Vascular plants diversity.pptx

2,067 views
1,927 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,067
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
254
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Vascular plants diversity.pptx

  1. 1. 9/24/13   1   EVOLUTION AND DIVERSITY OF VASCULAR PLANTS
  2. 2. 9/24/13   2   WHAT IS A TRACHEOPHYTE (VASCULAR PLANT)? A Land Plant (embryophyte) with: vascular tissue (xylem & phloem) -functions in conduction of water/sugars TRACHEOPHYTES ALSO HAVE: Sporophyte dominant & independent Supportive tissue (lignified 2˚ cell walls; sclerenchyma) Roots Shoots (w/ sporophytic leaves) }extant
  3. 3. 9/24/13   3   LIGNIN ¢  Polymer of complex compound ¢  Incorporated into secondary wall
  4. 4. 9/24/13   4   SECONDARY CELL WALL - CELLULOSE + LIGNIN -FORMS BETWEEN 1˚ CELL WALL AND PLASMA MEMBRANE - ADDS STRUCTURAL SUPPORT - FOUND IN TRACHEIDS, VESSELS, FIBERS (ALL DEAD CELLS) LIGNIFIED SECONDARY CELL WALL
  5. 5. 9/24/13   5   Sclerenchyma ¢  Secondary cell wall (+ primary) ¢  Dead at maturity (usually) 1. Fibers Elongate, sharply tapering
  6. 6. 9/24/13   6   FIBERS ¢  Mechanical support ¢  Occur in groups or bundles ¢  Components of vascular tissues Sclerenchyma • Permits the plant to attain greater stem of height 2. Sclereids - Isodiametric to irregular - Branched
  7. 7. 9/24/13   7   What is the function of tracheary elements? In what tissue are the tracheary elements found?
  8. 8. 9/24/13   8   TRACHEARY ELEMENTS Tracheids - Imperforate Vessels - Perforate Angiosperms (most) Gnetales A few Monilophytes SIEVE ELEMENTS Sieve cells - No sieve plates Sieve tube members - Sieve plates =Apomorphy of Angiosperms
  9. 9. 9/24/13   9   Endodermis Casparian Strip: forces fluids from outside through plasma membrane = selective absorption
  10. 10. 9/24/13   10   GAMETOPHYTE (n) Egg (n) Sperm (n) Zygote (2n) HAPLODIPLONTIC ("Alternation of Generations") SPOROPHYTE (2n) Embryo (2n) Spores (n) lost by reduction and modification in the Angiosperms and some Gnetales Sporangium (2n) Archegonium (n) Antheridium (n) fertilization mitosismitosis meiosis mitosis } (Sperm non-flagellate in Conifers, Gnetales, and Angiosperms) Sporocyte (2n) produce Alternation of Generations: Haploid (n) & Diploid (2n) adult phases
  11. 11. 9/24/13   11   GAMETOPHYTE (n) Egg (n) Sperm (n) Zygote (2n) HAPLODIPLONTIC ("Alternation of Generations") SPOROPHYTE (2n) Embryo (2n) Spores (n) lost by reduction and modification in the Angiosperms and some Gnetales Sporangium (2n) Archegonium (n) Antheridium (n) fertilization mitosismitosis meiosis mitosis } (Sperm non-flagellate in Conifers, Gnetales, and Angiosperms) Sporocyte (2n) produce Alternation of Generations: Haploid (n) & Diploid (2n) adult phases GAMETOPHYTE (n) Egg (n) Sperm (n) Zygote (2n) HAPLODIPLONTIC ("Alternation of Generations") SPOROPHYTE (2n) Embryo (2n) Spores (n) lost by reduction and modification in the Angiosperms and some Gnetales Sporangium (2n) Archegonium (n) Antheridium (n) fertilization mitosismitosis meiosis mitosis } (Sperm non-flagellate in Conifers, Gnetales, and Angiosperms) Sporocyte (2n) produce Alternation of Generations: Haploid (n) & Diploid (2n) adult phases
  12. 12. 9/24/13   12   GAMETOPHYTE (n) Egg (n) Sperm (n) Zygote (2n) HAPLODIPLONTIC ("Alternation of Generations") SPOROPHYTE (2n) Embryo (2n) Spores (n) lost by reduction and modification in the Angiosperms and some Gnetales Sporangium (2n) Archegonium (n) Antheridium (n) fertilization mitosismitosis meiosis mitosis } (Sperm non-flagellate in Conifers, Gnetales, and Angiosperms) Sporocyte (2n) produce Alternation of Generations: Haploid (n) & Diploid (2n) adult phases GAMETOPHYTE (n) Egg (n) Sperm (n) Zygote (2n) HAPLODIPLONTIC ("Alternation of Generations") SPOROPHYTE (2n) Embryo (2n) Spores (n) lost by reduction and modification in the Angiosperms and some Gnetales Sporangium (2n) Archegonium (n) Antheridium (n) fertilization mitosismitosis meiosis mitosis } (Sperm non-flagellate in Conifers, Gnetales, and Angiosperms) Sporocyte (2n) produce Alternation of Generations: Haploid (n) & Diploid (2n) adult phases
  13. 13. 9/24/13   13   GAMETOPHYTE (n) Egg (n) Sperm (n) Zygote (2n) HAPLODIPLONTIC ("Alternation of Generations") SPOROPHYTE (2n) Embryo (2n) Spores (n) lost by reduction and modification in the Angiosperms and some Gnetales Sporangium (2n) Archegonium (n) Antheridium (n) fertilization mitosismitosis meiosis mitosis } (Sperm non-flagellate in Conifers, Gnetales, and Angiosperms) Sporocyte (2n) produce Alternation of Generations: Haploid (n) & Diploid (2n) adult phases GAMETOPHYTE (n) Egg (n) Sperm (n) Zygote (2n) HAPLODIPLONTIC ("Alternation of Generations") SPOROPHYTE (2n) Embryo (2n) Spores (n) lost by reduction and modification in the Angiosperms and some Gnetales Sporangium (2n) Archegonium (n) Antheridium (n) fertilization mitosismitosis meiosis mitosis } (Sperm non-flagellate in Conifers, Gnetales, and Angiosperms) Sporocyte (2n) produce Alternation of Generations: Haploid (n) & Diploid (2n) adult phases
  14. 14. 9/24/13   14   GAMETOPHYTE (n) Egg (n) Sperm (n) Zygote (2n) HAPLODIPLONTIC ("Alternation of Generations") SPOROPHYTE (2n) Embryo (2n) Spores (n) lost by reduction and modification in the Angiosperms and some Gnetales Sporangium (2n) Archegonium (n) Antheridium (n) fertilization mitosismitosis meiosis mitosis } (Sperm non-flagellate in Conifers, Gnetales, and Angiosperms) Sporocyte (2n) produce Alternation of Generations: Haploid (n) & Diploid (2n) adult phases GAMETOPHYTE (n) Egg (n) Sperm (n) Zygote (2n) HAPLODIPLONTIC ("Alternation of Generations") SPOROPHYTE (2n) Embryo (2n) Spores (n) lost by reduction and modification in the Angiosperms and some Gnetales Sporangium (2n) Archegonium (n) Antheridium (n) fertilization mitosismitosis meiosis mitosis } (Sperm non-flagellate in Conifers, Gnetales, and Angiosperms) Sporocyte (2n) produce Alternation of Generations: Haploid (n) & Diploid (2n) adult phases
  15. 15. 9/24/13   15   GAMETOPHYTE (n) Egg (n) Sperm (n) Zygote (2n) HAPLODIPLONTIC ("Alternation of Generations") SPOROPHYTE (2n) Embryo (2n) Spores (n) lost by reduction and modification in the Angiosperms and some Gnetales Sporangium (2n) Archegonium (n) Antheridium (n) fertilization mitosismitosis meiosis mitosis } (Sperm non-flagellate in Conifers, Gnetales, and Angiosperms) Sporocyte (2n) produce Alternation of Generations: Haploid (n) & Diploid (2n) adult phases “Bryophytes”: Gametophyte dominant, long-lived BRYOPHYTES (LIVERWORTS, HORNWORTS, MOSSES): GAMETOPHYTES ARE DOMINANT, LONG-LIVED
  16. 16. 9/24/13   16   GAMETOPHYTE (n) Egg (n) Sperm (n) Zygote (2n) HAPLODIPLONTIC ("Alternation of Generations") SPOROPHYTE (2n) Embryo (2n) Spores (n) lost by reduction and modification in the Angiosperms and some Gnetales Sporangium (2n) Archegonium (n) Antheridium (n) fertilization mitosismitosis meiosis mitosis } (Sperm non-flagellate in Conifers, Gnetales, and Angiosperms) Sporocyte (2n) produce Alternation of Generations: Haploid (n) & Diploid (2n) adult phases Vascular Plants: Sporophyte dominant, long-lived VASCULAR PLANTS: SPOROPHYTES ARE DOMINANT
  17. 17. 9/24/13   17   lateral branch root shoot axillary bud shoot apex lateral branch node internode root tip root apical meristem root cap root hairs shoot tip shoot apical meristem bud primordium lateral roots SPOROPHYTIC LEAVES AND SHOOTS Leavesà The same with Mosses and Liverworts?
  18. 18. 9/24/13   18  
  19. 19. 9/24/13   19   Do bryophytes have roots? DIVERSITY OF VASCULAR PLANTS
  20. 20. 9/24/13   20   VASCULAR PLANTS ¢  Rhyniophytes ¢  Lycopodiophyta ¢  Euphyllophytes —  Equisatales —  Marattiales —  Polypodiales —  Ophioglosalles —  Psilotales —  Seed plants
  21. 21. 9/24/13   21   Rhynia -  one of earliest vascular plants (ca. 400 million years ago) - lacked roots and leaves
  22. 22. 9/24/13   22   LYCOPODIOPHYTA ¢  Lycophyll ¢  Stem Exarch ¢  Root Endarch
  23. 23. 9/24/13   23   Lepidodendron EXTINCT LYCOPODS WERE TALL TREES: MAKE UP SOME OF COAL DEPOSITS LYCOPODS ALIVE TODAY ARE SMALL - ALL HAVE LYCOPHYLLS / MICROPHYLL - (1 VEIN, INTERCALARY MERISTEM)
  24. 24. 9/24/13   24   EXTANT LYCOPHYTES ¢  Lycopodiaceae = club mosses ¢  Sellaginellaceae = spike moss ¢  Isoetaceae —  monotypic Sporophylls- contain sporangium
  25. 25. 9/24/13   25   Lycopodiaceae ¢  Homosporous Selaginellaceae and Isoetaceae ¢  Heterosporous ¢  Leaf ligules ¢  Endosporic —  Gametophyte develops within the original spore wall
  26. 26. 9/24/13   26   Lycopodium clavatum Lycopodium lucidulum Lycopodium digitatum Lycopodium squarrosum
  27. 27. 9/24/13   27   SELAGINELLACEAE ¢  Leaves are isomorphic or dimorphic (Selaginella) “ligulate” lycophytes - heterosporous
  28. 28. 9/24/13   28   SOME LYCOPODS HAVE DIMORPHIC LEAVES Selaginella apoda 2 rows large leaves Selaginella apoda 2 rows small leaves Some Lycopods have dimorphic leaves
  29. 29. 9/24/13   29   HETEROSPORY ¢  Microspores- microsporangium —  numerous; relatively smaller ¢  Megaspores- megasporangium —  Fewer; relatively larger “ligulate” lycophytes - heterosporous
  30. 30. 9/24/13   30   Selaginella spp. Selaginella cinerascens
  31. 31. 9/24/13   31   Lycopods Isoetes Merlin’s Grass Isoetaceae - Acicular leaves -shallow aquatics Isoetes orcuttii Isoetes howellii
  32. 32. 9/24/13   32   EUPHYLOPHYTES ¢  Exarch protoxylem ¢  Euphylls/ megaphyll - apical meristem derived; associated leaf gap ¢  cp DNA inversion A.  Monilophytes (ferns s.l.) B.  Seed plants
  33. 33. 9/24/13   33  
  34. 34. 9/24/13   34   EQUISETOPHYTES (EQUISETUM) - SCOURING RUSHES / HORSETAILS ¢  Have ridged stems ¢  Whorled microphylls ¢  Silica in cell walls
  35. 35. 9/24/13   35   Equisetum hyemale Common Scouring-Rush Equisetum laevigatum Smooth Scouring-Rush Whorled microphylls Cone (strobilus) Equisetum arvense Common Horsetail
  36. 36. 9/24/13   36  
  37. 37. 9/24/13   37   PSILOPSIDS - E.G., PSILOTUM NUDUM WHISK BROOM ¢  Microphylls or enations (no veins) ¢  Dichotomously branched, green stems
  38. 38. 9/24/13   38   Psilotum nudum dichotomous branching Psilotum nudum enations
  39. 39. 9/24/13   39   Psilotum nudum synangium bifurcate (“forked”) appendage
  40. 40. 9/24/13   40   MARATTIALES- POLYCYCLIC SIPHONOSTELE MarattiaEusporangia - Relatively large; derived from several epidermal cells; sporangial wall surrounded by many layers of cell
  41. 41. 9/24/13   41   Ophioglossaceae Ophioglossum californicum Calif. Adder’s Tongue fertile sterile LEPTOSPORANGIATE FERNS = POLYPODIALES Leptosporangium: - Develops from one cell -  one cell thick -  spores ejected
  42. 42. 9/24/13   42   spor ophyte (2n) gametophyte (n) young spor ophyte (2n) sperm cell (n) egg cell (n) archegonium antheridium spore (n) rhizomesori leptosporangium gametophyte (n) annulus spores (n)
  43. 43. 9/24/13   43   frond stipe pinna
  44. 44. 9/24/13   44   antheridium archegonium egg sperm Fern leaf development fiddle head/ crozier Circinnate vernation= shared with Marattiales and cycads
  45. 45. 9/24/13   45   Nephrolepis Adiantum Lygodium Climbing Fern - a vine Cyathium a tree fern
  46. 46. 9/24/13   46   Coastal Wood Fern indusium covering sorus California Polypody sorus -group of leptosporangia
  47. 47. 9/24/13   47   Adiantum reniformis California Maidenhair Fern Platycerium Staghorn Fern
  48. 48. 9/24/13   48   Aquatic ferns Marsilea Salvinia Azolla
  49. 49. 9/24/13   49   Azolla Mosquito Fern - symbiotic relationship with blue green bacteria - “seeded” in rice paddies for nitrogen fixation

×