What is “COMPUTER”? A computer is a device that store andprocess data.What is “DATA”? These are what we call raw facts.What are “RAW FACTS”? These are the letters, symbols, andnumbers
CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER1. ElectronicAll computers are powered by electricity.2. ProgrammableAll computers are able to follow a set of instructions called programs, from which a user may derive the specific information he wants.3. Storage capabilityAll computers are able to store data intended for later use. This characteristic makes them to electronic filing cabinets.
4. Retrieval capability All computers are able to regain stored programs and data. Storing is a useless exercise if programs and data cannot be retrieved for later use.5. Processing capability All computers are able to process data that is useful information can be gleaned after the computer has performed the necessary operational instruction on the raw data it is fed.
a. On medicine Example: The computer tonographyat Makati Medical Center used to examinethe nervous system and the more difficultareas of the human body to detecttumors, strokes, cancer and otherlesions.b. On money and Banking Examples: Automated Teller Machine(ATM), electronic fund transfer andcredit cards.c. On factories
d. On education Examples: Computer-aided learning(CAL) and computer-aided instruction(CAI).e. On Information and Communication Examples: Postal services throughelectronic mail (e-mail), electroniclibraries through the INTERNET and theuse of cellular phones.f. On the Houses/Offices of the Future Examples: Computer-operated
COMPUTERCAPABILITIES1. SPEED The computer can process and calculate large amounts of data.2. ACCURACY/ACCURATE It can process the right data quickly with 100% correctness.3. AUTOMATIC It can execute instructions automatically.
4. ENDURANCE Durable5. WIDE RANGE OF APPLICATION Computer are essential tools of everyday living from simple household tasks to the most complicated activities.6. STORE AND RECALL DATA Computer can retrieve or get information from memory.
7. SELF CHECKING It verifies the correctness of it’s work to ensure that all data are correct and accurate.8. REPETITIVENESS Computers never complain or get bored like us. They can do tasks many time as a computer operator wants to be done.
CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER 1. Programmable 2. Storage 3. Reduction of Cause 4. Versatility 5. Arithmetic and Logical Operations 6. Reliability 7. Automation 8. Diligence 9. Consistency
DATA PROCESSINGWhat is “Data Processing”? It is the process of transforming data intouseful and meaningful information.What is “DATA”? These are collection of facts such asnumbers, letters or special symbols relating toevents that take place.Where do “Information” refers? It refers to data that has been organized andprocessed so that it becomes meaningful.
DATA PROCESSING CYCLE ORIGINOUTPUT INPUT PROCESSING
Input The data or source information entering the system to beprocessed by a computer. Input may also be computer programsthat will process the data. Processing The orderly planned actions by the computer (sorting,classifying, calculating, and other data operations) with theinformation or data that is entered into the system. Output The results of processed data or information. The outputmay be sent to a disk, CD or USB flash drive (soft copy) or to apainter (hard copy).
Input Activities1. Coding data has been transformed into more concise.2. Editing the elimination of data that are not needed for processing.3. Verifying the checking of accuracy of the coded data.
Processing Activities1. Recording documentation of data In order to produced an information.2. Sorting Arrange data in space order such as: ascending, descending.3. Classifying Groups data into categories.4. Calculating Refers to computation perform on data either in the same storage.5. Summarizing Refers to aggregation of data such as: total, average and standard deviation.
Output activities1. Reproducing Refers in making copies of data either in the same storage.2. Storing Placing similar data into farther references.3. Retrieving Recovering the data stored.
What is ICT? INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) encompasses theuse of computers, telecommunications, and office systems technologies.There are types of components to consider in creating an ICT resource:1. tools to access services, most obviously telephone and personal computers.2. telecommunication links that course the tools to those services.3. transaction processing hardware and software, and4. Information stores.
I. According to size Supercomputers Supercomputers are widely used in specific applications such as aerodynamic design stimulation, processing of geological data. Supercomputers are most powerful computers. Because of their size and expense, supercomputers are relatively rare. Supercomputers are used by universities, government agencies, and large businesses.
Mainframe Computers Mainframe Computers are usually slower, less powerful andless expensive than supercomputers.
Minicomputers Are smaller than mainframe, general purpose computers, and givecomputing power without adding the prohibit expenses associated with largersystems.
Workstations• Powerful single-user computers.• Used for tasks that require a great deal of number-crunching power, such as product design and computer animation.• Often used as network and Internet servers.
Microcomputers Microcomputer or Personal Computer is the smallest, least expensive of all computers. Personal Computers (PC) Laptop Desktop Palm Top Tablet
II. According to Technology Analog Computers These computers recognize data as continuous measurementof a physical property (voltage, pressure, speed and temperature). Example: Automobile speedometer Digital Computers These are high speed programmable electronic devices thatperform mathematical calculations, compare values and store results. Hybrid Computers A computer that processes both analog and digital data.
III. According to purpose General Purpose Computers A machine that is capable of carrying out some generaldata processing under program control. Special Computers A computer that is designed to operate on an restrictedclass of problems.
ACCORDING TOCAPACITY1.Microcomputers2.Minicomputers3.Super computers4.Mainframe computers
HISTORY OF COMPUTERCharles Babbagefather of modern computer CharlesWilliam “Bill” Gates Babbage monopolize computer 1993 ( most powerful people) he establish the microsoft company rated 53rd among the youngest at William “Bill” age of 37 among the chief executive. Gates 1997 ( ranked 2nd)Lady Augusta Ada ByronWorld’s first programmer.Wrote a demonstration program for Lady Augusta Babbage’s Analytical Engine. Ada Byron
THREE TYPES OF DEVICESI. Manual Mechanical Devices These are devices powered by hand inhand physical effort from the user.Abacus is the first manual data processing device developed in China in the 12th century.
Napier’s Bone is a set of rods, made of bone or ivory, each divided into nine spaces, and containing the numbers of a column of the multiplication table. This was invented by John Napier in 1617 for facilitating the operations of multiplication and division.
Gunter and Oughtred’s Slide Rule is a ruler upon which are marked several graduated scales that may be moved relative to one another so that certain calculations may be carried out. This was invented by Englishmen Edmund Gunter and William Oughtred.
Pascal’sPascaline is the gear-driven machine that can be used to add and subtract by means of rotating toothed wheels. This was invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642.
Leibniz’s Calculator utilizes the same techniques for addition and subtraction asPascal’s device but could also perform multiplication and division as well asextract square roots. This was invented by Baron Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz in1674.
Babbage’s Analytical Engine was designed to use two types of cards one called operation cards to indicate the specific functions to be performed and other called variable cards to specify the actual data. This was invented by Charles Babbage in 1882. Babbage is known as the “Father of Computing”. Lady Augusta Ada Byron is known as the world’s first programmer and wrote a demonstration program for Babbage’s Analytical Engine.
II. Electromechanical Devices These are devices powered by electric motorand uses relays and switches.Hollerith’s Punched-Card Machine is a machine invented by Herman Hollerith in 1880 to tabulate census data more efficiently than by traditional hand methods.
Jacquard’s Loom is a weaving machine or a mechanical loom that used punched cards to weave fabric in a variety of patterns. This was invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1804.
Harvard Mark I or Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator was an early form of the digital computer controlled by electromechanical relays or switching devices. The electrical engineer and physicist Howard H. Aiken of Hardvard University together with the assistance of IBM and its engineers built in 1943.
III. Electronic Devices These are devices h=which use onlyelectrical switches and circuitry instead ofmechanical relays and consist of circuit board,transistors or silicon chips.Atanasoff-Berry Computer was the first digital computer that used binary logic circuitry and had regenerative memory. This was invented by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry in 1942.
Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was the first large-scale vacuum-tube computer. This was invented by John Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly in 1943 to 1946.
Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) was a modern version of ENIAC, which used the stored-program concept and the binary arithmetic concept or the von Neumann’s concept. Dr. John von Neumann a Hungarian- born mathematician, proposed the idea that programs could be coded as numbers and stored with data in a computer’s memory.
Electronic Delayed Storage Automatic Computer (EDSAC) was the first full-scale computer with electronic stored programs Maurice V. Wilkes and his team at the University of Cambridge constructed the EDSAC.
Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC) was the first generation computer sold by Remington Rand Companies in 1951. Developed by Eckert and Mauchly.
IV.Computer GenerationsFirst Generation-1940- 1955: Vacuum Tubes The first computers used vacuum lubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for
Second Generation- 1956-1963: Transistors Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the
Third Generation- 1964-1970: Integrated Circuits The development of the integrated circuit was the
Fourth Generation-1971- Present: Microprocessors The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computer, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip.
Fifth Generation-Present and Beyond: Artificial Intelligence (AI) Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development though there are some
COMPUTER SYSTEMWhat is Computer System? COMPUTER SYSTEM consists of devices, programs, operating aids andprocedures required to prepare and to process date, and the personnelwho keep these elements efficiently functioning.
II. HARDWARE Hardware-physical component of the computer system involved in data processing.a. Input Devices Keyboard-is the most commonly used input device to enter information or commands into the computer. Mouse-is a hand-sized input devices with control buttons used to move the pointer on screen. trackpad-is a small, touch-sensitive pad, usually a couple of inches square, which acts as an alternative to a mouse on laptop or notebook computers. Light pen-is an input device that utilizes a light-sensitive detector to select objects on a display screen.
Optical mark reader-was designed initially to readpenciled and graphic information on exam answer sheets.Scanner-is a device that can read text or illustrationsprinted on paper and translate the information into aform the computer can use.Digital camera-is a device that records images in digitalform.Microphone-is a device for converting sound waves intoelectrical energy.Web camera-is a camera that is in some way connected tothe world wide web or internet.Joystick-is used in most video games to enter the player’schoices when playing computer games.
Touch screen-is a type of display screen that has a touch-sensitive transparent panel covering the screen.Digitalizing tablet-is an output device that enables youto enter drawings and sketches into a computer.Stylus-is a pointing and drawing device shaped like a pen.Bar code reader-is an output device used to scan apattern of lines using optical sensing techniques.Sensor-is a device which responds to an output quantityby generating a functionally related output usually inthe form of an electrical or optical signal.
Optical character recognition-permits users to input printed or typewritten documents with a scanner. Voice recognition-is used either to control a computer’s operations and to issue commands to special application programs or to allow users to dictate into a computer using a microphone.B. Ouput devices Monitor-consists of a device that takes signals from a computer and displays them on a crt or lct screen. Printer-is a peripheral that uses ribbon, ink or toner to output documents, images, and plain text files onto paper. Plotter-is a device for reducing bar charts, maps, architectural drawings, and even three-dimensional illustrations.
Speaker-is a device used to produce sound. Modern-modulates the computer output to an acceptable signal for transmission and then demodulates the signal back for computer input.C.MEMORY-storage devices memory-storage devices are used for storing dataand operating programs through the input devices for theuse of the cpu.
Main Memory • Random-access memory (RAM) chips. As a computer processes data and instructions, it temporarily stores information internally or in its ram chips. • Read-only memory (rom) chips. The switches of rom chips are set when they are manufactured and are unchangeable.
Secondary or auxiliary memory units supplement the mainmemory by holding parts of programs that are too largeto fit into the random-access memory at one time.• Floppy disk drive is computer hardware that holds and spins a magnetic or optical disk and reads and writes information on it.• Hard disk drive is a rigid magnetic disk mounted in a drive unit
• Optical Disk is a direct-access disk.• Usb (universal serial bus) flash drive is a form of a DIGITAL STORAGE DRIVE.
D. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) CPU IS THE BRAIN OF THE COMPUTER. SOMETIMESREFFERED TO SIMPLY AS THE PROCESSOR OR CENTRALPROCESSOR, THE CPU IS WHERE MOST CALCULATIONS TAKE PLACE.
ARITHMETIC /LOGIC UNIT. IS THE PART OF A COMPUTER THAT PERFORMS ALL ARITHMETICAL COMPUTATIONS.CONTROL UNIT SUPERVISES OR MONITORS THE FUNCTIONS PERFORMED BY ENTIRE COMPUTER SYSTEM ACCORDING TO CONDITIONS SET FORTH BY STORED PROGRAM.MEMORY UNIT IS SOMEWHAT LIKE AN ELECTRONIC FILING CABINET CAPABLE OF HOLDING DATA OR INSTRUCTIONS.
III. SOFTWARE SOFTWARE REFERS TO A GROUP OF COMPUTER PROGRAMS.SYSTEM SOFTWARE CONSISTS OF PROGRAMS DESIGNED TO FACILITATE THE USE OF THE CONPUTER BY THE USER.oOPERATING SYSTEM IS A SET OF PROGRAMS DESIGNED TO EFFICIENTLY MANAGE THE RESOURCES OF THE COMPUTER SYSTEM.oLANGUAGE TRANSLATOR IS A SYSTEM PROGRAM THAT CONVERTS THE ENGLISH-LIKE INSTRUCTIONS USED BY THE COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS INTO THE MACHINE-READABLE CODE USED BY THE HARDWARE.oUTILITY PROGRAM PERFORMS SUCH STANDARD TASKS AS ORGANIZING AND MAINTAINING DATA FILES.
APPLICATION SOFTWARE IS A TYPE OF PROGRAM THAT SOLVES SPECIFIC USER-ORIENTED PROCESSING PROBLEMS.oWORD PROCESSOR IS A PROGRAM THAT ACCEPTS WORDS TYPES INTO A COMPUTER AND PROCESSES THEM TO PRODUCE EDITED TEXT.oDESKTOP PUBLISHING SYSTEM IS A SYSTEM THAT ALLOWS YOU TO USE DIFFERENT TYPEFACES, SPECIFIES VARIOUS MARGINS AND JUSTIFICATIONS AND EMBEDS ILLUSTRATTIONS AND GRAPHD DIRECTLY INTO THE TEXT.oSPREADSHEET IS A COMPUTER PROGRAM THAT LETS PEOPLE ELECTRONICALLY CREATE AND MANIPULATE SPREADSHEETS.oDATABASE MANAGEMENT IS A SET OF PROGRAMS NECESSARY TO FACILITATE ADDING NEW DATA AS WELL AS MODIFYING AND RETRIEVING OF EXISTING DATA WITHIN A DATABSE.
oELECTRONIC GAME IS AN INTERACTIVE HARDWARE OR SOFTWARE PLAYED FOR ENTERTAINMENT CHALLENGE, OR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES.oGRAPHIC PACKAGES ARE COMPUTER PROGRAMS THAT ENABLE USERS TO CREATE HIGHLY STYLIZED IMAGES FOR SLIDE PRESENTATIONS AND REPORTS.ROGUE SOFTWARE IS ANY PROGRAM THAT RUNS ON THE COMPUTER WITHOUT THE user’s KNOWLEDGE AND CONSENT.oBACK DOOR OR TRAP DOOR IS A SPECIAL PASSWORD OR STARTUP CODE THAT IS PROGRAMMED TO BYPASS NORMAL SECURITY PRCEDURES.
oLOGIC BoMBS are planted in another program by a mischievous programmer.oWorms are self-contained programs that replicate by creating copies of them.oVirus attaches itself to a program.