Eudicots summer2013 [compatibility mode]


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Eudicots summer2013 [compatibility mode]

  1. 1. 5/20/20131Diversity And Classification ofFlowering Plants:EudicotsEudicots• Palynological apomorphy:tricolpate or tricolpate-derived pollen grainEudicotsROSIDSMYRTALESMyrtaceaeLythraceaeFABALESFabaceae= LeguminosaeMALPIGHIALESEuphorbiaceaeROSALESASTERIDSGENTIANALESRubiaceaeApocynaceae s.l.LAMIALESAcanthaceaeLamiaceae=LabiataeASTERALESAsteraceae=CompositaeROSALESMoraceaeMALVALESMalvaceae s.l.SAPINDALESMeliaceaeAnacardiaceaeAsteraceae=CompositaeAsteraceae: 21 000 spp.Orchidaceae: 17 500 spp.Leguminosae: 16 500 spp.Rubiaceae: 13 000 spp.Graminae: 8 000 spp.Mammalia: 5 000 spp.
  2. 2. 5/20/20132Diversity And Classification ofFlowering Plants:Eudicots: RosidsROSIDS• Very large, monophyletic group ofEudicots• Linked by no clear non-molecularLinked by no clear non molecularapomorphies• Ovules bitegmic (2 integuments) &crassinucellate [contrast with Asterids]Myrtaceae - Myrtle family(myrtus, Gr. name for myrtle). 120 genera / 3850 species• trees and shrubs• with glandular-punctate or pellucid leaves• Usually epiperigynous flowers withnumerous stamens.numerous stamens.• Papery or flaky bark• Aromatic – terpenes, spicy resin• Leaves pellucid-dottedCa 4-5 Co 4-5 A ∞ G (2-5), inferior[rarelyhalf-inferior or superior], withhypanthium.MYRTACEAE• Psidium guajava “guava”• Eucalyptus “well” “conceal”, referringto operculum covering stamens in budto operculum covering stamens in bud• Syzygium samarangense “makopa”• Syzygium cumini “duhat” = Eugeniajambolana• Callistemon
  3. 3. 5/20/20133LeptospermumlaevigatumLYTHRACEAE• Herbs, shrubs, trees• Leaves opposite, alternate or whorled• Stipules minute or absent• Stipules minute or absentLYTHRACEAE• Flowers bisexual• Usually regular• Petals crumpled inb d i kl d tbud, wrinkled atmaturity• Stamens in 2whorls• Ca4,6,8Co4,6,8A8-16G(2-6)
  4. 4. 5/20/20134LYTHRACEAE• Ovary superior• 2-6 locules andcarpelsPl t ti il• Placentation axile• Fruit berry orcapsule• ExalbuminousLYTHRACEAE• Lagerstroemia speciosa “banaba”• Cuphea hyssopifolia• Lawsonia inermis “henna”• Lawsonia inermis hennaFabaceae (Leguminosae)- Bean/Pea family(after faba, Latin name for broad bean). 643 genera / 18,000 species• trees, shrubs, vines, or herbs,• stipulate, often compound leavesSi l i ll i il i h i l• Single, unicarpellous pistil with marginalplacentation• legume (or modified legume)Ca 5 or (5) Co 5 or (5) A 10 or (10) to ∞ G 1superior, hypanthium sometimes presentworldwide distributionecologically important for nitrogen-fixingrhizobial nodulespulses (e.g., beans, peas, soybeans, etc.),fodder plants, oils, timber trees, gums,dyes and insecticidesdyes, and insecticides.
  5. 5. 5/20/20135Fabaceae: 3 subfamiliesCaesalpinioideaeFlowers zygomorphic; petals distinct; posterior petalinner to laterals; stamens distinct.MimosoideaeFlowers actinomorphic; petals distinct or connate;stamens often ∞ showy; flowers often denselystamens often ∞, showy; flowers often denselyaggregated.Faboideae (=Papilionoideae)Flowers zygomorphic; perianth papilionaceous;posterior petal outer to laterals; stamens connate.CaesalpinioideaeFlowers zygomorphicPetals distinctPosterior petal inner to lateralsSStamens distinctposteriorpetalinner tolateralsBauhinia variegata Orchid TreeBauhinia variegata Orchid TreestamensdistinctstyleBauhinia variegata Orchid Treeovarystipe
  6. 6. 5/20/20136Cassia alata- akapulkoPurgative, for cough, fungicidestomatitis.CAESALPINOIDEAE• Caesalpinia pulcherrima – “caballero”• Caesalpinia inerma• Cassia fistula “golden shower”• Cassia fistula – golden shower• Cassia alata – “Acapulco”CAESALPINOIDEAE• Delonix regia – “flame tree”• Bauhinia purpurea – “alibangbang”• Cynometra• Cynometra• Tamarindus indica• Intsia – “ipil”
  7. 7. 5/20/20137Flowers actinomorphic, often denselyaggregatedMimosoideaePetals distinct or connate; hypanthium sometimespresentStamens often ∞, showyAcacia spp.headsphyllodeAcacia spp.: phyllodinousphylloderachillaewith leafletsspike flowers actinomorphic,stamens ∞Acacia longifolia (native to Australia)ovary(removed)Calliandra haematocephala
  8. 8. 5/20/20138Mimosa sp.Pithecellobium unquis-cati Cat ClawMIMOSOIDEAE• Mimosa pudica – “makahiya”• Samanea saman – “acacia”• Acacia sp• Acacia sp.• Leucaena leucocephala – “ipil-ipil”• Calliandra• Pithecellobium dulce – “camachile”Flowers zygomorphicPerianth papilionaceousTerminology:Posterior petal = banner or standardL t l t l iFaboideae (Papilionoideae)Lateral petals = wingsAnterior petals = keel petals (basally distinct;distally connate; collectively called the keel)Posterior petal (banner) outer to laterals(wings)Stamens connate: monadelphous ordiadelphousPAPILIONOIDEAE• Phaseolus – “abitsuelas”, “lima bean”,“patani”• Vigna – “munggo” “sitaw”Vigna munggo , sitaw• Psophocarpus – “sigarillas”• Sesbania – “katuray”
  9. 9. 5/20/20139PAPILIONOIDEAE• Dolichos lablab – “batao” = Lablabpurpureus• Pterocarpus indica – “narra”Pterocarpus indica narra• Arachis pintoi – “ornamental peanut”• Arachis hypogea – “peanut”PAPILIONOIDEAE• Pisum sativum – “sitsaro”, “peas”• Centrosema• Clitorea• Clitorea• DesmodiumPAPILIONOIDEAE• Gliricidia – “kakawate” or “madre decacao”• Crotalaria (with inflated pods)Crotalaria (with inflated pods)• Mucuna pruriens – “lipa”• Pachyrrizus erosus – “singkamas”• Abrus precatoriusbannerouter tolateralswing petalsWisteria sinensis WisteriakeelkeelpetalWisteria sinensis Wisteriastamensconnate:diadelphous(9+1)in Wisteria
  10. 10. 5/20/201310style(ovary hidden)Wisteria sinensis Wisteria(ovary hidden)bannerwing petalsErythrina caffrastamenscalyxstamensconnate:diadelphous(9+1)styleErythrina caffrapistil removedstipeovarystylepistilunicarpellousplacentationmarginal(l s )Erythrina caffra(l.s.)(c.s.)Clitoria mariana-a resupinate papilionoid
  11. 11. 5/20/201311Euphorbiaceae - Spurge family(after Euphorbus, physician to the king of Mauritania, 1st century).313 genera / 8,100 speciesunisexual flowers with a superior,usually 3-carpellate ovary with 1 ovule per carpel,apical-axile in placentation;Crotonoideae and Euphorbioideae have a red, yellow, orusually white (“milky”) latexEuphorbioideae -cyathium inflorescence.K0 A 1 G 0K0 A0 G (3)cyathiumAn inflorescence bearing small, unisexualflowers and subtended by an involucre(frequently with petaloid glands), theentire inflorescence resembling a singleflower.EUPHORBIACEAE• Manihot esculenta “cassava” or“kamoteng kahoy”• Euphorbia sppEuphorbia spp.• Euphorbia pulcherrima “poinsettia”• Jatropha spp.• Ricinus communis “castor plant”• Antidesma “bignay”EUPHORBIACEAE• Phyllanthus acidus “karmay”• Acalypha hispida “chenille plant”• Pedilanthus tithymalloides• Pedilanthus tithymalloides• Aleurites moluccana “lumbang”,“candlenut tree”
  12. 12. 5/20/201312• Ricinus communis, the source of castor bean oil andthe deadly poison ricin• Hevea brasiliensis, the major source of natural, jrubber;• Manihot esculentus, cassava/manioc• Oil (biodiesel, Jatropha), timber, medicinal, dye, andornamental plants.Euphorbia grandicornisEuphorbia spp.Manihot esculenta Manioc
  13. 13. 5/20/201313Moraceae — Mulberry family(Latin name for mulberry). ca. 40 genera / 1100 speciesmonoecious or dioecious trees, shrubs,lianas, or herbsmilky latex,stipulate, simple leavesstipulate, simple leaves• Stipules sheathingfruit a multiple of achenes or syconium.K4 A 0 G (2)K4 A1 G 0
  14. 14. 5/20/201314MORACEAE• Ficus sp. – figs• Artocarpus – “jackfruit”, “marang”,“antipolo”antipolo• Broussonetia “himbabao”• Morus alba “mulberry”Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit),Ficus carica (edible fig),Morus spp. (mulberry);pp ( y)paper, rubber, and timber trees; and some cultivatedornamentals, -Ficus spp., figs;the leaves of Morus alba are the food source ofsilkworm moth larvae.Malvaceae, s.s. - Mallow family(name used by Pliny, meaning "soft"). 111 genera / 1,800 speciesMalvaceae s. l.• herbs, shrubs, or trees,• often with stellate trichomes,• typically with an epicalyx• typically with an epicalyx,• calyx valvate, corolla often convolute• stamens connate into tube or 5-∞ bundles• Monothecal or bithecal anthers• Ca (5) Co 5 A ∞ G (5) superior
  15. 15. 5/20/201315A.P.G.: Malvaceae, s.l.formerly 4 families:Malvaceae, s.s.BombacaceaeSt liSterculiaceaeTiliaceaeEconomic importance includes medicinal plants;Gossypium spp. (cotton, the world’s most important fiber plant)Ceiba pentandra (kapok), in both of which the seed trichomesare utilized,Corchorus spp. (jute), a bast fiber plantfood and flavoring plants- Theobroma cacao (cacao, the source of chocolate), ColaTheobroma cacao (cacao, the source of chocolate), Colanitida (cola), Abelmoschus (okra), and Durio zibethinus(durian);- ornamental cultivars such as Chorisia (floss-silk tree),Hibiscus (mallows), and Tilia (linden tree).- Adansonia digitata (baobab, tropical Africa) - economic orecological importance.
  16. 16. 5/20/201316Hibiscus sp. KosteletskiavirginicaDurio
  17. 17. 5/20/201317TheobromacacaoCacao, sourceof chocolateANACARDIACEAE• Trees• Resin caustic, turns black upon exposure• Terpenes, tannins, oleoresins (phenoliccompounds that cause contact dermatitis)compounds that cause contact dermatitis),biflavones• Leaves usually alternate, may be opposite• Simple or compound• ExstipulateANACARDIACEAE• Flowers bisexual orunisexual byreduction• Terminal panicles• Sepals 3 5• Sepals 3-5• Petals 3-5• Annular disc +• Stamens 5-10,emerge from baseof discANACARDIACEAE• Carpels 1-3-(5)• 1-3 locules, only one fertile• 1 ovule per locule• 1 ovule per locule• 1-3 styles• Fruit drupe• Could be winged with persistent sepalsANACARDIACEAE• Anacardium occidentale “kasuy”• Mangifera “mango”• Dracontomelon “dao”ANACARDIACEAE• Spondias “siniguelas”• Semecarpus cuneiformis “ligas”• Toxicodendron “poison ivy”• Pistacia vera “pistachio”p
  18. 18. 5/20/201318MELIACEAE• Trees or shrubs• Triterpenoids• Leaves mostly pinnatey p• ExstipulateMELIACEAE• Flowers bisexual• Regular• Cyme or panicle• Disc +St 8 10 i• Stamens 8-10, ina “peculiar”staminal tube• Ca4-5Co4-5A5-10G2-6MELIACEAE• 2-6 carpels/ 2-6 locules• 1-2 ovules perlocule• Placentationaxileaxile• Fruit capsuleor baccate• Arillate orwinged seeds• Endosperm ±MELIACEAE• Sandoricum koetjape “santol”• Swietenia microphylla “mahogany”• Lansium domesticum “lanzones”“• Azadirachta indica “neem tree”• Melia azedarach “Chinaberry”= Melia dubiaDiversity And Classification ofFlowering Plants:Eudicots: AsteridsMichael G. Simpson
  19. 19. 5/20/201319Asterids• Very large, diverse group• 10 orders, many families• Putative apomorphies:• Putative apomorphies:– iridoid compounds– sympetalous corolla– ovules: unitegmic (one integument),tenuinucellate (megasporangium 1-cellthick)Apocynaceae, s.l. - Dogbane/Milkweedfamily (Greek for "away from dog," in reference to past useof some taxa as a dog poison). 411 genera / 4,650 species.The Apocynaceae, s.l.• Milky latex• 2-carpellatep• 5-merous perianth/androecium,• the gynoecium usually with 2 carpels,• ovaries distinct in some taxa with styles connateCa (5) Co (5) A 5 or (5) G (2), superior,APOCYNACEAE• Bud contorted• Gamopetalous• Anthers sagittate• Stigma thickened
  20. 20. 5/20/201320Nerium oleander - adelfa• Allamanda “yellow bell”• Plumeria “kalachuchi”• Nerium oleander “adelfa”• Thevetia “false yellow bell”Rubiaceae — Coffee family(after rubia, name used by Pliny for madder)630 genera / 10,200 species.Leaves simple, entire, usually decussate leavesconnate stipules, the stipules often with mucilage-secreting colletersusually a cyme,Flowers bisexual the perianth dichlamydeous perianthFlowers bisexual, the perianth dichlamydeous, perianthand androecium often 4 –5-merous (calyx absent insome),ovary usually inferiorCa (4-5) Co (4-5) A 4-5 G (2) usually inferiorRubiaceae — Coffee family(after rubia, name used by Pliny for madder)630 genera / 10,200 species.worldwide distribution, more concentrated in tropicalregions.Cinchona, the source of quinine used to treat malaria,, q ,Coffea arabica and other species, the source of coffee,Pausinystalia johimbe, the source of the sexualstimulant yohimbine,some timber trees, fruiting plants, dye plants (such asRubia, madder), and ornamental cultivars (e.g.,Pentas, among others).
  21. 21. 5/20/201321Lamiaceae (=Labiatae) - Mint family(Lamium, gullet, after the shape of the corolla tube or old Latin nameused by Pliny). 251 genera / 6,700 species.often aromatic with ethereal oilswith usually 4-sided stems, opposite [or whorled] leavesverticillaster or thyrse inflorescence [flowers solitary and axillaryin some], and zygomorphic [rarely actinomorphic],usually bilabiate flowersdeeply 4-lobed ovary (by formation of "false septa") andgynobasic styleCa (5) Co (5) A 4 G (2), superior, hypanthium absent.Mentha, mint;Ocimum, basil;Rosmarinus rosemary;Rosmarinus, rosemary;Salvia, sage;Thymus, thymeLeaves opposite; stems 4-sided
  22. 22. 5/20/201322Inflorescence a thyrse or verticillaster (usu.) Flowers zygomorphic; corolla sympetalous, bilabiatecarpels 2; style gynobasicFruit a schizocarp ofnutletsOcimum basilicum BASIL
  23. 23. 5/20/201323ACANTHACEAE• Herbs, shrubs• Cystoliths +• Leaves opposite• Leaves opposite• Entire• ExstipulateACANTHACEAE• Flowersbisexual• Irregular• Sepals 5-cleftC ll bil bi t• Corolla bilabiate• Bracts,bracteoles• Ca(5)Co(5)A2,4ACANTHACEAE• Ovary 2-loculate• Style persistent• 2-many ovules2 many ovules• Placentation axile• Retinacula minute hook-likeoutgrowths that ballistically disperseseeds• Fruit capsule• Mostly exalbuminousACANTHACEAE• Thunbergia erecta – violet flowers• T. grandiflora – large light purple/whiteflowersflowers• Pachystachys lutea “roman candle”• Fittonia verschaffeltii “snail plant”• Odentonema• Justicia
  24. 24. 5/20/201324Asteraceae (Compositae)Characteristics:Inflorescence a head (capitulum):subtended by inflorescence bracts: involucralbracts or phyllaries, collectively termed theinvolucre.Calyx modified as pappus.Stamens syngenesious.K pappus C 5 A (5) G(2), inferior, 1 basalovuleFruit an achene.Asteraceae (=Compositae) -Sunflower family(after Aster, meaning star). 1,528 genera / 22,750 species.a head (capitulum) subtended by an involucre of phyllaries,--bilabiate, disk, or ray/ligulate, (heads of many taxa a mixture oft l di k fl d i h l fl )central disk flowers and peripheral ray flowers),with the calyx, termed a pappus, modified as scales, awns, orcapillary bristles (or absent),the androecium syngenesious,inferior ovary with a single, basal ovule,the fruit a multiple of achenes.Asteraceae (=Compositae) -Sunflower family(after Aster, meaning star). 1,528 genera / 22,750 species.Ca 0-∞ (pappus)Co (5) [(4)] or (3) in some ray flowersA (5) [(4)]G (2), inferior, hypanthium absent.Asteraceae: floral variationThree types of flowers:1) Bilabiate: zygomorphic (bilateral) with 2lips2) Ray (ligulate): zygomorphic (bilateral)with 1 lobe3) Disk: actinomorphic (radial), usu. 5-lobedThree types of heads:1) discoid, with only disk flowers;2) radiate, with central (bisexual or male) diskflowers and peripheral (female or sterile) rayflowers;flowers;3) ligulate, with all ray flowers (typically with5-toothed corolla apices);
  25. 25. 5/20/201325ligulate / raydiskanthersconnatesyngenesiousRay flowers (heads ligulate = allrays)ligulate corollaRafinesquia neomexicana Malacothrix californicaDisk flower: heads discoiddisk corollaPalafoxia aridaPsathyrotes ramosissimaChaenactis gabriusculaHeads radiate: inner disk & outer rayfls.ray flowersdisk flowersXylorhiza orcuttiiEncelia farinosaovarySome heads are "chaffy"chaff :bractsdiskflowerEncelia californicabractssubtendingflowers
  26. 26. 5/20/201326Involucre morphologyone whorl two whorls many whorlsSenecio vulgaris Coreopsis maritima Encelia californicaPhyllaries spinyInvolucre morphologyPhyllaries spiny & squarroseCircium vulgare Silybum marianumPappus:modified calyxcapillary bristles:barbellatecapillary bristles:plumosebeakcapillary bristles,borne atop "beak"Pappus: modified calyxASTERACEAE• Anthers 3-5, united syngenesiousASTERACEAE• Gynoeciumbicarpellate• Uniloculate• InferiorInferior• Uniovulate• Placentation basal• Fruit achene withcoma or tuft ofhair cypsela
  27. 27. 5/20/201327Chromolaena odorataCosmos sp.Tridax procumbensZinnia sp.ChrysanthemumCyanthillium cinereum