Integration of Transport & Land-use: The case of the Leiden-Gouda area
Integration oftransport & land-use The case of the Leiden - Gouda area Delft, Jasper Bras
Integration of transport and land-use: The case of the Leiden - Gouda area Delft, 24th Januari 2013 Thesis plan MSc Urbanism Architecture, Uranism and Building Sciences Student Jasper Bras 1402579 J.Bras@student.tudelft.nl www.jasperbras.nl Mentors 1st mentor Prof. V. (Vincent) Nadin V.Nadin@tudelft.nl 2nd mentor Prof. dr. W.A.M. (Wil) Zonneveld W.A.M.Zonneveld@tudelft.nl External committee member A.S. (Alper) Alkan MA A.S.Alkan@tudelft.nlCover image: In support of:Satellite image of landscape MSc3 UranismLeiden to Gouda Thesis Plan (AR3U022)(Google Earth, 2012) Graduation Lab Urbanism (AR3U100)Univerity of Science Chair Graduation studioTU Delft Complex cities &Faculty of Architecture Spatial Planning and Strategy Regions in Transformation
Summary S Summary This summary of the explains the structure research project. This master thesis contains a comprehensive on concepts and models which support and multi-disciplinary research on the integrated transport planning, such as ‘Transit integration of transport infrastructure and land- Oriented Development’ (TOD). Because of the use. ‘The Rijn Gouwe Lijn’ (RGL), a rail project multi-dimensional content this research, the which connects the area between Leiden and theoretical framework shows the structure of Gouda is chosen as a case study. The research the TIP-model (Koppenjan & Groenewegen, is comprehensive in the sense that studies 2005), and follows this structure in ﬁnding are done according to three dimensions for speciﬁc concepts within the spatial, institutional ‘complex technological systems’ such as railway and process dimension. This means that the infrastructure: technical (space), institutions and research goes further than spatial development process – derived from the conceptual ‘TIP- concepts as TOD; from the institutional model’ of Koppenjan and Groenewegen (2005). perspective organizational models are investigated that support the spatial concepts The research of this master thesis draws on and the integration of policies. In terms of some critical issues and major developments, process, strategic spatial planning approaches which contribute to a changing practice and funding mechanisms are explained. of spatial planning in the Netherlands: the Subsequently, research criteria or indicators are constraints around integration of infrastructure derived from the theoretical concepts, which planning and spatial development, and the can be used for the empirical analysis of the related issues of governance at regional case study area in order to ﬁnd answers to the level, between provincial and municipal research questions. The case study is regarded administration – also known as the ‘regional as the speciﬁc ﬁeld study. gap’. Both issues come together with projects in regional transport infrastructure. Within The Rijn Gouwe Lijn (RGL) is used as a case this context two main research questions study to address these issues. The east-part deﬁne the subject of research, the ﬁrst for of this project is a railway line, running from addressing the issues at the case study, the Leiden to Gouda. This project is relevant second for proposing (alternative) design because it crosses various municipal territories. recommendations: Also the project is known of it’s the difﬁculties around the decision-making process. The • What are the issues of governance empirical research on this project (from the between local planning agencies, around perspective of space, institutions and process) the integration of sectoral polices on shows that there was no or little governance mobility and land-use and around the culture at involved public authorities for implementation of a transport infrastructure integration of policies on mobility and land-use. project such as the Rijn Gouwe Lijn at Also supporting integral concepts or visions on regional level? the project where missing. Thirdly, the study reveals the potentials of regional partnerships • What planning mechanism can address to ﬁll the ‘regional gap’ between municipalities issues of governance, facilitate integration of and provincial government. policies and support the implementation of such a project? Based on the results of the case study and with the knowledge of various theoretical concepts The research is inductive: it starts with an related to integrated transport planning, some observation study on the spatial planning recommendations have been done which practice within the Netherlands, including the ultimately have been translated to (alternative) current issues and developments within this spatial, institutional and process design system that might inﬂuence large infrastructure proposals for the project and its region – the projects (appendix A). This stage, the general design of artifacts. ﬁeld study, is followed by a literature study Fig. 0.1 Research methodology: inductive research Fig. 0.2 Adapted satellite image of landscape 2 between Leiden & Gouda Summary 3
A Acknowledgements I would like to thank all the persons who contributed to the graduation project. Inquiries with experts, citizens, and other respondents - the interviewees from the provine of Zuid-Holland, the municipality of Zoeterwoude, the regional partnership Holland Rijnland, the former alderman of the municipality of Leiden, the Chamber of Commerce (KvK) and ProRail. Also I would like to emphasize Procap for their willingness to get me the right information, the project organization of the Rijn Gouwe Lijn who kept me informed on the recent developments around the project and the association ‘Deltametropool’ who helped me with some of the empirical analysis. My special thanks go out to my parents, who always have been there for me. They supported me in my studies since I started at the Intermediate Vocational Education (MBO). It is doubtful if I would have achieved this level without their mental support. Last but not least, I would like to thank Vincent Nadin and Wil Zonneveld for their mentorship. They allowed me to study spatial planning issues that caught my personal interest, and supported me to involve studies on other disciplines such as public management. Jasper Bras Delft, November 2012Fig. 0.3 Traditionally a photograph of everygraduation student within the studio ComplexCities is taken, in order to promote thesubject of research. Acknowledgements 5
P Preface“…to this day, the Dutch commit almost everything to paper – the written word is sacred. There If we think of large scale infrastructure projects in the Netherlandsis a certain distrust of oral agreements. If an oral agreement is made, and it is to a certain extent that have been developed recently we might come to the conclusion that the number of completed projects in terms of rail infrastructure isofficial, the parties prefer to follow it up with a written confirmation, which often concludes with very limited. And if someone might ask to give a successful examplethe qualification that the agreement is valid unless statement is made to contrary. The written of a railway line that has been developed last years it is hard to giveword is law.” – Van der Horst (1996) pp. 136 a positive answer to this. We probably all know the ‘Betuwelijn’ or the recently completed ‘HSL’ (FYRA) (both connecting the Netherlands with its neighbouring countries), because of the issues around these projects; the extraordinary budget and their outranging costs in particular. It even might be argued that such projects have put large railway projects in a negative perspective. But also projects of smaller scale have been realized, at regional level: the ‘Randstadrail’ for example – a tramline that connects The Hague and Rotterdam. This project is probably more successful, partly because the line has been built together with its surroundings. Nevertheless, what these projects have in common is that they are deﬁned by high complexity; for instance, they require participation of many different stakeholders and ask for integral planning approaches because these projects interact with their spatial and programmatic environment. The research of this master thesis draws on these constraints regarding integration of infrastructure planning and spatial development, and addresses the related issues of governance at regional level, between provincial and municipal administration - the ‘regional gap’. Both issues come together with projects in regional transport infrastructure. In order to understand the context of this ‘arena’ the thesis contains a survey on the system of spatial planning in the Netherlands, including the latest practices related to integrated transport planning. Secondly, in order to ﬁnd potential and appropriate concepts that anticipate on these critical issues, various theories on integrated transport planning (e.g. nodal development or ‘transit oriented development’) and regional governance (e.g. institutional capacity building) are derived from literature research. As part of the empirical research, a regional transport infrastructure project has been taken as a case study: the ‘Rijn Gouwe Lijn’ (RGL) between Leiden and Gouda. In this case the critical issues regarding regional transport infrastructure are addressed and appropriate concepts from the theoretical study are applied. Preface 7
T Table of content Table of content Summary 3 2.4.1 Strategic spatial planning 68 2.4.2 Funding mechanisms 70 Acknowledgements 5 2.4.3 How to apply at the case study? 71 2.5 The empirical assessment 72 Preface 7 2.3.1 The purposes of the empirical research 72 2.3.2 Studies on spatial & programmatic implications 72 Reader 13 2.3.3 Studies on institutional capacity & process 73 2.3.4 From case study to alternative design, and further 74 Organization 15 3 The case of the RGL 77 1 Introduction 17 3.1 Rijn Gouwe Lijn: the details 78 1.1 Rationale for this study 19 3.1.1 Project agreements 78 1.2 Problem analysis & motivation 21 3.1.2 The crucial steps in decision making 79 1.3 Problem statement 25 3.1.3 The organization behind the RGL 81 1.4 Aims & research questions 26 3.2 The spatial and programmatic implications 84 1.5 Research approach 29 3.2.1 The spatial characteristics of the region 85 1.5.1 Research components 29 3.2.2 The spatial and programmatic embeddedness of the RGL 89 1.5.2 Research methodology 31 3.2.3 The station typologies 93 1.6 Introduction of the case study area 33 3.2.4 The municipal plans for spatial development 100 1.6.1 Policies on infrastructure development 33 3.2.5 Conclusion of the spatial studies 100 1.6.2 Geographical conditions 33 3.3 The institutional capacity & steering process 102 1.6.3 Territories 37 3.3.1 The legal powers 102 1.6.4 Use of data for empirical research 37 3.3.2 The interests and ambitions 104 3.3.3 Sectors, territories and organizations 109 2 Integrative concepts from theory 39 3.3.4 The degree of operation: integration, coordination or coordination? 111 3.3.5 The role of the regional partnerships 113 2.1 Space, institutions, process 40 3.3.6 Governance culture 115 2.2 Spatial concepts of integrated transport planning 42 2.2.1 Physical elements: nfrastructure & land-use 42 4 Conclusion & recommendations 117 2.2.2 Morphological elements: types of development 43 2.2.3 Transit oriented development 47 4.1 Conclusions case study 118 2.2.4 How to apply at the case study? 50 4.2 (Design) recommendations for case study 122 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment 51 4.2.1 Strategic spatial planning (process) 125 2.3.1 Types of institutions and their relations 51 4.2.2 Transit oriented development (space) 126 2.3.2 Institutional arrangements: ‘the mutual fit’ 55 4.2.3 Institutional framework (institutions) 133 2.3.3 Adjustment of policies: integration, coordination, cooperation 55 4.3 Recommendations to similar projects in the Netherlands 136 2.3.4 Resources 61 4.4 Recommendations for future research 139 2.3.5 Capacity building 64 2.3.6 How to apply at the case study? 66 2.4 Strategic planning and integratel funding concepts 678 9
Table of content 5 Bibliography 141 5.1 Literature 142 5.2 Illustrations 148 6 Appendix 151 A Spatial planning in the Netherlands B RGL project agreement: financial distribution C Empirical analysis of the case study area D Analysis SprintStad (Deltametropool) E List of interviewees F Reflection10 11
Reader R Reader Before the content of the thesis is part of subject it is helpful to get an idea of how this thesis 1 1 Sec on is structured and how this thesis can be red. Therefore the Lay-out of the thesis and the Structure of the thesis are being explained first. Title Introduction • Number of chapter • Title Plan Thesis About The rst section contains the thesis plan. This is the proposal for graduation with the thesis as the end product. In the rst • Summary • Keywords Lay out Structure of thesis paragraph the Organization of the study and the studio is explained (1.1). The second paragraph contains the Rationale for this study where the discourse and the relevance of the study are being explained (1.2). In Introducing & framing the objectives • Overview of paragraph (1.3) several elements which are taking part of the research are mentioned. This is followed by the Context (1.4) introducing the sight, the project area where the analytical studies are about. The Problem statement (1.5) contains the problem where the research based on. This paragraph is followed by the Aims & research questions (1.6) containing the theoretical and analytical aims, the main research question and sub-questions for the research. The research strategy and methodology are being explained in Research approach (1.7) followed by the Expected outcomes in (1.8). The section will be ended with Phasing & time schedule placing the research in time (1.9). Keywords Thesis plan - Organization - Decentralization - Relevance The lay out of this thesis contains different page This thesis is divided into seven chapters. styles. The ﬁrst section (1) Introduction is in fact the Paragraphs #1.1 #1.2 #1.3 Organization Rationale for this study Introducting and framing the objectives thesis plan where all further chapters will are introduced; it contains the proposal for the #1.4 Context #1.5 Problem statement #1.6 Aims & research questions research. #1.7 Research approach #1.8 Expected outcomes #1.9 Phasing & time schedule • Illustration 1 Sec on page 12 1. Introduction /// Thesis plan /// Jasper Bras /// Fig. 1.1 Adapted image of note (Martintolley, 2012) 13 In the second chapter (2) Theoretical framework, First there are pages which introduce a new various theoretical models and concepts are chapter. These pages contain a brief summary explained which are relevant for the research. and introduction of the elements that are This section is the framework for the empirical 2.2 Planning instruments 2. Theoretical framework discussed in the chapter, several keywords and study. It provides supporting information for 2 Paragraph In this paragraph several planning instruments will be discussed. These are theoretical planning models which can be used in practice. Because every planning model is being visions (SV) which are more exible and less restrictive than the ones they had to develop take a broader view into consideration and seek collaboration: ‘To incorporate mutual an overview of the paragraphs which are part of practice. the section. before (Rijksoverheid, 2011; Gier, 2011). In interdependencies between neighbouring created from another perspective they will be compared. Out of this paragraph one model or practice the policy encourages provinces and municipalities’ (Hulst & Van Montfort, 2007). a combination of models which seems to be the most suitable for an adaption in practice will municipalities to develop within their own Doing so a single SV will evolve partly into a urban borders. Spatial developments within bigger planning context: the inter-municipal The third chapter (3) is the Empirical assessment. be projected on the case study area. Before the alternative planning instruments from theory • Number of paragraph the municipal borders can have an impact on structure vision (ISV). The term inter-municipal are being mentioned, the current models of spatial planning (2.2.1) Recent developments externalities across those borders where local implies that the vision is cross-border (Hulst & on spatial planning in NL and spatial policies (2.2.2) Wro & structure visions, used in the authorities don’t have to be held responsible Van Montfort, 2007) and involves more than for (Needham, 2011). Due to the retreatment of one municipal territory). Over the past years This section contains the research around the Netherlands will be addressed. In (2.2.3) Strategic spatial planning approaches, the planning national planning policy these con icts will be the rst ISV’s have seen the light – Zuidplas • Title models from theory will be discussed, followed by the capacity of planning instruments to covered less. (Stuurgroep Driehoek RZG Zuidplas, 2006) change structures of Governance (2.2.4). In each sub-paragraph solutions will be addressed. and Greenport Boskoop (BVR & TAUW, 2009). In the current situation municipalities and In practice these visions are solely developed case study area. provincial governments rst have to develop from economic perspectives and are not based a SV (article 124 of the Dutch constitution) • Summary on scienti c sources, for there is no theoretical 2.2.1 Recent developments on (2010). In his inaugural speech at the TU Delft to make it more explicit in a later phase. spatial planning in NL Fragmentation and Structure: Challenges for spatial research and policy he relates the theory of fragmentation in both governance and space This ne tuning will be done in a so called ‘bestemmingsplan’ (regulation plan) on municipal level, and an ‘inpassingsplan’ framework nor clear de nition of an ISV, and there are no directives to support the practice. 2 Paragraph page • Title of sub-paragraph The history of Dutch spatial planning can be to the Dutch context - in accordance with the (adjustment plan) on provincial and national earlier statement of Kanie (2011), the different scale. These plans have a juridical character. typed as the integrated comprehensive model 2.2.3 Strategic spatial planning The thesis will be ended with a section of (Nadin, 2010) which can be interpreted as a types of government addressed by Hooghe Except for the ‘inpassingsplans’ which become planning model that provides solutions for and Marks (2003) and the SSP approaches of less restrictive compared to former provincial approaches everything (Albrechts, 2006). This model of Albrechts (2004; 2006). They all acknowledge a ‘streekplan’ and the former national ‘PKB’ There are also pages that introduce a new government-led spatial planning became over need for new types of (sub-level) governance (Planological Key Decisions Rijksoverheid, What are strategic spatial plans (SSP) and in together with new exible formats of spatial Conclusion and recommendations (4), which also the years no longer suf cient over the years 2008). As a result municipalities have more how far do they differ from the project plans to meet market demands (Hajer, 2003). One of planning. These innovative forms should answer freedom in their decision making process. (as was the case within the comprehensive the purposes of the decentralization process the unde ned exibility in recent shifts within integrated model of planning in the NL)? paragraph. Each paragraph is introduced very in the spatial planning policies is to stimulate the Dutch system of spatial planning. It should be kept in mind that the number Whereas a project plan is more conformance of scienti c sources which are describing the includes design alternatives for the case study new SSP practises which are more orientated based, strategic plan is more performance towards the involvement of a variety of actors The decentralization process (in the use of a spatial SV in the Netherlands are very based (more focused on quality instead (like actor-network theory or collaborative Netherlands) can have a positive impact when limited – except for (Van den Donker, 2005; of quantity) (Albrechts, 2006). According shortly at the top of the page. This part is planning) (Healey, 2003, 2007). But as long making ‘a proper institutional design’, but can Liefferink, 2011) – while in practice the use of to Albrechts (2004, 2006) we might say in as there is no proven alternative or no clear also lead to fragmentation (Kanie, 2011). In SV’s are obligated by the Dutch planning law terms of plans: master plan/land-use plans area. guidelines these decision might have (negative) order to make an institutional design succeed it Wro. According to Liefferink (2011) the spatial vs. strategic plans; in terms of planning type: spatial consequences. A shift towards a more is necessary to create a proper network among SV can be classi ed as strategic spatial plan and legal regulation vs. framework; in terms various decentralized actors and to ensure that not as a project plan which has the character written in another font. decentralized spatial planning might lead to a of governance type: government-led vs. further differentiation in the spatial structure the framework is exible. Regarding theory of a so called ‘blue print plan’ This means that government-led-but-negotiated form of within regions (Needham, 2011). Based on it becomes clear that such an institutional for better exploration of scienti c sources a governance. Or we de ne the differences: these recent developments in spatial planning design can be part of a SSP (Albrechts, 2004; (inter-municipal) SV can be better addressed as policies the Dutch model will not be that Allmendinger & Haughton, 2009). A further a strategic spatial plan for a speci c territory, project plan (blue-print plan): comprehensive anymore but takes another explanation of this instrument can be found in a albeit the fact a SSP implies more than a vision conformance based / comprehensive / The Bibliography can be ﬁnd in chapter (5), direction towards a still unde ned exibility. speci c chapter at the end of this paper. (Albrechts, 2004). land use planning / government-led / regulation plan; strategic spatial plan: performance followed by the Appendix (6), which also Flexible instrument: Strategic spatial 2.2.2 Wro & structure visions Possible instrument: Inter-municipal based / selective / actor engaging / planning structure vision government-led-but-negotiated-form of governance / providing a framework Introduced in 2008 by the Rijksoverheid (for actions). Governments are compelled by the Wro to The current shifts in the spatial planning system (2011) the Wro (Wet ruimtelijke ordening) law contains a survey of the spatial planning produce their own SV. In order to minimize and the related problems in the Netherlands obliges governments on national, provincial Where comprehensive planning is hierarchical undesired externalities as a result of their are being acknowledged by Zonneveld and municipal level to make structure and persuasive, strategic spatial planning is planning activities, it seems logical that they 48 2. Theoretical framework /// Thesis plan /// Jasper Bras /// 2.2 Theoretical framework 49 3 Regular page context: the system and daily practice of spatial 1.2 Rationale for this study planning in the Netherlands. The norms, values, 1. Introduction Then there are the regular pages which contain instruments and authorities regarding spatial When it comes to spatial development around this infrastructure there seems to be little consensuses. Both provincial and municipal It could be argued that the role of the urban planner or designer (what both could be typed as urbanist) play an important role in only text, text supported with illustrations planning are explained in this study. (always on the left side), or pages with only tiers of government do not have adjusted this. Therefore the urbanist needs to have their spatial visions for locations around the the capacity to not only understand these line. With the retreating of higher tiers of urbanization processes but also needs to know government both municipalities and province how to deal with, how to participate and how to need to operate more coherent when it comes to spatial planning, especially because this location is not labelled as a national ‘key region’ (mainport, brainport or greenport). intervene within this complexity. 2. Different arenas 3 Regular illustrations. For the role of an urbanist there could be made Academic relevance a distinction between the developed countries, the developing countries and the undeveloped • Title & number of section countries which are all dealing with According to Needham (2011) the amount of urbanization processes but on a different way. research that has been done on the impact of Next to this it is important to realize political policies on the structure of spatial development structures, economic powers and socio-cultural is limited. It is even harder to nd attempts backgrounds – which are in uencing the role of • Title & number of paragraph which formulate integral strategies answering an urbanist – differ between countries. these con icts. In the work of Zonneveld (2010) similar observations are addressed. By doing analytical research on this project • Explanation of illustration 3. The task of an urbanist location, followed by an attempt to apply planning instruments from theory as an To continue with the ethics of an urbanist it the alternative for the current mechanism, I hope tasks of this profession need to be considered to gain new useful information which could be rst. • Page number & chapter added to current spatial planning approaches. What should be the task of an Urbanist? Allmendinger and Haughton (2009) mention that the task of an urbanist has shifted: ‘…it Ethical relevance could be argued that planners are not central to • Page number & paragraph the governance processes (…) in essence, they are Ethical relevance in terms of urban planning and part of a fragmented landscape of governance, design is can be interpreted in many different whose complexity seems to require coordination ways. In this paragraph I try to address some not at one particular privileged sector, but of these interpretations. Ethical relevance in instead through some complex, tangled terms of recent developments (the urgency of networks operating across scales and sectors.’ our profession) (1), the context or the working (Allmendinger and Haughton, 2009: 629) eld wherein a planner operates (2), the tasks of an urban planner (3), urban planning in con ict To continue with: ‘So planners, and others areas (4) and the need of urban planning in the involved in the development process, are not context of the Netherlands (5). only coordinating across different spaces and sectors, but also negotiating the resultant different time scales.’ and ‘the other aspect of delivery which planners are starting to have to 1. Urgency of our profession deal with more thoroughly than in the past is the complexity of funding streams involved in Especially in these times where rapid processes large-scale regeneration.’ (Allmendinger and of urbanization are taking place all around the Haughton, 2009: 629) Despite of the fact that world, the essence of understanding these this is about the UK it might also count for the processes becomes increasingly important. Netherlands where similar processes are going Fig. 1.1 wefwefawfawfawfewaewaefaw (www. 18 1. Introduction /// Thesis plan /// Jasper Bras /// 1.2 Rationale for this study 1912 Reader /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras Reader 13
Organization O Organization of the department In order to understand the discourse wherein this study is taking place it is important to understand the structure of the study and to know the philosophy of the graduation studio. This will be explained in this paragraph. This gradua on project is taking place within the Macroeconomics studio of Complex Ci es. This gradua on studio is a specializa on of the master track Urbanism within the master programme Architecture, Urbanism and Political science Building Sciences of the Faculty of Architecture, at the TU Del . The studio is organized by Spa al Planning and Strategy, a core chair of the faculty. Both the studio and the chair are led by Professor Social Physical Vincent Nadin and assisted by prac ce professor Joost Schrijnen. Professor Wil Zonneveld holds a sciences Public management sciences joint post with the OTB Research Ins tute with & governance whom there is much collabora on. The studio deals with the complexity of contemporary ci es. The urban planners and designers who join the studio try to understand the urban processes and the network of ci es within Sociology Interdisciplinary Trafﬁc & transport the global society, its economy and its high quality ﬁeld of this engineering services. Despite the fact that the global network research is increasingly determining the global city, each urban region characterized by its own climate, cultural background and ethnical background Social geography e.g. Urban planners and designers study on these Spatial & urban rela ons of the contemporary global ci es with an environmental, economic, social and poli cal planning diversity, connected to both global and local networks. Within this network they try to propose Spatial form design interven ons which may increase the capacity of the urban regions and local places. Design Fig. 3 Interdisciplinary ﬁeld of this research Organization 15
1 Title Introduction About The ﬁrst section contains the thesis plan. This is the proposal for graduation wich also pays attention to he outlines for the research: the arguments and motivation for this study, a problem deﬁnition and the aims for research. The section also introduces the research approach, the methodology and contains an introduction of the case tudy. Keywords Thesis plan - Rationale - Motivation - Problem statement - Methodology - Case study Paragraphs #1.1 Rationale for this study #1.2 Problem analysis & motivation #1.3 Problem statement #1.4 Aims & research questions #1.5 Research approach #1.6 Introduction of the case study area16 Fig. 1.1 Photograph: station area Leiden 17
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