10/14/13

REVIEW

1
A
1
B
1
C
0
Outgroup 0

2
1
0
0
0

3
1
0
1
0

4
1
0
1
0

5
1
0
1
0

EVOLUTION OF PLANTS
OBICO JJA, Ins...
10/14/13

amyloplasts (starch
grains):
alpha-1,4-glucopyranoside

cell wall
thylakoids
granum

stroma

chloroplasts
chloro...
10/14/13

Charales - oogamy

oogonium
Coleochaete

Nitella

Chara

The Land Plants
=Embryophyta (embryophytes)
CELL #1

pl...
10/14/13

Two possible hypotheses:

GAMETOPHYTE
(n)
mitosis
Spores
(n)
Archegonium Antheridium
(n)
(n)
produce

meiosis
Sp...
10/14/13

5
10/14/13

antheridiu
m

antheridiu
m

sperm cells
Mnium (moss)

Marchantia (liverwort)

egg cell
neck
archegonium
“Bryophy...
10/14/13

Mosses
Hornworts
Liverworts

“Bryophytes”

Liverworts Hepaticae
Two basic forms:
-thalloid
-leafy

Asterella sp....
10/14/13

Bazannia
a leafy liverwort

Asterella sp. 2

Conocephalum sp.

Fossombronia sp.

8
10/14/13

pore
pore

gemmae

elaters

gemma cup

sporophyte

Marchantia

spores

Marchantia

stomate

9
10/14/13

Hornworts
(Anthocerotae)

Hornworts

10
10/14/13

Mosses
(Musci)

peristome teeth

operculum
calyptra

spores
peristome
tooth

operculum

GAMETOPHYTE
(n)

mature ...
10/14/13

peristome teeth

operculum
calyptra

spores
peristome
tooth

operculum

mature capsule
(sporangium)
germinating
...
10/14/13

spore
(n)

protonema

spore
(n)

protonema

spore
(n)

gametophyte (n)

protonema

gametophyte (n)

spore
(n)

p...
10/14/13

spore
(n)

protonema

gametophyte (n)

meiosis

fertilization

sporophyte (2n)

archegonium

Sphagnum Peat Moss
...
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Evolution of plants and non vascular.pptx

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Evolution of plants and non vascular.pptx

  1. 1. 10/14/13 REVIEW 1 A 1 B 1 C 0 Outgroup 0 2 1 0 0 0 3 1 0 1 0 4 1 0 1 0 5 1 0 1 0 EVOLUTION OF PLANTS OBICO JJA, Instructor Department of Biology 1
  2. 2. 10/14/13 amyloplasts (starch grains): alpha-1,4-glucopyranoside cell wall thylakoids granum stroma chloroplasts chloroplast: chlorophyll a & b grana starch Elodea (Hydrocharitaceae Alismatales) HAPLOID (n) MulticelledStage (Adu lt) HAPLOID (n) MulticelledStage (Adu lt) mitosis mitosis HAPLONTI C Isogamy Sp ores (n) Gamete (n) HAPLONTI C Oogamy Zygote (2n ) erm Egg Sp (n) (n ) Sp ores (n) fertilzation i meiosis A Gamete (n) fertilzation i meiosis B Zygote (2n ) 2
  3. 3. 10/14/13 Charales - oogamy oogonium Coleochaete Nitella Chara The Land Plants =Embryophyta (embryophytes) CELL #1 plasma membrane CELL #2 plasmodesmata middle lamella cellulosic cell wall The first colonization of plants on land during the Silurian period, ca. 400 million years ago. }  Land Plants now dominate the earth. }  cell wall: cellulosic plasmodesmata (in some Green Plants) 3
  4. 4. 10/14/13 Two possible hypotheses: GAMETOPHYTE (n) mitosis Spores (n) Archegonium Antheridium (n) (n) produce meiosis Sporocyte (2n) HAPLODIPLONTIC ("Alternation of Gen erations") Sporangium (2n) Egg (n) Sperm (n) } lost by reduction and modification in the Angiosperms and some Gnetales (Sperm non-flagellate in Conifers, Gnetales, and Angiosperms) fertilization SPOROPHYTE (2n ) Zygote mitosis Embryo (2n) mitosis (2n) 4
  5. 5. 10/14/13 5
  6. 6. 10/14/13 antheridiu m antheridiu m sperm cells Mnium (moss) Marchantia (liverwort) egg cell neck archegonium “Bryophytes” paraphyletic Marchantia (liverwort) 6
  7. 7. 10/14/13 Mosses Hornworts Liverworts “Bryophytes” Liverworts Hepaticae Two basic forms: -thalloid -leafy Asterella sp. 1 7
  8. 8. 10/14/13 Bazannia a leafy liverwort Asterella sp. 2 Conocephalum sp. Fossombronia sp. 8
  9. 9. 10/14/13 pore pore gemmae elaters gemma cup sporophyte Marchantia spores Marchantia stomate 9
  10. 10. 10/14/13 Hornworts (Anthocerotae) Hornworts 10
  11. 11. 10/14/13 Mosses (Musci) peristome teeth operculum calyptra spores peristome tooth operculum GAMETOPHYTE (n) mature capsule (sporangium) mitosis germinating spore protonema Spores (n) Archegonium Antheridium (n) (n) produce antheridia sporophyte (2n) meiosis Sporocyte (2n) HAPLODIPLONTIC ("Alternation of Gen erations") Sporangium (2n) SPOROPHYTE (2n ) embryo (2n) Zygote mitosis Embryo (2n) archegonia Sperm (n) and some Gnetales (Sperm non-flagellate in Conifers, Gnetales, and Angiosperms) fertilization costa archegonial neck Egg (n) } lost by reduction and modification in the Angiosperms mitosis (2n) gametophyte (n) 11
  12. 12. 10/14/13 peristome teeth operculum calyptra spores peristome tooth operculum mature capsule (sporangium) germinating spore protonema peristome teeth operculum antheridia calyptra sporophyte (2n) spores peristome tooth operculum mature capsule (sporangium) germinating spore costa archegonial neck protonema antheridia sporophyte (2n) embryo (2n) archegonia costa archegonial neck embryo (2n) gametophyte (n) archegonia gametophyte (n) spore (n) protonema spore (n) 12
  13. 13. 10/14/13 spore (n) protonema spore (n) protonema spore (n) gametophyte (n) protonema gametophyte (n) spore (n) protonema gametophyte (n) fertilization archegonium antheridium sporophyte (2n) archegonium antheridium 13
  14. 14. 10/14/13 spore (n) protonema gametophyte (n) meiosis fertilization sporophyte (2n) archegonium Sphagnum Peat Moss antheridium Sphagnum Peat Moss 14

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