Jasper Clean Energy Center Environmental Overview Prepared by:  Mostardi Platt Environmental Oak Brook, Illinois
EMISSIONS COMPARISONS <ul><li>Jasper Clean Energy Center – Environmental Overview </li></ul>
Source: USEPA  AIR Data System National Emissions Inventory –  2002 (Latest data available)
Source: USEPA  AIR Data System National Emissions Inventory –  2002 (Latest data available)
(8.5% of Total) Source: USEPA  AIR Data System National Emissions Inventory –  2002 (Latest data available) (Off road vehi...
(0.6%)
 
AMBIENT AIR IMPACT <ul><li>Jasper Clean Energy Center – Environmental Overview </li></ul>
Dispersion Modeling Wind Emissions “ x” lbs/hr of pollutant emitted “ y” ppb of pollutant at ground level
USEPA Dispersion Models <ul><li>AERMOD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full dispersion model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very detaile...
 
 
Maximum Concentration NAAQS Ten Year High (2001) Last Year High (2008)
 
 
Pollutant Emission Rate (lbs/MM Btu)
Maximum Ambient Air Concentration (µg/M 3 ) Pollutant
FUEL ANALYSIS AND COMPARISONS <ul><li>Jasper Clean Energy Center – Environmental Overview </li></ul>
Source: Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Coal/Miscanthus Comparison Parameter Miscanthus Eastern Coal Western Coal Units Moisture Content 15 6 5 % Heating Value 8,...
Wood/Miscanthus Comparison Parameter Miscanthus Green Wood Const. Debris Units Moisture Content 15 50 10 % Heating Value 8...
RENEWABLE POWER DEMAND <ul><li>Jasper Clean Energy Center – Environmental Overview </li></ul>
What’s Driving Demand? <ul><li>Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State level programs </li></ul></...
RPS States
Regional Cap & Trade States Western Climate Initiative Midwest Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord Regional Greenhouse Gas Ini...
RPS Examples Source: US Department of Energy http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/states/maps/renewable_portfolio_states.cfm State...
BIOMASS POWER <ul><li>Jasper Clean Energy Center – Environmental Overview </li></ul>
Biomass Power in the US <ul><li>Provided over 2,000 trillion Btu of energy in 2008 (last data released by DOE) </li></ul><...
Why Biomass Combustion? <ul><li>Renewable </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Neutral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USEPA exempts biomass com...
Biomass: Carbon Neutral CO 2 Gas Biomass (lignens, cellulose) Combustion No additional sequestered carbon (eg, carbon stor...
AIR QUALITY DATA <ul><li>Jasper Clean Energy Center – Environmental Overview </li></ul>
US Air Pollution Trends Source: United States Environmental Protection Agency
US Asthma Trends
US PM-10 Trends Source: United States Environmental Protection Agency
US PM-2.5 Trends Source: United States Environmental Protection Agency
DuBois County PM-10 Trends
DuBois County PM-2.5 Trends
DIOXIN FORMATION AND EMISSIONS <ul><li>Jasper Clean Energy Center – Environmental Overview </li></ul>
Dioxins <ul><li>Created when combustion conditions are poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open burning biggest source according to...
 
 
CONTROL REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>Jasper Clean Energy Center – Environmental Overview </li></ul>
Types of Air Pollutants <ul><li>Criteria Pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>PM, CO, NOx, SO 2 , VOC and Lead </li></ul><ul><li>E...
BACT and MACT Examples <ul><li>Particulate Matter (criteria pollutant) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BACT = Baghouse </li></ul></u...
RESOURCES <ul><li>Jasper Clean Energy Center – Environmental Overview </li></ul>
Resources We Used <ul><li>Air Pollution Data - USEPA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.epa.gov/air/data/ </li></ul></ul><ul...
 
 
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Jasper Clean Energy Center Preliminary Environmental Assessment

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Jasper Clean Energy Center Preliminary Environmental Assessment

  1. 1. Jasper Clean Energy Center Environmental Overview Prepared by: Mostardi Platt Environmental Oak Brook, Illinois
  2. 2. EMISSIONS COMPARISONS <ul><li>Jasper Clean Energy Center – Environmental Overview </li></ul>
  3. 3. Source: USEPA AIR Data System National Emissions Inventory – 2002 (Latest data available)
  4. 4. Source: USEPA AIR Data System National Emissions Inventory – 2002 (Latest data available)
  5. 5. (8.5% of Total) Source: USEPA AIR Data System National Emissions Inventory – 2002 (Latest data available) (Off road vehicles)
  6. 6. (0.6%)
  7. 8. AMBIENT AIR IMPACT <ul><li>Jasper Clean Energy Center – Environmental Overview </li></ul>
  8. 9. Dispersion Modeling Wind Emissions “ x” lbs/hr of pollutant emitted “ y” ppb of pollutant at ground level
  9. 10. USEPA Dispersion Models <ul><li>AERMOD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full dispersion model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very detailed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>+/- 1% accuracy (confirmed by monitors) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SCREEN3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick screening model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worst case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overestimates ambient concentrations </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Maximum Concentration NAAQS Ten Year High (2001) Last Year High (2008)
  11. 16. Pollutant Emission Rate (lbs/MM Btu)
  12. 17. Maximum Ambient Air Concentration (µg/M 3 ) Pollutant
  13. 18. FUEL ANALYSIS AND COMPARISONS <ul><li>Jasper Clean Energy Center – Environmental Overview </li></ul>
  14. 19. Source: Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  15. 20. Coal/Miscanthus Comparison Parameter Miscanthus Eastern Coal Western Coal Units Moisture Content 15 6 5 % Heating Value 8,000 13,000 8,500 Btu/lb Ash Content 2.5 18 9 % Carbon Content 48 50 - 80 50 - 60 % Hydrogen Content 6 5 5 % Nitrogen Content 0.38 0.5 - 1 0.5 - 1 % Sulfur Content 600 30,000 16,000 ppm Chlorine Content 1,450 1,200 120 ppm
  16. 21. Wood/Miscanthus Comparison Parameter Miscanthus Green Wood Const. Debris Units Moisture Content 15 50 10 % Heating Value 8,000 5,000 8,000 Btu/lb Ash Content 2.5 1.5 5 - 10 % Carbon Content 48 50 50 % Hydrogen Content 6 - - % Nitrogen Content 0.38 0.1 0.5 % Sulfur Content 600 200 200 ppm Chlorine Content 1,450 400 200 ppm
  17. 22. RENEWABLE POWER DEMAND <ul><li>Jasper Clean Energy Center – Environmental Overview </li></ul>
  18. 23. What’s Driving Demand? <ul><li>Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State level programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require use of more and more renewables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regional Cap and Trade Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East coast, West coast and Midwest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USEPA Regulation through Clean Air Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossil fuel use more and more restricted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable fuels must be considered </li></ul></ul>
  19. 24. RPS States
  20. 25. Regional Cap & Trade States Western Climate Initiative Midwest Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
  21. 26. RPS Examples Source: US Department of Energy http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/states/maps/renewable_portfolio_states.cfm State Renewable Target Completion Year Illinois 25% 2025 Missouri 15% 2021 New Jersey 22.5% 2021
  22. 27. BIOMASS POWER <ul><li>Jasper Clean Energy Center – Environmental Overview </li></ul>
  23. 28. Biomass Power in the US <ul><li>Provided over 2,000 trillion Btu of energy in 2008 (last data released by DOE) </li></ul><ul><li>Classes of biomass: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural crops & by-products (30 trillion Btu) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic sludge wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black liquor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipal solid wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landfill gas </li></ul></ul>Source: US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration
  24. 29. Why Biomass Combustion? <ul><li>Renewable </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Neutral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USEPA exempts biomass combustion from greenhouse gas permitting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can Provide Base-Load Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar, Wind can not be dispatched </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology Well Understood </li></ul>
  25. 30. Biomass: Carbon Neutral CO 2 Gas Biomass (lignens, cellulose) Combustion No additional sequestered carbon (eg, carbon stored in coal) added to the environment
  26. 31. AIR QUALITY DATA <ul><li>Jasper Clean Energy Center – Environmental Overview </li></ul>
  27. 32. US Air Pollution Trends Source: United States Environmental Protection Agency
  28. 33. US Asthma Trends
  29. 34. US PM-10 Trends Source: United States Environmental Protection Agency
  30. 35. US PM-2.5 Trends Source: United States Environmental Protection Agency
  31. 36. DuBois County PM-10 Trends
  32. 37. DuBois County PM-2.5 Trends
  33. 38. DIOXIN FORMATION AND EMISSIONS <ul><li>Jasper Clean Energy Center – Environmental Overview </li></ul>
  34. 39. Dioxins <ul><li>Created when combustion conditions are poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open burning biggest source according to EPA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not specific to any particular fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time, temperature and turbulence prevent formation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dioxin part of chemical class called “Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons”, or “PAH” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PAH products of incomplete combustion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USEPA tracks PAH emissions (but not dioxins) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 42. CONTROL REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>Jasper Clean Energy Center – Environmental Overview </li></ul>
  36. 43. Types of Air Pollutants <ul><li>Criteria Pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>PM, CO, NOx, SO 2 , VOC and Lead </li></ul><ul><li>Emitted in greatest quantity </li></ul><ul><li>State of the art control for each is called “BACT” </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous Pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>187 “HAPs” listed by USEPA </li></ul><ul><li>Emitted in far lesser quantities </li></ul><ul><li>State of the art control for each is called “MACT” </li></ul>
  37. 44. BACT and MACT Examples <ul><li>Particulate Matter (criteria pollutant) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BACT = Baghouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MACT for particulate HAPs = Baghouse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NOx (criteria pollutant) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BACT = SNCR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No equivalent for NOx among HAPs </li></ul></ul>
  38. 45. RESOURCES <ul><li>Jasper Clean Energy Center – Environmental Overview </li></ul>
  39. 46. Resources We Used <ul><li>Air Pollution Data - USEPA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.epa.gov/air/data/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power Generation Data – DOE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.eia.doe.gov/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renewable Power Research – DOE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.nrel.gov/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air Quality Models – EPA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.epa.gov/ttn/scram/ </li></ul></ul>

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