for taxon D
for taxa B&C
for taxa B-F
Cladogram or Phylogenetic Tree
Similarity due to common ancestry- similar DNA sequences
Similarity by common ancestry of features within
an individual, e.g., carpels and leaves
(common ancestry by genes)
Similarity not by common ancestry.
Convergence - independent evolution of a
similar feature in 2 or more lineages.
Reversal - loss of a derived feature with reestablishment of ancestral feature.
Convergence - Stem succulence and “spines” in
Cactaceae and Euphorbia spp.