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the wall With fragile growth or even shrinkage in Europe and the United States, the shift in economic balance toward the South and more decisively East is happening with unprecedented speed and scale; We are witnessing the biggest economic transformation the world has ever seen. More than ever, cities matter. Especially China is undergoing a massive urban revolution, with emergingThe re-discovery of ordinary public places in an alternative mega-cities you maybe never heard of like Fuzhou, Wuhan, Chongqing and Chengdu. Chineseurban architectural model for Chinese cities - The case of cities will have an enormous impact on the global economy the coming years and will experienceChengdu massive growth. But are they ready to handle it? What will it take for these cities to serve their expanding, and ever more prosperous, citizens while still sustaining growth?Jasper Nijveldt The current dispersed growth model rapidly replaces finely meshed networks of courtyards, pocket parks and pedestrian friendly streets by a Neo-Corbusion urban landscape with large squares, impressive parks, eye-catching architecture and privatized compounds. This tactless reconstruction is more focused on the spectacle and the object, than on space itself. However, several Chinese scholars argue that this leads to a decline in the quality and use of ordinary public places and on a subconscious level to a feeling that cities are becoming ‘placeless’. It is the hypothesis of this project that if this becomes the new tendency of all future developments, it would be the deathblow of public life and several problems facing China will be fortified. Therefore, to counteract this trend it is crucial to understand the Chinese perception of space, which is very different than the Western perception, in order to know how to structure it. Enclosure, with the wall as its most prominent architectural element, represented for centuries a key experience of space in Chinese cities. Even the word ‘city’ and ‘wall’ (cheng 墙城) were the same. Walls provided a structure for ones position in space, time and society and a tangible spatial reference for everyday life. This worked on every scale from country and city to house and bedroom. This project presents a contemporary interpretation of this; The Wall. The Wall is a strategic vision for an alternative urban architectural model that will guide the city towards compact sustainable growth, giving at the same time ‘place’ to the millions of new migrants. A new dense 300 km long and 1 km wide urban zone along the current city border takes on the specifics of the local soil, vegetation and existing land use patterns. From birds-eye perspective the Wall looks therefore rather chaotic, but from eye-level its secret is being unravelled; Space is experienced trough a crossing of various enclosures and different spatial sequences, from the very public all the way to the private bedroom. Space is presented little by little. The next space is always unpredictable which creates a sense of mystery. The wall is a strategic approach that ranges from designing a small water gutter, to a robust and general solution for the entire China.
URBAN GROWING CITY SPRAWL RELIES ON CAR USE Existing separated system The Wall Clustered system TRANSPORT DENSITY LOCALISED GREEN ? FEEDER SYSTEM HOUSES O2 URBAN GROWING CITY CO2 SPRAWL RELIES ON CAR USE EXISTING UNDERGROUND CARBON EXISTING METRO SYSTEM PARKING CAPTURE METRO SYSTEM ? O2 EXISTING SEPERATED SYSTEM THE WALL - CLUSTERED SYSTEM Transport CO2 yamen INDUSTRY EXISTING UNDERGROUND CARBON EXISTING METRO SYSTEM PARKING CAPTURE METRO SYSTEM EXISTING SEPERATED SYSTEM THE WALL - CLUSTERED SYSTEM chur INDUSTRY DWELLINGS EXISTING GREEN INDUSTRY DWELLINGS INDUSTRY HOUSES Industry INDUSTRY A B C D O2 156 KM2 INDUSTRY DWELLINGS EXISTING A GREEN B WASTE CO2 INDUSTRY COLD E DWELLINGS INDUSTRY HOUSES CO2 HEAT 1990 - 2010 C D F G +250% 7 New transport and industry system EXISTING SEPERATED SYSTEM THE WALL - CLUSTERED SYSTEM A B C D1 Recent growth in urban area O2 WASTE A B E CO2 COLD HEAT CO2 AVERAGE SPEED city centre, Chengdu (kmph) C F D G URBAN AREA, Chengdu (sqkm) AVERAGE SPEED city centre, Chengdu (kmph) 25 2010 12.2 2030 16.7 2050 20.3 POTENTIAL THE WALL 27.5 EXISTING SEPERATED SYSTEM THE WALL - CLUSTERED SYSTEM 400 Urban area km2 URBAN AREA km/h 25 20 2050 27x27 KM 350 2030 20x20KM 20 15 biking 300 250 10 biking 西南财经大学 15 200 5 10 150 0 100 5 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 50 economic reform industrialization, export, Global, average during rush hour manufacturing FDI 0 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 yamen Source: China Statistical Yearbook, 2009 Source: China Statistical Yearbook, 2009 average during rush hour2 Estimated urban area needed 3 Air pollution Chengdu 4 Average speed city centre 5 Proposal: The Wall accomodates population growth 6 Integral system of the Wall 8 Conceptual model of the Wall. Public transport and walkable distance is backbone. Part is worked out further churchIf we would project the estimated population growth in Chengdu in the same space- thus decreasing the dependency on the car. This new transport system will be the big central static nodes play an important role in an non-orthogonal lay-out. Chinese China Westconsuming manner as the last decade (1), we would almost need to build a second backbone of the Wall. Next to that, by clustering industry in the Wall the total system buildings are also inwards oriented, with more focus on family and kinship, instead of Enclosure on different scales:city of similar size by 2030 (2). But the current finger model of the city will grow out becomes more sustainable; the Wall will cut emissions and capture it before it blows transparant and individual towards the street. Open space and nature is blended into From city to bedroom Linearityof proportion, precious land and ecosystems will be eaten, resulting in urban sprawl freely into the air. Sharing energy, waste, heat and co2 capture systems will have a big smaller pieces and distributed evenly throughout a human scaled and horizontal city,and traffic congestion. Because of the growing distances the inhabitants become influence on air quality (7) while Western culture breaks it up into bigger pieces, distributing it on importantmore dependent on cars and more ring-roads need to be built. Traffic jams (today nodes in a vertical oriented city. Finally, the enclosing of spaces touches the essence of1200 new driver licenses are issued each day) and an increase of air pollution will be The Wall is an alternative urban model that fosters compact growth, but the quality the Chinese perception of space. Space is fundamentally perceived like a series of en-inevitable (air pollution in Chengdu is already 2,5 times higher than who guidelines of ordinary urban space is ultimately determined by how it is experienced in daily life. closed worlds, and the smaller units repeat on a reduced scale the forms of the larger Hierarchy(3) . Chengdu’s development will gradually slow down, become more congested (4) and Space and the perception of it is therefore the starting point of a new township that is one. These principles form the basis for a new township. yamen yamenwill decrease in liveability and efficiency. The finger model is no longer sustainable. part of the bigger structure of the Wall (8). In order to understand the Chinese percep- yamen church churchThe city is at the crossroads. We therefore have to look for a new urban architectural tion of space, one would have to understand how a culture perceives and formulates The township is based on the existing landscape and micro-climate and uses the (10) (11)model that cater to a greater population without compromising the quality of daily life. the ideas of space and publicness. China progressively developed its perception of pattern of agricultural lots on the location (14). Walls are erected on the plot lines to church space for centuries in a process of accumulated evolution rather than outright revolu- create building lots for a variety of dwelling typologies (15). Urban rules are formula-What if we stop the urban sprawl by densifying the current city border (5)? The pro- tion. Before the recent modernization, Chinese cities were conceived as a whole, and ted to give right to a process of accumulated evolution (16). The subtle distribution of Unityposal is a new dense 300 km long and 1 km wide urban zone along the current city were usually based on a plan that was consistently applied to the existing topography. local materials, plants and streaming water contributes to the quality and sensorialborder. This ‘wall’ makes the transition between landscape and city manifest. The It was a collective work of art. A few principles were systematically applied following experience of the urban spaces (21 & 22). The township is canopied under trees rising outWall takes the existing situation radically as a starting point, and not only gives the precedents established long before. These shaped the perception of space for centuries, of small open areas. The result looks in birds-eye perspective rather chaotic (18), but Human scaleopportunity to accommodate the projected population growth, but also forms a series but are in the modern Chinese city under high pressure. Based on Chinese litera- eye-level perspectives mysteriously present a series of clearly understandable enclosedof parallel strategies that truly can have the potential to tackle bad air quality (6). 80% ture, five crucial city forming principles are formulated: Linearity, Hierarchy, Unity, worlds with humanly scaled courtyards, gardens, pocket parks, water ponds andof air pollution is caused by transportation and industry. Therefore, by connecting Human Scale and Enclosure (9). In China space is organized linear and hierarchical bamboo hills (23-28).the existing metro system with the Wall, an expanded public transit will be provided, with small and scattered nodes along the street, while in the West (mainly Europe) 9 Fundamental city forming principles10 Existing landscape structure, with valley, bamboo hills, and water ponds as basis 14 Block development: Existing landscape structure with building zone O2 O2 O2 O2 O2 H L rainfall interception L reducing moisture valley carbon L evaporation water H H H Grey water water ponds polluted ground water in rain water collection aquifer11 Terraced landscape works as natural ventilator 15 Erecting walls on plotlines 1st floor min. 4 m. max. height 18m At least one side accessible to public One side at least a Wall max. 80% build min. 7 m.x 7m. court at least 5 m. distance on 50% max 23 m. max. 6 m.setback from street. 5m max. 5 plots per developer 6m12 Adding new secondary east-west lanes to existing road network. 16 Urban rules13 Building zones 17 Result of block development 18 Birds eye perspective. Township emerges from typical terraced landscape structure Water Gravelbed Prefab concrete with constructed gutter CRUCIAL DETAIL Coated steel gutter let water fall from walls. When it rains small waterfalls appear Helophytes Concrete Gravel 1:10 Catchment and natural cleaning of rainwater. Sound of falling and streaming water has cooling and cal- 21 ming effect. White concrete walls maximizes sunshine reflection and keeps adjacent spaces cool in summer 20 1:500 plan showing interior and exterior walls 22 Different materials and plantation makes it an subtle sensorial experience; Indigenous plants function as natural incense. Local materials. 19 Metro station on linear public space with courtyards, pocket parks and small squares. 23 1:500 section showing the crossing of enclosed worlds.
Can the Wall be seen as an integral strategy and be an alternative urban architectural energy water consumption for the current dispersed urban growth in China? (liter/day/capita) urban area (sqkm) migrants In the Wall the challenges will not be dealt with as separate tasks but, rather as an (29) waste per capita income & expenditure holistic strategy. Not only the flow of people, but flow of energy, waste, water, fauna (yuan) and flora (30). Traffic congestion and sprawled industries are decreased therefore ha- food consumption (kcal/day/capita) ving a major effect on air quality. Water can be purified and used as drinking water population or for other uses like the shower or toilets. Wast can be collectively dealt with troug- private cars hout the whole Wall. Biodiversity and vegetation in the landscape can be untouched. Migrants from rural areas can move to the Wall, overlooking the farmland on one hand, and on the other hand see the opportunities of the city. Food can still be produ- ced in the landscape and collectively transported in a short distance to the Wall. This more technical approach to the challenges, is complemented with attention to the water availability (liter/day/capita) design and experience of ordinary places used for daily life. biodiversity cars’ average speed The Chinese cities grew enormously last decades, spreading to almost infinity. The (km/h) 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2030 2035 2040 2045 idea of the Chinese Wall can be projected at different cities (31). 350 million people will be added to China’s urban population by 2025. 40 billion sqm of floor space will 29 Challenges facing China. China at the crossroads; a radical course change is needed. be built. The urban Walls can accommodate this growth, making the urbanization more compact and sparing the scarce landscape. The cities would grow to dense super cities. This generates the most gdp per capita, is more energy efficient and it would contain the loss of arable land. They can be the second Great Chinese Walls to be erected, therefore preparing China for its urban billion! Jasper Nijveldt Supervisors TU Delft | Faculty of Architecture Mitesh Dixit Departement of Urbanism prof. ir. Henco Bekkering dr. ir. Luisa Calabrese 1332279 prof. ir. Kees Kaan email@example.com ir. Henri van Bennekom www.jaspernijveldt.com Mentor team Studio Vertical Cities Asia prof. ir. Henco Bekkering, Professor Chair of Urban Design Assoc. Prof. Deborah Hauptmann,24-26 Walking from metro to bedroom while passing through a series of enclosed worlds Associate Professor of Architecture Delft School of Design 30 A flow of people, energy, waste, water, fauna and flora 31 New Chinese Walls