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Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
Molecular genetics
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Molecular genetics

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  • 1. JJA Obico, Instructor Department of BiologyDepartment of Biology University of the Philippines Manila
  • 2. fEukaryotic cells store hereditary information  in the nucleus Nucleid acids‐ DNA Transfer of nucleic acids  transfer of  h dhereditary traits
  • 3. P l   f  l idPolymer of nucleotide nucleotide S     h h t  Sugar + phophate group  + nitrogen  containing  bases Nitrogen containing  bases PURINE‐ G and A PYRIMIDINE‐ C and U  (RNA) or T (DNA)(RNA) or T (DNA)
  • 4. A= T; G=C Equal proportion of purines and pyrimidines
  • 5. Double helix structureDouble helix structure Anti parallel 2 chains of nucleotides held  by H‐ bondbond
  • 6. During S‐phaseg p Semi‐conservative
  • 7. Need primers (RNA) Will be replaced later
  • 8. Synthesis is  discontinuous
  • 9. Most hereditary traits Most hereditary traits  reflect the action of  enzymesenzymes Info for the structure of  an enzyme  DNAan enzyme  DNA GENE Specific region in the Specific region in the  DNA that codes for an  enzymeenzyme
  • 10. DNA sequence in the gene  is transcribed into an RNA  sequence RNA polymerase promoter
  • 11. Messenger RNA (mRNA) Transcripts of gene used to direct a.a. assembly  into proteins Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Combine with proteins to make up the ribosomes Transfer RNA (tRNA) Transport a.a. to ribosomes
  • 12. f fDNA encodes for sequence of a.a. in proteins DNA  mRNA transcripts b d fRibosomes read sequence in increments of 3  nucleotides  CODON GATTACA A A (DNA) CUAAUGU U U (mRNA) CUA‐AUG‐UUU
  • 13. mRNA transcript is translated into a.a.mRNA transcript is translated into a.a. mRNA binds with rRNA in ribosomes One codon is exposed at a timeOne codon is exposed at a time
  • 14. Carries a  particular a.a. dAnticodon
  • 15. When nonsense codon is exposed
  • 16. f fchanging the genetics of plants for the  benefit of humankind l l l b dClassical plant breeding Modern plant breeding Genes can be transferred between species  through genetic engineering TRANSGENIC ORGANISM ▪ Contains gene from a different organism B    (B B ill   h i i i )▪ Bt corn (Bt‐ Bacillus thuringiensis)
  • 17. Restriction     enzymes are  used to make  bi  recombinant  DNA
  • 18. Bacterial insertion PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) Sample DNA, DNA p0lymerase, 4 nucleotides,  primers
  • 19. fReturn to bacteria and allow to infect plant  cells Gene guns Electroporation Microinjection Liposomoes
  • 20. Totipotency Has the potential to express any of the genes and  produce an entire plant Encourage plant cells to express their  i i     di   i i  totipotency in an medium containing  nutrients and hormones

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