashing a coffee tions in the city can give rise to the un-thought of behav-smell someplace in the city, while a personal digital rec- iour which can lead to new and unexpected innovations.ommendation pops up promoting an actual coffee shop In the end it is a constant feedback loop which organi-just around the corner.’ cally shifts and morphs. This is why long term planning is of utmost importance.’ (EH)Can geolocation be used as a feedback mechanism? GPS Scheveningen, Kernel Density Analysis, All Visitor Tracks‘Activity pattern data is very relevant in giving feedback to Image by: T. Grubic, H. Velten, J.J. Wilbers Tracking Scheve-its creator. Examples of implications could be carbon-diox- ningen © 2011 TU DELFT 55
  • 56. The spatial strategies of PosadFor this issue we asked Posad to elaborate on their work is a street, a neighbourhood or a region; research into themethods, ideas and experience in the field. Posad has been substance and interrelationship is essential.active for five years now and works both on design and There is no competition, no commission and noresearch, in a multidisciplinary setting, often working on research in which the difference between the variousdifferent scales simultaneously. scales and their relationship to one another is not impor- Han Dijk and Boris Hocks, founders of Posad explain tant. A design on one of these scales – from region tothis through several of their design and research projects. street – cannot exist without a statement on the influence of spatial context: a design on city level has consequencesPosad: Knowledge is power. This simple principle also on a regional level and on the street and inhabitant. Viceapplies to urban design. This is partly the reason that versa a street profile may be fundamental for a regionalPosad has its own research focus, aside from the commer- vision. To make a regional plan tangible, this link to thecial assignments we have. Research that creates oppor- human scale is a prerequisite. Posad works across all thesetunities for the future, but most especially research that scale levels, from street to region and back again. Effectdelves into the areas that we deem of interest. Your own and opportunity are exposed.curiosity holds - perhaps unconsciously - great venturesfor the future. Our research comprises four major areas: A number of the research projects we have worked onTransit Oriented Design, Urban Renewal, Production so far resulted in commissions, sometimes that principleLandscapes and Urban Planning & Energy. These are still is turned around; a commission may be occasion to digwide areas of interest, but at the same time they concen- deeper into the content of the question. The Atlas of thetrate our own ideas. Southwestern Delta is an example of such a vice versa; a seemingly simple investigation into the regional aspectsResearch takes time, time that is scarce in the world of of Zeeland, the Zuidhollandse eilanden and the westerncommercial enterprise; yet we still persist. The results of part of Brabant turned into an in-depth examinationour research are incorporated in our commissions, but based on data supplied by three ministries, three prov-also in the competitions we enter. Because competitions inces, seven local water authorities and two world ports.specifically operate on the leading edge of innovation, Extremely complex, but it also formed the basis for newinnovative research is extremely important. Whether it ideas about the use of landscape, the future of the Zuid-Figure 1. Europan 10, urban renewal based on research and design56
  • 57. hollandse eilanden and the delta (figure 2).Other research projects - all falling within the main themes described above, were:Transit Oriented Development – infrastructure / spatial developmentTransit Oriented Development (TOD) describes a strategy for densification atnodes in a public transit network. The goal is to create mixed-use developmentslinked by high quality transport. TODs provide a diverse program and highlocation efficiency. These types of developments are a topic of ongoing researchfor us, as improvements in regional connectivity can transform the role of a city,neighbourhood, or node.Neighbourhood research – spatial development/ quality of livingExtensive examination of the development of urban neighbourhoods in Hol-land in the 20th century. From the time the housing law came into being in1901, many neighbourhoods were built and renovated. This research projectcompares the characteristics, qualities and methods of these various types ofhousing and forms a solid base for new urban development. Figure 2. The Rhine-Schelde Delta: aDeltas – landscape and nature / spatial development ‘metropolis’ of over 3 million inhabitantsAn inventory of 5 European deltas and 5 European estuaries. The basic and dis- around an estuarytinctive characteristics are described. To place the Dutch Rhine-Schelde deltawithin this context, we used this comparison as a starting point. The conclusionis that the Rhine-Schelde delta is not a classic example of a delta, but a combina-tion of delta and estuary. Yet the areas that were researched can set the examplefor further development of the Rhine-Schelde delta.co2040 – sustainability / spatial developmentBy assignment of VROM (The former Ministry for Housing, Physical Planningand Environment) we searched for key projects which enable The Netherlandsto be co2 neutral in the year 2040. As the result of our research, we formulated aproposition for a framework in which the key projects must be tested. Withoutsuch a framework, none of the projects can be developed to ensure that TheNetherlands will be co2 neutral (figure 3).Business parks – sustainability / mixed useIn the Netherlands, ca. 35% of the workforce is situated at a business or officepark. One in five of these parks suffer from aging and inadequate maintenance,fuelling demand for the construction of new parks. The goal of this ongoingresearch project on mixed-use business parks is to define new strategies for thetransformation of these ailing areas into vibrant and sustainable communitiesfor living and working.All these research projects have at one time or another contributed to ‘regular’assignments or competitions. Our day job really consists of two components:strategy and design. In the more strategic commissions, the first component is -obviously - paramount, but of course design plays its own important role withinthese projects.The other way around the same thing applies. Both in strategy and design theinterconnection between the various scales remains of the utmost importance. Figure 3. co2040 Externalisation of emis-This is reflected in the projects we have worked on in the recent past. sion and effects 57
  • 58. The Voorburg station area – street scale moving to region The station area of Voorburg, which may be regarded as one of the impor- tant public transport nodes of Haaglanden, has been renovated extensively in the eighties. National rail tracks and the Utrechtse baan were elevated and the resulting space was used for parking and bus and tram stops. This may have improved the separate flows of traffic, but it divided the historic centre of Voor- burg in two. Carel Weeber attempted to remedy this by designing the public spaces along the lines of the adjacent Huygens Museum Hofwijck, but increas- ing traffic and the lack of a connection to the Binckhorst ensured that a quali- tative new approach was needed. We have designed a connecting corridor of natural stone which links the historic centre of Voorburg to Hofwijck, the sta- tion plaza, bus station and the Binckhorst. The existing overpass of car and rail is not denied, but celebrated, and the corridor brings a new balance to the vari-Figure 4. Voorburg station area ous historic layers of the urban structure (figure 4). Europan 10 – urban renewal based on research and design Winning the Europan 10 was a confirmation for the approach we take in com- bining research and design. We looked at the area with no prejudice - didn’t fall in love with the possible charms of an eighties neighbourhood, but instead looked at the possibilities that such an area presents in a pragmatic way. The solution had to come from within the dynamics of the area and with little expenditure a qualitative leap could be made. Our concept was rewarded. Win- ning Europan gave us an incentive to enquire further into these types of neigh- bourhoods: building styles, characteristics, local economy, value addition and the potential for change within a neighbourhood. It created the idea that as an urban designer you may be responsible for righting the wrongs of the past, asFigure 5. Almere A6, the zone around the future spatial designers will have to take that same responsibility.Weerwater Both Europan and the station area of Voorburg are Posad’s idea of a design Green shared space, cobb- Bikeshelter on the axis stones with grass Bicycle along the water-arboretum Bike guard, concierge, grocer of the bicycle network58
  • 59. project with a strong strategic component. It may also work the other way “Winning the round, in other projects. Our research into the Europan neighbourhood led to a new concept: the neighbourhood as a business enterprise. Together with Revier Europan 10 was Architecture and the Schrijnen Group, we investigated the option of urban renewal that will finance itself. Every design intervention must break even or a confirmation for - better still - must finance the next stage of urban renewal. It remained a very theoretical concept, until we could test it in a competition. the approach we New elan – design as a financial engine for urban renewal take in combining New elan was a competition aimed at finding design solutions for seventies and eighties urban areas. Our proposition consisted of redevelopment of the Mirakel- research and steeg in Leiden. The financial constraints especially made this a challenge of major proportions. By covering an enclosed square with a garden deck under design.” which inhabitants can park, new value was created for the city; inner-city parking spaces which can be sold to residents paid for the deck itself and for initial other interventions which in turn returned revenue which could then be employed for other interventions. The strategy was a phased redevelopment consisting of small initiatives, aimed at improving quality and returning revenue. IJmeerverbinding – Infrastructural motive for urban development The IJmeerverbinding is a completely different story, on a completely differ- ent scale, yet again the main theme is quality and revenue. In cooperation with the American engineering company Jacobs and Dutch APPM, we are currently working on a new concept for the IJmeerverbinding. Our commission was to create a bridge connection between Amsterdam and Almere, with a higher number of travellers than the original government design returned and lower costs to realise it. The IJmeerverbinding then has to be integrated into the exist- Figure 6. Bikefriendly borough, bike- and ing cities of Amsterdam, Diemen and Almere. Unfortunately, at this point in development strategy for Pendrecht time we are not at liberty to discuss the details of the project, but the commission itself is a combination of economy, traffic and traffic modelling, concepts for sta- tion development and urban densification. This is a process in which you always have to remind yourself not to design but instead to create a logical concept. At the same time, you may never forget that this is just a model, and you must always keep your designer’s perspective (figure 5). Posad now consists of seven designers, overseen by Han Dijk and Boris Hocks. At the end of this year we will celebrate our five-year anniversary. Our focus on research and execution, and on the combination of design and strategy, and the relation of these to each other and to the various scale levels we encounter - from street to region - has allowed us to grow in these past five years. Grow from an ambitious, driven and fun design office to an even more ambitious, even more driven and even more fun office. 2011 Start execution of stationarea design Leidschendam-Voorburg 2011 Selection IJmeer connection (with Jacobs en APPM) 2011 New Elan, Mirakelsteeg Leiden: first prize 2011 The co-op: a strategy for re-use of a decommissioned highway in Calabria (Italy) 2010 Europan 10, Den Haag: First prize 2009 Gouden greep – redevelopment of business park Goudse Poort: first prize 2009 Bikefriendly borough, bike- and development strategy for Pendrecht: first prize 2008- 2010 Atlas Zuidwestelijke DeltaSchool ‘de Hoeksteen’ Nature education 2007 – 2008 Atelier Almere 2030+, structuurvisie 1.0 59
  • 60. Epilogue:Definitions of Form Taeke de JongIn this section at the end of each Atlantis we look back with the car in the sixties, facilitated that civil engineersat the contents of the issue to summarize, reinterpret took over and made important decisions. My experienceand add some final new insights to the discussion. In in the field was that I made a plan, went on holidays andan extensive interview with Taeke de Jong, professor when I came back the plan was completely changed byof Technical Ecology and Methods at Delft University civil engineers, because they said the traffic had to beof Technology, we looked at the importance of a proper like so and so, etc. We concluded that we should haveframework before discussing the issue of Urban Form. more technology, urban technology.Three things in particular come to light; the role of tech- Nevertheless, nobody here has that awareness. Even thenology, the importance of scale, and the understanding teachers don’t have any skills in mathematics, so they loseof shared suppositions underlying any knowledge. We that battle, because history is less convincing than a calcu-hope this epilogue will give a solid backdrop to reinter- lation. You should not make all the calculations yourself butpret some of the key aspects laid out in this issue. you should understand their hidden suppositions. So, urban design, sure, but not the kind of urban design where youIt has become clear throughout this Atlantis that Urbanism make four bridges more than required, because the bridgeis (on the verge of being) in crisis. If we do not relearn our is the most expensive part of the plan. When you maketasks as urban designers we will be taken over by archi- these kinds of mistakes you lose your influence.’tects and technical specialists. ‘Already a decade ago wesaw that the influence of the urban designer in the field was Educationdeclining. At that time I wasn’t very satisfied with the con- It starts with education, and understanding the wide rangetents of the urbanism education here, because it was mainly of aspects that influence the design. ‘If you do not properlyhistory. The difficulty of this faculty as a whole, already for distinguish the levels of scale and layers that are important,forty years, is that most of the professors don’t have lecture then you can never make a good educational task divisionpapers. So they don’t know from one another what they preventing teachers from overlapping in what they teach. Ifteach. There’s also no proper plan that excludes the different you then look at urban design, what does that suppose? Ifteachers’ fields, with the result that they overlap. Concern- that only supposes a proper implementation of referencesing education there were a lot of difficulties. There are some from history, without having a proper economic layer in thegood examples of lecture papers, like the three books by design; or a technological layer or an ecological layer, includ-Han Meyer, but there is still a lot missing, since we currently ing demography and so on, then the design is very poor anddon’t teach more than 10% of the key concepts of architec- will not be very convincing in practice. An understanding ofture and urbanism, according to my research. This is, in my levels of scale and layers, that would be the basis of my planopinion, why in the field we lost battle to landscape archi- for the teachers’ task division in this faculty. “tects, real estate managers and so on. Here in Delft urban design is mainly inspired by prec- Too often Urbanism focuses on the larger levels of scale,edents. There’s a lot of history, but there’s no future. The resulting in a planning approach, future scenarios, and aurban body has been the same for many centuries, and lack of intermediate design. ‘The focus in plans is gradu-yet, after the industrial revolution, the mobility revolution ally growing larger and larger because people think that60
  • 61. the larger the area is the more difficult the problems are. three hundred metres. On all these different levels of scale,This is not the case, it’s the other way round, because it’s the grain, the lowest level you take into account, will alsovery easy to say something about the future of the world, shift. So the categories you take into account will shift.but it’s less easy to say something about the future of a That is lacking in the urban theory, because on all thesecontinent. It is difficult to say something about the future levels of scale they have only one legend, and that is theof a country, and going on like that it is even more difficult one of the topographical map; green, red, blue, etc.to say something about the future of an individual. That is But if you study how many types of legends you can in factbased on the fact that the smaller the scale is, the more distinguish, then there are far more maps you can makecontext factors influence the future. So, the smaller your with other legends of scale - hard soft, or light and dark, orobject is, the more complex your study is. But the general windy and not windy, and so on. It is not only the built upidea is that ‘oh, he’s going into regional planning, oh this is area that makes the form.very difficult, that must be a smart man.’ Following that, you have to distinguish between concen- Everywhere in the faculty: in Building Technology, in tration and de-concentration within a specific density, andArchitecture and in Urbanism, teachers fly into these then you can repeat it on different levels of scale simulta-higher scales. Because it has a better reputation and it is neously. It would be interesting to find the hidden supposi-much easier; which is so difficult for people to understand. tions about scale in the different texts.There is a collective idea that it’s more complex, but it isn’t.Because scale doesn’t only have an upper limit, it also has Urban designa lower limit. The grain, the resolution of what you see, as Design is becoming increasingly important, as we havewell as the legend you use. When you build a house you do seen in some of the interviews and articles. But whatnot plan every molecule of that house, so there is a lower is still unclear is the relationship between design andboundary of the scale; there is a range of scales between research, and how that is changing. ‘Design is not so dif-frame and grain. ficult to define; it’s a search for possibilities, while empiri- That means that every scale has its own discipline, with cal research is a search for probabilities, and politics isits own categorization of the legend units, and its own a search for desirabilities. I have made a scheme forcategories of words used in that discipline. You can’t go that, which clarifies a lot but it is not popular because thelower. And now the idea emerges that you have to design main strategy of the university is to include design. Butthrough the scales, but how can you design through the if you understand that what is probable is always pos-scales if you don’t know the scales? sible, but not all that is possible is also probable, then design should include research. Instead of the other wayIf we then take into account the levels of scale, and the round. The mistake is that when you look at the possi-layers involved, what does this suppose for the defini- bilities from the perspective of the probabilities you onlytion of Urban Form? ‘First, urban, it is just a question of make predictions, not designs. And of course research isdensity. A low density is rural, high density is urban. Well, a part of that, but it’s more; it’s the study of possibilities,what’s the boundary? That’s very difficult to say if you’re not probabilities only.not clear on the level of scale. In my lecture papers I have If that is design, then I come to the part about usingdistinguished some ten levels of scale, all with their own design to connect, within a given scale, all the aspectsdensities. If you don’t take the level of scale into account that must be taken into account. For that you have tothen you never will have a proper definition of density. For know these aspects, and that’s where it fails. Becauseinstance if you see the Spacemate by Berghauser Pont , it it’s just based on historical developments, not having theis clear that they have a level of scale with a diameter of insights that are common in this university.100 to 300 metres. But that doesn’t mean that a regional Of course science is divided in so many disciplines,density, which is much lower is not density as well. When which is the difficulty of science nowadays; not only fordo you call something urban? I think that distinction has to us designers that have to include all these things. It’s abe made at every level of scale again.’ disaster in science itself, because we have ten thousand Then on urban form. ‘Urban form is not the form of the scientific periodicals and the effect of that is that peopleboundaries of the urban area alone. However, that is an restrict themselves to their own field. But by restrictinginteresting question. If it is the dispersion of built up area themselves to that field, they share a lot of supposi-for instance, and that is the legend you distinguish as form, tions together that they don’t discuss anymore. And thatthen it is still different if you do that on the level of scale means that paradigms are developing and people, youngof the city with the radius of three kilometres or the district students for instance, that doubt these things are told,of one kilometre, or the neighbourhood with the radius of well, first study this library before you criticize us.’ 61
  • 62. ‘A simple design solution can often be very good, but in of quality between recognition and surprise.’another context the same solution can be very bad. Howto generalize this, that is our problem. And for me the solu- Perhaps this is the level on which architects are suppos-tion is that you should properly study the underlying sup- edly taking over urbanism. ‘Architects like to make some-positions. The context is a set of suppositions, culture is a thing different and contrasting. The next architect as well,set of suppositions, and you always have to become aware and so on, with the result that within a hundred metersof them and doubt their self-evidence, even if everybody there is homogeneity, because it is a homogenous mix-takes them for granted without discussion. That’s difficult ture. So then we have a maximum of surprise between thebecause a fish doesn’t know what water is until it is pulled buildings, but where is the recognition? You can’t just haveout of it. We don’t even know what our own suppositions recognition on one level of scale and diversity on anotherare, which means that we now have a vocabulary together level, because within each level of scale there should alsothat is inaccessible for the rest of the world. If you then be some recognition. It’s about a gradient between recog-see the languages of the other faculties, they don’t under- nition of what you have just passed, and surprise in whatstand what we’re talking about.’ you are about to meet. Making this gradient is the most difficult design object there is.’PracticeThese are all aspects that apply to education, but how can Concluding, it’s essential to have a clear framework includ-you apply this in practice? ing clear definitions of the terms. ‘I think there is a great ‘The city is a very young organism, in its infancy, and it is difference in the wideness of the definition of form, so ifstill extraordinary stupid. I think a lot of development which you see the definition of Calabrese, then we are also talk-could be done. However, what we have reached in a tech- ing about economy and society. If we speak about form, letnical sense is impressive; that we can manage so many us as much as possible not speak about society, and notpeople, giving them clean water, sewage, and all the tech- about economy, and not about landscape.nical things that are needed. But then the question arises; I think we have had a lot of topics in this discussion untilis this beautiful, is this worth to live in, is it liveable? now that may be essential; level of scale, the definition of Diversity is extraordinarily important here. In ecology, form, and the form of what - that I would call the content.which is the profession which I’m supposed to teach here, The discussion on form can be very disturbing if you don’thomogeneity is war, it is competition rather than coopera- define the content. If you say this is the form of the built uption. Cooperation is only possible if there are differences, area, then it’s clearer.worth for cooperation. Specialisation is the art of being dif-ferent, otherwise you never would cooperate.’ Because you can be talking about the same thing, about urban form, forever. But if you don’t actually agree in the‘I once made a visual quality plan for de Baarsjes, a district beginning on what you exactly mean by that the dialogue isin Amsterdam. The assignment was; it should be a very not productive. And sometimes there are a lot of meetingsspecific district in the range of interbellum districts, but and people can be talking for hours, giving the appearanceit should also have the characteristics from that period. of work, but I don’t think it’s any actual work.’ (JW)It should be different from Amsterdam as a whole, andAmsterdam as a whole should be typical within the Neth-erlands. Within the district every neighbourhood should betypically Baarsjes, but also have something different, andso on. That was the main assignment. That means every level of scale has its own variables, so if Taeke de Jong has been professor at the department of Urban-you make the neighbourhoods different in their use of trees, ism since 1986, at the chair currently named Technical Ecol-plantation, then within a neighbourhood you can change the ogy and Methods. Aside from this he has published a numer-use of material, for the street pavement or something like ous amount of articles and books, among which are Ways tothat. On every level of scale you have to search for other study and research urban, architectural and technical designdifferences and that is, in my opinion, quality. (together with D.J.M. van der Voordt) and Sun wind water For me quality is nothing more than a function of diver- earth life living, legends for design in 2008. De Jong teaches insity. If there is too much diversity there is chaos, if there is both the bachelor and master program at the faculty of Archi-too little diversity it’s boring. In between you have an opti- tecture, and has chaired over 400 PhD sessions on behalf ofmum which is changing between recognition and surprise. the rector. His current research focuses on philosophy and theWell, that is absolutely not apparent in our cities, that kind study of suppositions.62
  • 63. Polis PartnersColofonATLANTISMagazine by Polis | Platform for UrbanismFaculty of Architecture, TU Delft Polis Co-sponsorVolume 22, Number 2, August 2011Executive editorJasper Nijveldt Polis SponsorsEditorial teamJan Breukelman Jan Wilbers Edwin Hans Mike Yin Wang Jue Yu Zhang Sang Huyn LeeEditorial Adress landscape architecture and urban designPolis, Platform for UrbanismJulianalaan 134, 2628 BL Delftoffice: BG+ Oost 160, +31 (0)15-2784093www.polistudelft.nlatlantis@polistudelft.nlMagazine design Polis ProfessionalsRik Speel www.rikspeel.nl 12N Stedenbouw Hulshof Architecten Academie van Bouwkunst Amsterdam HzAPrinter Atelier Dutch International New Town InstituteDrukkerij Teeuwen Atelier Quadrat Islant BugelHajema Kraayvanger-UrbisAtlantis appears 4 times a year Bureau B+B MetropolisNumber of copies: 500 Buro 5 Movares NL afdeling stedebouwBecome a member of Polis Platform for Urbanism and join Buro Maan NAI bibliotheekour network! There are three types of memberships, we Croonen Adviseurs West NHTV Hogeschooldistinct: Polis Students, Polis Friends and Polis Profession- Cusveller Stedebouwkundige B.V. OD-205als. As member you will receive our Atlantis Magazine Dienst ROB Almelo Oostzeefour times a year, a monthly newsletter and access to all Dienst Stedebouw en verkeer Almere Palmboutevents organized by Polis. See www.polistudelft.nl for more DN Urbland Plein06information! dRO Amsterdam Posad Ds+V Rotterdam Rein Geurtsen & PartnersInterested in sponsoring Polis Platform for Urbanism? DSO Den Haag Reitsma stedebouwPlease do not hesitate to contact Jorick Beijer, boardmem- Enno Zuidema Stedebouw Rijnbouttber and responsible for Company Relations by: jorick@ Grontmij vestiging Gelderland SABpolistudelft.nl HKB SVPDisclaimerThis issue has been made with great care; authors andredaction hold no liablity for incorrect/ incomplete infor-mation. All images are the property of their respectiveowners. We have tried as hard as we can to honour their P O L I Scopyrights.ISSN 1387-3679 P LAT F O R M F O R U R BAN I S M www.polistudelft.nl | contact@polistudelft.nl 63
  • 64. Announcements CalendarNew office! Globalisation exhibitionWe are proud to announce that Polis has a new office! Research on the Urban Impact: Buenos AiresThe great efforts of the chairman of the Urbanism depart- June 24th to September 8thment, prof. Maurits de Hoog with cooperation from Urbanism atelier, Faculty of Architecture, TU DelftFMVG led to the creation of a new office inbetween theUrbanism studio and the corridor on the first floor. Polis Daring Designis really happy with this new place which makes us more In terms of design, the Netherlands and China seem tovisible and gives all kinds of new possibilities to interact be another’s opposite: the small pioneer for conceptualwith students and staff. The new office will be officially design versus the economic superpower. But daringopened on September 8th, please check the calendar for an designers live and work in both countries.event announcement and we hope to see you then! July 1st to November 20th NAI RotterdamAtlantis ArchiveThe Polis magazine Atlantis has a great history of already Polis Office Warmingmore than twenty years. Unfortunately, due to the Faculty Come along and celebrate with us the opening of ourfire, we don’t have a full archive. After a request on the new Polis office!Polis LinkedIn group a lot of former (board)members September 8th, 17:00 to 19:00supplied us with their personal archive, that now gives 01west350, Faculty of Architecture, TU Delftus the possibility to create a digital archive on the newwebsite. Atlantis issue 22.1 is already there, and more will IX Biennial of European Towns and Town Plannersfollow soon! Please visit: http://polistudelft.nl/atlantis/ September 14th, 09:00 to 22:00 Genova, ItalyExhibitionOn the outside of our new office, in the corridor at the Urbanism Week 2011: SO, YOU ARE AN URBANIST?!first floor, Polis has a great place to exhibit all kinds of The theme of Urbanism Week 2011 is: SO, YOU AREUrbanism and Landscape Architecture work. In the last AN URBANIST?! This is an open question, sharplyfew months this place was used for exhibitions of the best reflecting on the importance of the urbanism discipline,Urbanism Q3 work, the Blame the Architect project and looking back, but even more looking into the future.from Landscape Architecture. Visit www.urbanismweek.nl for more info! September 26th to September 30thThis summer we are exhibiting the outcome of the Com- Faculty of Architecture, TU Delftplex Cities elective ‘Globalisation, research on the UrbanImpact: Buenos Aires’. A joint studio for students of TU Ecological design of urban and rural environmentDelft and the University of Buenos Aires. November 24th to November 25th ArtCentre DelftJoin usWe find it important to work on the continuity of Polis’ IFoU Barcelona 2012: TOURbanISM-toURBANISMexistence, regardless the fact that board and committee OURbanISM-toURBANISM is the title of the 6th Con-members come and go. Although normally January is ference of the International Forum on Urbanism thatthe time for a new board we are already looking for will take place from January 25th to 27th, 2012, at theour successors. Are you interested in becoming active for Catalonian Politechnic University (UPC) in Barcelona.Polis and develop your professional skills and enlarge January 25th 2012 to January 27th.your network? Please visit us in our new office or con-tact us by mail!64

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