JJA Obico, Instructor
Department of Biology
UP Manila
Uptake and release of materials byUptake and release of materials by
individual cells
Short distance transport
Long distan...
hydrocarbons, CO2, O2hydrocarbons, CO2, O2
Small uncharged polar molecules- water,
ethanol
large uncharged polar molecules...
More free energy, less stable, greater work
capacity
L f bl l kLess free energy, more stable, less work
capacity
Movement from a more concentrated to a
less concentrationless concentration
Movement is DOWN its concentration
gradientgra...
Changes occur spontaneously if it increasesg p y
DISORDER or ENTROPY
LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICSLAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
1. First...
Special type of passive transportSpecial type of passive transport
Diffusion of water across semi-permeable
membrane
Hyper...
How do we know the direction of osmosis?How do we know the direction of osmosis?
Water potential (Ψ)
- Combined effect of ...
Ψ of pure water = 0Ψ of pure water 0
Increase solute decrease Ψ; negative
value
Increase pressure increase Ψ
Negative pres...
Water specific transport proteinWater specific transport protein
Increases transport rate
All cells have voltageAll cells have voltage
Voltage
Electrical potential energy
Separation of opposite charges
Cytoplasm-...
e.g. Sucrose-H+ cotransporte.g. Sucrose H cotransport
Plant uses the gradient of H+ gradients to
drive the active transpor...
For large molecules and multimolecularFor large molecules and multimolecular
component
Small membrane bound vesicles conta...
Lateral transportLateral transport
Three routes:
1. APOPLAST- via cell. O S v a cell
wall and
extracellular
regionregion
2...
From one organ to another i.e. from roots toFrom one organ to another i.e. from roots to
leaves
BULK FLOW
Movement of flui...
Transpiration
Loss of water vapor from leaves and other
l f h laerial parts of the plant
Stomata and leaf surface
1 Root p...
Correlated with active transport of H+Correlated with active transport of H
Stomata- open at day; close at night
Blue ligh...
Transport of organic products of PHLOEM SAP
Transport of organic products of
photosynthesis in the plant
Sieve tubes in an...
Sugar from mesophyll cells loaded into sieve
tube memberstube members
Symplastic- warm environmentSymplastic warm environment
Apoplastic- temperate environment
• Phloem loadingPhloem loading
• Increase solute concentration
• Water moves in
• Hydrostatic pressure develops
• Water fl...
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
Transport in plants
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Transport in plants

  1. 1. JJA Obico, Instructor Department of Biology UP Manila
  2. 2. Uptake and release of materials byUptake and release of materials by individual cells Short distance transport Long distance transport
  3. 3. hydrocarbons, CO2, O2hydrocarbons, CO2, O2 Small uncharged polar molecules- water, ethanol large uncharged polar molecules- glucose Ions
  4. 4. More free energy, less stable, greater work capacity L f bl l kLess free energy, more stable, less work capacity
  5. 5. Movement from a more concentrated to a less concentrationless concentration Movement is DOWN its concentration gradientgradient Spontaneous process Occurs without outside help When this happens, stability of system increases Increases entropy D fDecreases free energy PASSIVE TRANSPORT
  6. 6. Changes occur spontaneously if it increasesg p y DISORDER or ENTROPY LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICSLAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS 1. First law of thermodynamics - Energy can be transferred and transformed but it can i h b d d dneither be created nor destroyed 2. Second law of thermodynamics - Entropy or disorderpy - Every energy transformation increases entropy of the universe The quantity of energy in the universe does not change.q y gy g Only its quality
  7. 7. Special type of passive transportSpecial type of passive transport Diffusion of water across semi-permeable membrane Hypertonic- higher solute concentration Hypotonic- lower solute concentration Isotonic- equal solute concentration The direction of movement of determined by diff i t t l l t t tia difference in total solute concentration
  8. 8. How do we know the direction of osmosis?How do we know the direction of osmosis? Water potential (Ψ) - Combined effect of solute conc. and physicalp y pressure (cell wall) - “potential” refers to potential energy - Relative tendency of water to leave a location HIGH water potential to LOW water potential M d i l (MP )- Measured usu. in megapascals (MPa)
  9. 9. Ψ of pure water = 0Ψ of pure water 0 Increase solute decrease Ψ; negative value Increase pressure increase Ψ Negative pressure= tension decreases Ψ Ψ= Ψp + Ψs Ψp – pressure potential; negative or positivep p p g p Ψs- solute potential or osmotic potential; always negative
  10. 10. Water specific transport proteinWater specific transport protein Increases transport rate
  11. 11. All cells have voltageAll cells have voltage Voltage Electrical potential energy Separation of opposite charges Cytoplasm- more negative than extracellular i VOLTAGE ( k b i l)matrix VOLTAGE (aka membrane potential) TWO DRIVING FORCES of diffusion across membranesmembranes 1. Concentration gradient 2. Effect of membrane potential ELECTROCHEMICAL GRADIENT
  12. 12. e.g. Sucrose-H+ cotransporte.g. Sucrose H cotransport Plant uses the gradient of H+ gradients to drive the active transport of amino acids, sugars and other nutrients
  13. 13. For large molecules and multimolecularFor large molecules and multimolecular component Small membrane bound vesicles containing specific molecules fused with plasma membrane to release content E lExamples mucigel secretion Placement of cell wall componentsPlacement of cell wall components Release of digestive enzymes of carnivorous plants
  14. 14. Lateral transportLateral transport Three routes: 1. APOPLAST- via cell. O S v a cell wall and extracellular regionregion 2. SYMPLAST- via plasmodesma 3. TRANSMEMBRANE
  15. 15. From one organ to another i.e. from roots toFrom one organ to another i.e. from roots to leaves BULK FLOW Movement of fluid driven by PRESSURE FUNCTIONS 1. Absorption of water and mineral by roots 2. Ascent of xylem sap 3 Control of transpiration3. Control of transpiration 4. Transport of organic nutrients within phloem
  16. 16. Transpiration Loss of water vapor from leaves and other l f h laerial parts of the plant Stomata and leaf surface 1 Root pressure?1. Root pressure? Push from below Guttation- exudates of water droplets 2. Transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism PULL UP from abovePULL UP from above Water evaporation from leaves pull water through the xylem of roots
  17. 17. Correlated with active transport of H+Correlated with active transport of H Stomata- open at day; close at night Blue light stimulates receptor in guard cells to accumulate K+ guard cells become TURGID Factors affecting stomatal opening: Li h1. Light 2. CO2 conc Ci di h th3. Circadian rhythm
  18. 18. Transport of organic products of PHLOEM SAP Transport of organic products of photosynthesis in the plant Sieve tubes in angiosperms PHLOEM SAP -Solute sugar mainly -Movement variable Sieve cells in gymnosperms SUGAR SOURCE Ph t th i b kd f t f f d] XYLEM SAP -Water + minerals -unidirectional Photosynthesis or breakdown of storage of food] e.g. mature leaves SUGAR SINKSUGAR SINK Consumes sugar / stores sugar e.g. growing roots, shoot tips, stems, fruits TUBER and BULB- source or sink?
  19. 19. Sugar from mesophyll cells loaded into sieve tube memberstube members
  20. 20. Symplastic- warm environmentSymplastic warm environment Apoplastic- temperate environment
  21. 21. • Phloem loadingPhloem loading • Increase solute concentration • Water moves in • Hydrostatic pressure develops • Water flows from source to sink carrying sugar along • Water leaves the sieve tube• Water leaves the sieve tube
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