Integration of Transport & Land-use: The case of the Leiden-Gouda area

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  • 1. Integration oftransport & land-use The case of the Leiden - Gouda area Delft, Jasper Bras
  • 2. Integration of transport and land-use: The case of the Leiden - Gouda area Delft, 24th Januari 2013 Thesis plan MSc Urbanism Architecture, Uranism and Building Sciences Student Jasper Bras 1402579 J.Bras@student.tudelft.nl www.jasperbras.nl Mentors 1st mentor Prof. V. (Vincent) Nadin V.Nadin@tudelft.nl 2nd mentor Prof. dr. W.A.M. (Wil) Zonneveld W.A.M.Zonneveld@tudelft.nl External committee member A.S. (Alper) Alkan MA A.S.Alkan@tudelft.nlCover image: In support of:Satellite image of landscape MSc3 UranismLeiden to Gouda Thesis Plan (AR3U022)(Google Earth, 2012) Graduation Lab Urbanism (AR3U100)Univerity of Science Chair Graduation studioTU Delft Complex cities &Faculty of Architecture Spatial Planning and Strategy Regions in Transformation
  • 3. Summary S Summary This summary of the explains the structure research project. This master thesis contains a comprehensive on concepts and models which support and multi-disciplinary research on the integrated transport planning, such as ‘Transit integration of transport infrastructure and land- Oriented Development’ (TOD). Because of the use. ‘The Rijn Gouwe Lijn’ (RGL), a rail project multi-dimensional content this research, the which connects the area between Leiden and theoretical framework shows the structure of Gouda is chosen as a case study. The research the TIP-model (Koppenjan & Groenewegen, is comprehensive in the sense that studies 2005), and follows this structure in finding are done according to three dimensions for specific concepts within the spatial, institutional ‘complex technological systems’ such as railway and process dimension. This means that the infrastructure: technical (space), institutions and research goes further than spatial development process – derived from the conceptual ‘TIP- concepts as TOD; from the institutional model’ of Koppenjan and Groenewegen (2005). perspective organizational models are investigated that support the spatial concepts The research of this master thesis draws on and the integration of policies. In terms of some critical issues and major developments, process, strategic spatial planning approaches which contribute to a changing practice and funding mechanisms are explained. of spatial planning in the Netherlands: the Subsequently, research criteria or indicators are constraints around integration of infrastructure derived from the theoretical concepts, which planning and spatial development, and the can be used for the empirical analysis of the related issues of governance at regional case study area in order to find answers to the level, between provincial and municipal research questions. The case study is regarded administration – also known as the ‘regional as the specific field study. gap’. Both issues come together with projects in regional transport infrastructure. Within The Rijn Gouwe Lijn (RGL) is used as a case this context two main research questions study to address these issues. The east-part define the subject of research, the first for of this project is a railway line, running from addressing the issues at the case study, the Leiden to Gouda. This project is relevant second for proposing (alternative) design because it crosses various municipal territories. recommendations: Also the project is known of it’s the difficulties around the decision-making process. The • What are the issues of governance empirical research on this project (from the between local planning agencies, around perspective of space, institutions and process) the integration of sectoral polices on shows that there was no or little governance mobility and land-use and around the culture at involved public authorities for implementation of a transport infrastructure integration of policies on mobility and land-use. project such as the Rijn Gouwe Lijn at Also supporting integral concepts or visions on regional level? the project where missing. Thirdly, the study reveals the potentials of regional partnerships • What planning mechanism can address to fill the ‘regional gap’ between municipalities issues of governance, facilitate integration of and provincial government. policies and support the implementation of such a project? Based on the results of the case study and with the knowledge of various theoretical concepts The research is inductive: it starts with an related to integrated transport planning, some observation study on the spatial planning recommendations have been done which practice within the Netherlands, including the ultimately have been translated to (alternative) current issues and developments within this spatial, institutional and process design system that might influence large infrastructure proposals for the project and its region – the projects (appendix A). This stage, the general design of artifacts. field study, is followed by a literature study Fig. 0.1 Research methodology: inductive research Fig. 0.2 Adapted satellite image of landscape 2 between Leiden & Gouda Summary 3
  • 4. A Acknowledgements I would like to thank all the persons who contributed to the graduation project. Inquiries with experts, citizens, and other respondents - the interviewees from the provine of Zuid-Holland, the municipality of Zoeterwoude, the regional partnership Holland Rijnland, the former alderman of the municipality of Leiden, the Chamber of Commerce (KvK) and ProRail. Also I would like to emphasize Procap for their willingness to get me the right information, the project organization of the Rijn Gouwe Lijn who kept me informed on the recent developments around the project and the association ‘Deltametropool’ who helped me with some of the empirical analysis. My special thanks go out to my parents, who always have been there for me. They supported me in my studies since I started at the Intermediate Vocational Education (MBO). It is doubtful if I would have achieved this level without their mental support. Last but not least, I would like to thank Vincent Nadin and Wil Zonneveld for their mentorship. They allowed me to study spatial planning issues that caught my personal interest, and supported me to involve studies on other disciplines such as public management. Jasper Bras Delft, November 2012Fig. 0.3 Traditionally a photograph of everygraduation student within the studio ComplexCities is taken, in order to promote thesubject of research. Acknowledgements 5
  • 5. P Preface“…to this day, the Dutch commit almost everything to paper – the written word is sacred. There If we think of large scale infrastructure projects in the Netherlandsis a certain distrust of oral agreements. If an oral agreement is made, and it is to a certain extent that have been developed recently we might come to the conclusion that the number of completed projects in terms of rail infrastructure isofficial, the parties prefer to follow it up with a written confirmation, which often concludes with very limited. And if someone might ask to give a successful examplethe qualification that the agreement is valid unless statement is made to contrary. The written of a railway line that has been developed last years it is hard to giveword is law.” – Van der Horst (1996) pp. 136 a positive answer to this. We probably all know the ‘Betuwelijn’ or the recently completed ‘HSL’ (FYRA) (both connecting the Netherlands with its neighbouring countries), because of the issues around these projects; the extraordinary budget and their outranging costs in particular. It even might be argued that such projects have put large railway projects in a negative perspective. But also projects of smaller scale have been realized, at regional level: the ‘Randstadrail’ for example – a tramline that connects The Hague and Rotterdam. This project is probably more successful, partly because the line has been built together with its surroundings. Nevertheless, what these projects have in common is that they are defined by high complexity; for instance, they require participation of many different stakeholders and ask for integral planning approaches because these projects interact with their spatial and programmatic environment. The research of this master thesis draws on these constraints regarding integration of infrastructure planning and spatial development, and addresses the related issues of governance at regional level, between provincial and municipal administration - the ‘regional gap’. Both issues come together with projects in regional transport infrastructure. In order to understand the context of this ‘arena’ the thesis contains a survey on the system of spatial planning in the Netherlands, including the latest practices related to integrated transport planning. Secondly, in order to find potential and appropriate concepts that anticipate on these critical issues, various theories on integrated transport planning (e.g. nodal development or ‘transit oriented development’) and regional governance (e.g. institutional capacity building) are derived from literature research. As part of the empirical research, a regional transport infrastructure project has been taken as a case study: the ‘Rijn Gouwe Lijn’ (RGL) between Leiden and Gouda. In this case the critical issues regarding regional transport infrastructure are addressed and appropriate concepts from the theoretical study are applied. Preface 7
  • 6. T Table of content Table of content Summary 3 2.4.1 Strategic spatial planning 68 2.4.2 Funding mechanisms 70 Acknowledgements 5 2.4.3 How to apply at the case study? 71 2.5 The empirical assessment 72 Preface 7 2.3.1 The purposes of the empirical research 72 2.3.2 Studies on spatial & programmatic implications 72 Reader 13 2.3.3 Studies on institutional capacity & process 73 2.3.4 From case study to alternative design, and further 74 Organization 15 3 The case of the RGL 77 1 Introduction 17 3.1 Rijn Gouwe Lijn: the details 78 1.1 Rationale for this study 19 3.1.1 Project agreements 78 1.2 Problem analysis & motivation 21 3.1.2 The crucial steps in decision making 79 1.3 Problem statement 25 3.1.3 The organization behind the RGL 81 1.4 Aims & research questions 26 3.2 The spatial and programmatic implications 84 1.5 Research approach 29 3.2.1 The spatial characteristics of the region 85 1.5.1 Research components 29 3.2.2 The spatial and programmatic embeddedness of the RGL 89 1.5.2 Research methodology 31 3.2.3 The station typologies 93 1.6 Introduction of the case study area 33 3.2.4 The municipal plans for spatial development 100 1.6.1 Policies on infrastructure development 33 3.2.5 Conclusion of the spatial studies 100 1.6.2 Geographical conditions 33 3.3 The institutional capacity & steering process 102 1.6.3 Territories 37 3.3.1 The legal powers 102 1.6.4 Use of data for empirical research 37 3.3.2 The interests and ambitions 104 3.3.3 Sectors, territories and organizations 109 2 Integrative concepts from theory 39 3.3.4 The degree of operation: integration, coordination or coordination? 111 3.3.5 The role of the regional partnerships 113 2.1 Space, institutions, process 40 3.3.6 Governance culture 115 2.2 Spatial concepts of integrated transport planning 42 2.2.1 Physical elements: nfrastructure & land-use 42 4 Conclusion & recommendations 117 2.2.2 Morphological elements: types of development 43 2.2.3 Transit oriented development 47 4.1 Conclusions case study 118 2.2.4 How to apply at the case study? 50 4.2 (Design) recommendations for case study 122 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment 51 4.2.1 Strategic spatial planning (process) 125 2.3.1 Types of institutions and their relations 51 4.2.2 Transit oriented development (space) 126 2.3.2 Institutional arrangements: ‘the mutual fit’ 55 4.2.3 Institutional framework (institutions) 133 2.3.3 Adjustment of policies: integration, coordination, cooperation 55 4.3 Recommendations to similar projects in the Netherlands 136 2.3.4 Resources 61 4.4 Recommendations for future research 139 2.3.5 Capacity building 64 2.3.6 How to apply at the case study? 66 2.4 Strategic planning and integratel funding concepts 678 9
  • 7. Table of content 5 Bibliography 141 5.1 Literature 142 5.2 Illustrations 148 6 Appendix 151 A Spatial planning in the Netherlands B RGL project agreement: financial distribution C Empirical analysis of the case study area D Analysis SprintStad (Deltametropool) E List of interviewees F Reflection10 11
  • 8. Reader R Reader Before the content of the thesis is part of subject it is helpful to get an idea of how this thesis 1 1 Sec on is structured and how this thesis can be red. Therefore the Lay-out of the thesis and the Structure of the thesis are being explained first. Title Introduction • Number of chapter • Title Plan Thesis About The rst section contains the thesis plan. This is the proposal for graduation with the thesis as the end product. In the rst • Summary • Keywords Lay out Structure of thesis paragraph the Organization of the study and the studio is explained (1.1). The second paragraph contains the Rationale for this study where the discourse and the relevance of the study are being explained (1.2). In Introducing & framing the objectives • Overview of paragraph (1.3) several elements which are taking part of the research are mentioned. This is followed by the Context (1.4) introducing the sight, the project area where the analytical studies are about. The Problem statement (1.5) contains the problem where the research based on. This paragraph is followed by the Aims & research questions (1.6) containing the theoretical and analytical aims, the main research question and sub-questions for the research. The research strategy and methodology are being explained in Research approach (1.7) followed by the Expected outcomes in (1.8). The section will be ended with Phasing & time schedule placing the research in time (1.9). Keywords Thesis plan - Organization - Decentralization - Relevance The lay out of this thesis contains different page This thesis is divided into seven chapters. styles. The first section (1) Introduction is in fact the Paragraphs #1.1 #1.2 #1.3 Organization Rationale for this study Introducting and framing the objectives thesis plan where all further chapters will are introduced; it contains the proposal for the #1.4 Context #1.5 Problem statement #1.6 Aims & research questions research. #1.7 Research approach #1.8 Expected outcomes #1.9 Phasing & time schedule • Illustration 1 Sec on page 12 1. Introduction /// Thesis plan /// Jasper Bras /// Fig. 1.1 Adapted image of note (Martintolley, 2012) 13 In the second chapter (2) Theoretical framework, First there are pages which introduce a new various theoretical models and concepts are chapter. These pages contain a brief summary explained which are relevant for the research. and introduction of the elements that are This section is the framework for the empirical 2.2 Planning instruments 2. Theoretical framework discussed in the chapter, several keywords and study. It provides supporting information for 2 Paragraph In this paragraph several planning instruments will be discussed. These are theoretical planning models which can be used in practice. Because every planning model is being visions (SV) which are more exible and less restrictive than the ones they had to develop take a broader view into consideration and seek collaboration: ‘To incorporate mutual an overview of the paragraphs which are part of practice. the section. before (Rijksoverheid, 2011; Gier, 2011). In interdependencies between neighbouring created from another perspective they will be compared. Out of this paragraph one model or practice the policy encourages provinces and municipalities’ (Hulst & Van Montfort, 2007). a combination of models which seems to be the most suitable for an adaption in practice will municipalities to develop within their own Doing so a single SV will evolve partly into a urban borders. Spatial developments within bigger planning context: the inter-municipal The third chapter (3) is the Empirical assessment. be projected on the case study area. Before the alternative planning instruments from theory • Number of paragraph the municipal borders can have an impact on structure vision (ISV). The term inter-municipal are being mentioned, the current models of spatial planning (2.2.1) Recent developments externalities across those borders where local implies that the vision is cross-border (Hulst & on spatial planning in NL and spatial policies (2.2.2) Wro & structure visions, used in the authorities don’t have to be held responsible Van Montfort, 2007) and involves more than for (Needham, 2011). Due to the retreatment of one municipal territory). Over the past years This section contains the research around the Netherlands will be addressed. In (2.2.3) Strategic spatial planning approaches, the planning national planning policy these con icts will be the rst ISV’s have seen the light – Zuidplas • Title models from theory will be discussed, followed by the capacity of planning instruments to covered less. (Stuurgroep Driehoek RZG Zuidplas, 2006) change structures of Governance (2.2.4). In each sub-paragraph solutions will be addressed. and Greenport Boskoop (BVR & TAUW, 2009). In the current situation municipalities and In practice these visions are solely developed case study area. provincial governments rst have to develop from economic perspectives and are not based a SV (article 124 of the Dutch constitution) • Summary on scienti c sources, for there is no theoretical 2.2.1 Recent developments on (2010). In his inaugural speech at the TU Delft to make it more explicit in a later phase. spatial planning in NL Fragmentation and Structure: Challenges for spatial research and policy he relates the theory of fragmentation in both governance and space This ne tuning will be done in a so called ‘bestemmingsplan’ (regulation plan) on municipal level, and an ‘inpassingsplan’ framework nor clear de nition of an ISV, and there are no directives to support the practice. 2 Paragraph page • Title of sub-paragraph The history of Dutch spatial planning can be to the Dutch context - in accordance with the (adjustment plan) on provincial and national earlier statement of Kanie (2011), the different scale. These plans have a juridical character. typed as the integrated comprehensive model 2.2.3 Strategic spatial planning The thesis will be ended with a section of (Nadin, 2010) which can be interpreted as a types of government addressed by Hooghe Except for the ‘inpassingsplans’ which become planning model that provides solutions for and Marks (2003) and the SSP approaches of less restrictive compared to former provincial approaches everything (Albrechts, 2006). This model of Albrechts (2004; 2006). They all acknowledge a ‘streekplan’ and the former national ‘PKB’ There are also pages that introduce a new government-led spatial planning became over need for new types of (sub-level) governance (Planological Key Decisions Rijksoverheid, What are strategic spatial plans (SSP) and in together with new exible formats of spatial Conclusion and recommendations (4), which also the years no longer suf cient over the years 2008). As a result municipalities have more how far do they differ from the project plans to meet market demands (Hajer, 2003). One of planning. These innovative forms should answer freedom in their decision making process. (as was the case within the comprehensive the purposes of the decentralization process the unde ned exibility in recent shifts within integrated model of planning in the NL)? paragraph. Each paragraph is introduced very in the spatial planning policies is to stimulate the Dutch system of spatial planning. It should be kept in mind that the number Whereas a project plan is more conformance of scienti c sources which are describing the includes design alternatives for the case study new SSP practises which are more orientated based, strategic plan is more performance towards the involvement of a variety of actors The decentralization process (in the use of a spatial SV in the Netherlands are very based (more focused on quality instead (like actor-network theory or collaborative Netherlands) can have a positive impact when limited – except for (Van den Donker, 2005; of quantity) (Albrechts, 2006). According shortly at the top of the page. This part is planning) (Healey, 2003, 2007). But as long making ‘a proper institutional design’, but can Liefferink, 2011) – while in practice the use of to Albrechts (2004, 2006) we might say in as there is no proven alternative or no clear also lead to fragmentation (Kanie, 2011). In SV’s are obligated by the Dutch planning law terms of plans: master plan/land-use plans area. guidelines these decision might have (negative) order to make an institutional design succeed it Wro. According to Liefferink (2011) the spatial vs. strategic plans; in terms of planning type: spatial consequences. A shift towards a more is necessary to create a proper network among SV can be classi ed as strategic spatial plan and legal regulation vs. framework; in terms various decentralized actors and to ensure that not as a project plan which has the character written in another font. decentralized spatial planning might lead to a of governance type: government-led vs. further differentiation in the spatial structure the framework is exible. Regarding theory of a so called ‘blue print plan’ This means that government-led-but-negotiated form of within regions (Needham, 2011). Based on it becomes clear that such an institutional for better exploration of scienti c sources a governance. Or we de ne the differences: these recent developments in spatial planning design can be part of a SSP (Albrechts, 2004; (inter-municipal) SV can be better addressed as policies the Dutch model will not be that Allmendinger & Haughton, 2009). A further a strategic spatial plan for a speci c territory, project plan (blue-print plan): comprehensive anymore but takes another explanation of this instrument can be found in a albeit the fact a SSP implies more than a vision conformance based / comprehensive / The Bibliography can be find in chapter (5), direction towards a still unde ned exibility. speci c chapter at the end of this paper. (Albrechts, 2004). land use planning / government-led / regulation plan; strategic spatial plan: performance followed by the Appendix (6), which also Flexible instrument: Strategic spatial 2.2.2 Wro & structure visions Possible instrument: Inter-municipal based / selective / actor engaging / planning structure vision government-led-but-negotiated-form of governance / providing a framework Introduced in 2008 by the Rijksoverheid (for actions). Governments are compelled by the Wro to The current shifts in the spatial planning system (2011) the Wro (Wet ruimtelijke ordening) law contains a survey of the spatial planning produce their own SV. In order to minimize and the related problems in the Netherlands obliges governments on national, provincial Where comprehensive planning is hierarchical undesired externalities as a result of their are being acknowledged by Zonneveld and municipal level to make structure and persuasive, strategic spatial planning is planning activities, it seems logical that they 48 2. Theoretical framework /// Thesis plan /// Jasper Bras /// 2.2 Theoretical framework 49 3 Regular page context: the system and daily practice of spatial 1.2 Rationale for this study planning in the Netherlands. The norms, values, 1. Introduction Then there are the regular pages which contain instruments and authorities regarding spatial When it comes to spatial development around this infrastructure there seems to be little consensuses. Both provincial and municipal It could be argued that the role of the urban planner or designer (what both could be typed as urbanist) play an important role in only text, text supported with illustrations planning are explained in this study. (always on the left side), or pages with only tiers of government do not have adjusted this. Therefore the urbanist needs to have their spatial visions for locations around the the capacity to not only understand these line. With the retreating of higher tiers of urbanization processes but also needs to know government both municipalities and province how to deal with, how to participate and how to need to operate more coherent when it comes to spatial planning, especially because this location is not labelled as a national ‘key region’ (mainport, brainport or greenport). intervene within this complexity. 2. Different arenas 3 Regular illustrations. For the role of an urbanist there could be made Academic relevance a distinction between the developed countries, the developing countries and the undeveloped • Title & number of section countries which are all dealing with According to Needham (2011) the amount of urbanization processes but on a different way. research that has been done on the impact of Next to this it is important to realize political policies on the structure of spatial development structures, economic powers and socio-cultural is limited. It is even harder to nd attempts backgrounds – which are in uencing the role of • Title & number of paragraph which formulate integral strategies answering an urbanist – differ between countries. these con icts. In the work of Zonneveld (2010) similar observations are addressed. By doing analytical research on this project • Explanation of illustration 3. The task of an urbanist location, followed by an attempt to apply planning instruments from theory as an To continue with the ethics of an urbanist it the alternative for the current mechanism, I hope tasks of this profession need to be considered to gain new useful information which could be rst. • Page number & chapter added to current spatial planning approaches. What should be the task of an Urbanist? Allmendinger and Haughton (2009) mention that the task of an urbanist has shifted: ‘…it Ethical relevance could be argued that planners are not central to • Page number & paragraph the governance processes (…) in essence, they are Ethical relevance in terms of urban planning and part of a fragmented landscape of governance, design is can be interpreted in many different whose complexity seems to require coordination ways. In this paragraph I try to address some not at one particular privileged sector, but of these interpretations. Ethical relevance in instead through some complex, tangled terms of recent developments (the urgency of networks operating across scales and sectors.’ our profession) (1), the context or the working (Allmendinger and Haughton, 2009: 629) eld wherein a planner operates (2), the tasks of an urban planner (3), urban planning in con ict To continue with: ‘So planners, and others areas (4) and the need of urban planning in the involved in the development process, are not context of the Netherlands (5). only coordinating across different spaces and sectors, but also negotiating the resultant different time scales.’ and ‘the other aspect of delivery which planners are starting to have to 1. Urgency of our profession deal with more thoroughly than in the past is the complexity of funding streams involved in Especially in these times where rapid processes large-scale regeneration.’ (Allmendinger and of urbanization are taking place all around the Haughton, 2009: 629) Despite of the fact that world, the essence of understanding these this is about the UK it might also count for the processes becomes increasingly important. Netherlands where similar processes are going Fig. 1.1 wefwefawfawfawfewaewaefaw (www. 18 1. Introduction /// Thesis plan /// Jasper Bras /// 1.2 Rationale for this study 1912 Reader /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras Reader 13
  • 9. Organization O Organization of the department In order to understand the discourse wherein this study is taking place it is important to understand the structure of the study and to know the philosophy of the graduation studio. This will be explained in this paragraph. This gradua on project is taking place within the Macroeconomics studio of Complex Ci es. This gradua on studio is a specializa on of the master track Urbanism within the master programme Architecture, Urbanism and Political science Building Sciences of the Faculty of Architecture, at the TU Del . The studio is organized by Spa al Planning and Strategy, a core chair of the faculty. Both the studio and the chair are led by Professor Social Physical Vincent Nadin and assisted by prac ce professor Joost Schrijnen. Professor Wil Zonneveld holds a sciences Public management sciences joint post with the OTB Research Ins tute with & governance whom there is much collabora on. The studio deals with the complexity of contemporary ci es. The urban planners and designers who join the studio try to understand the urban processes and the network of ci es within Sociology Interdisciplinary Traffic & transport the global society, its economy and its high quality field of this engineering services. Despite the fact that the global network research is increasingly determining the global city, each urban region characterized by its own climate, cultural background and ethnical background Social geography e.g. Urban planners and designers study on these Spatial & urban rela ons of the contemporary global ci es with an environmental, economic, social and poli cal planning diversity, connected to both global and local networks. Within this network they try to propose Spatial form design interven ons which may increase the capacity of the urban regions and local places. Design Fig. 3 Interdisciplinary field of this research Organization 15
  • 10. 1 Title Introduction About The first section contains the thesis plan. This is the proposal for graduation wich also pays attention to he outlines for the research: the arguments and motivation for this study, a problem definition and the aims for research. The section also introduces the research approach, the methodology and contains an introduction of the case tudy. Keywords Thesis plan - Rationale - Motivation - Problem statement - Methodology - Case study Paragraphs #1.1 Rationale for this study #1.2 Problem analysis & motivation #1.3 Problem statement #1.4 Aims & research questions #1.5 Research approach #1.6 Introduction of the case study area16 Fig. 1.1 Photograph: station area Leiden 17
  • 11. 1.1 Rationale for this study 1.1 Rationale for this study If we think of large scale infrastructure projects in the Netherlands that have been developed recently we might come to the conclusion that the number of completed projects in terms of rail infrastructure is very limited. And if someone might ask to give a successful example of a railway line that has been developed last years it is hard to give a positive answer to this. We Kaart (inter)nationale bereikbaarheid van stedelijke regio’s met topsectoren probably all know the ‘Betuwelijn’ or the recently completed ‘HSL’ (FYRA) (both connecting the Netherlands with its neighbouring countries), because of the issues around these projects; the extraordinary budget and their outranging costs in particular. It even might be argued that such projects have put large railway projects in a negative perspective. But also projects of smaller scale have been realized, at regional level: the ‘Randstadrail’ for example – a tramline that connects The Hague and Rotterdam. This project is probably more successful compared to the Betuwelijn and the HSL, partly because the line has been built together with its surroundings. Nevertheless, what these projects have in leefbaar en veilig). The vision promotes a further common is that they are marked by high decentralization of the spatial planning policy of complexity. They are both very complex the Netherlands (Ministerie van Infrastructuur technological systems which require en Milieu, 2011). In this document the national participation of many different stakeholders government has concentrated its interests by and ask for integration of policies to meet with the designation of nine ‘top sectors’ that have the strong interaction between infrastructure international perspectives - such as life sciences, and spatial development (Koppenjan & logistics and creative industries - distributed Groenewegen, 2005). over several strategic economic locations of national priority, mainly in the Randstad - such At present there seem to be two major as the mainports Schiphol and Rotterdam, developments going on within the Dutch brainports ‘Zuidoost Nederland’ and greenports system of spatial planning, which could Aalsmeer, Boskoop and the Bollenstreek (fig. influence these critical issues around complex 1.2). These clusters are or will be connected technological systems such as railways: by a network of primary infrastructure, such as the freeway network and the high speed - the devolution of powers from higher to railway corridors (HSL), which are supported lower levels of governance, and; by multiple years investment programs for infrastructure, space and transport: the - the integration of sectoral policies to the MIRT policies (Meerjarenprogramma Ruimte, support of infrastructure planning. Infrastructuur en Transport). The devolution of powers is revealed in the In comparison to the former planological reforms of national law on spatial planning, and key documents: the PKB’s (Planologische subsequently in the changing ambitions and Kernbeslissingen) – whereby national responsibilities of the Dutch planning agencies. government policies covered all of the country The integration of policies can be seen in the equally (De Gier, 2011) – a stronger focus on attention of the planning agencies for integral specific locations becomes clear. Consequently approaches regarding mobility and land-use. this shift in focus requires lower authorities which are not appointed as key locations In the spring of 2011 the Dutch Ministry of to develop concepts and policies for their Environment and Infrastructure (Infrastructuur own jurisdictions. They are enabled to do so en Milieu) presented the most recent planning by the devolution of powers. Earlier in 2008 vision document for the country: the concept the new law on spatial planning: Wro (Wet structure vision infrastructure and space ruimtelijke ordening) replaced the former law Fig. 1.2 Most recent publi- (Ontwerp Structuurvisie Infrastructuur en on planning: the WRO (Wet op de Ruimtelijke cation of national planning Ruimte: Nederland concurrerend, bereikbaar, Ordening). This reform on spatial planning law vision document18 1.1 Rationale for this study 19
  • 12. 1.2 Problem analysis & motivation 1.2 Problem analysis & motivation has given lower authorities a wider range of With the reforms of spatial planning - the national concept structure vision and the law on legal instruments and responsibilities for the spatial planning (Wro) - the structure of governance in Dutch planning is changing. Lower daily practice of spatial planning; (a) next to the national government the municipalities are authorities need to deal with spatial issues regarding regional infrastructure and housing, and now allowed to make structure vision plans are supposed to take more responsibility by the designation of new legal instruments such (structuurvisies) more flexible and less restrictive as structure vision plans and land use plans (De Gier, 2011; Needham, 2011). This demands than before, and (b) also the provinces are for a reorientation towards the daily practice of planning by the provincial and municipal authorized to compose legal land use plans governments. What are their roles? What are the responsibilities? How to use the given (inpassingsplannen) (De Gier, 2011). planning instruments? And last but not least: how to manage regional projects that cross Another shift can be seen in the integration municipal borders, with the necessity for cooperation between neighbouring governments of sectoral policies, with which the national and multiple stakeholders? government is trying to facilitate planning procedures. For instance the proposed law on environment (omgevingswet) that will replace and combine regulations related In order to come to a clear problem definition Boxmeer & Vliegenberg, 2011) (fig. 1.4, 1.5, 1.6). to planning (Rijksoverheid, 2012a), and the for this research it is important to understand The question is: are they able to do so…and decision to integrate different ministries at the underlying reasons for the institutional how? national level (Rijksoverheid, 2012b). Thus changes. The two reforms should answer (a) to the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Development issues regarding scale of public management At this point it is interesting to consider the and Environment: VROM (Ministerie van (Mastop, 1991; Hajer, 2003; Salet, 2006), (b) to second development mentioned: the integration Volkshuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening en the changing principles and concepts on spatial of policies. This is not only reflected in the Milieu) and the Ministry of Transport and Water planning (Hajer & Zonneveld, 2000; Zonneveld, joining of ministries on national level, but Management: VenW (Ministerie van Verkeer 2012) and to changing governance attitudes also in the ambition of planning agencies for en Waterstaat) became the Ministery of IenM to spatial planning (Lambrechts & Zonneveld, integral development. In view of the increasing (Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu). 2004). The research argues that social and importance of infrastructural networks it makes economic changes have a crucial impact on sense to investigate the integration of policies This change in policymaking aims for a space, such can be seen in the arising of socio- on mobility and land-use, for it might be more integral approach of mobility and economic networks, which are reflected in the argued that network infrastructure and spatial land-use, and of infrastructure and spatial reaction of spatial patterns that have become development interact (Dieleman & Wegener, development; the national planning agency more polycentric (Salet, 2006). 2004; drawing on Hanson, 1959). uses the structure vision document to promote integral developments around multimodal The socio-spatial interactions primarily take For better understanding a closer examination nodes, stressing the importance of network place at a regional scale, thus labeled as ‘the is desired at the underlying conditions that developing. On the regional scale lower new issues of regionalization’ (Salet, 2006). explain why the integration of policies on agencies in the periphery are challenged to act Key regions surpass nation states in economic mobility and land-use is likely to happen. accordingly. importance and need to strengthen their Within the perception of the network society Fig. 1.3 Schematic representation of positions by facilitating the ambitions of their the most direct consequence for planning is develoution process from higher to regional actors (Boelens, 2009). Governments that connectivity has become more important lower authorities are expected to anticipate on these interactions than proximity in the network structure (Salet, by changing their institutional structure 2006). In addition networks have become matching with the socio-economic and multimodal which result ‘in integrating centers spatial conditions of the network society – the of multifarious interaction’ (Curtis & James, institutional capacity needs to fit with the new 2004; e.g. where train, tram, bus, and subway reality (Salet, 2006). The rescaling of territorial lines cross). Such nodes are more attractive for governance in order to find a ‘mutual fit’ for spatial development than ‘purely functional regional issues can be regarded as one of the nodes’ along ‘single mode networks’ (e.g. only reasons why national government is transferring one bus or tram line). Thus, development at powers and tasks to lower authorities, especially transit nodes with great social and economic to the provincial planning agencies (fig. 1.3). diversity requires place-based plans (Curtis & Subsequently the provincial government James, 2004), or new strategies that focus on is supposed to coordinate and facilitate adapted spaces (Salet, 2006; drawing on Lynch, developments regarding regional infrastructure 1980). In view of this it seems evident that and adjustment of spatial developments (Van planning policies should aim for integrated20 1.2 Problem analysis & motivation 21
  • 13. 1.2 Problem analysis & motivation 1. Introduction approaches based on the strong relation between mobility and land-use in order to facilitate this type of development. First attempts to such approaches have already been made in the Netherlands, with projects as Stedenbaan(+), Zuidvleugel Atelier, or developments around HSL stations as Amsterdam CS, Rotterdam CS and Breda. However lower authorities as the municipalities are not yet familiar with these concepts of spatial planning, or still have a far way to go (Tan & Bertolini, 2010). Also at regional level it is questionable how much knowledge and experience provincial agencies have to deal with the adjustment of spatial development in and around their network nodes. What do they need to coordinate and facilitate these processes? Do their new instruments suffice to work out reliable concepts and strategies?Fig. 1.4 The growingRandstad Fig. 1.5 Coalition forming Fig. 1.6 Changing spatial policies 22 1.2 Problem analysis & motivation 23
  • 14. 1.3 Problem statement 1.3 Problem statement For decades the three-tiered Dutch government structure (national, provincial, municipal) is giving difficulties for issues that play on regional level – ‘the regional gap’. This regional gap can be seen as an uncovered ‘institutional void’ between provinces (the formal regional government) and state, and between province and municipalities. At these administrative gaps at regional level (provincial government) most challenges take place in terms of governance and policy integration (Zonneveld et al., 2012). !? Thus, it seems obvious that the two municipalities have the expertise in terms of developments regarding the devolution concepts or strategic approaches that facilitate of powers and the integration of policies the integration of policies around railway lines? !? ! described above play a role in this discussion; (Tan & Bertolini, 2010). And when it comes to the legal and policy changes might be seen the coordination or the institutional capacity as a reaction of national government on these which is needed for the implementation of regional gaps. It might be argued that national railway lines and the adjustment of spatial !? government wants to give room for ‘integrative developments around transit nodes, it territorial strategies’ – the MIRT-policy might be questionable if the involved legal !? addressed above for instance – and to facilitate institutions (province and municipality) have ! new (cooperation) mechanisms for projects that the right instruments and capability to use ask for a regional approach. these instruments – are the new legal planning instruments appropriate? Such issues might The regional infrastructure networks – often be expressions of the administrative regional MIRT-projects – that cross various municipal gap between provincial and municipal borders seem to be an interesting case for the administrations. ! research. In particular with railway lines both discourses regarding legal or institutional capacity and integration of policies are clearly represented. Especially with the increasing !? importance of socio-economic interactions it might be expected the mutual dependency ! between these multifarious transit nodes increases. Thus, projects of railway infrastructure often require strong cooperation mechanisms and ask for concepts that support adjustment of spatial development and for integrated policies as an answer to the clear interaction of mobility and land-use around transit nodes (Curtis & James, 2004). With the national government paying less !? attention to (and having less clear policy for) areas that are not of their key concern the pressure of governance on lower authorities increases. Even more interesting seem to !? ! be the regional railway lines that do not fall under the MIRT-policy (or not anymore) and are located outside the areas of national priority – it is questionable if the lower authorities (especially provincial governments) have enough capacity and experience to coordinate such infrastructures (Van Boxmeer & Vliegenberg, 2011) (fig. 1.7). In how far do Fig. 1.7 The railway line with stations at the case study area, the region between Leiden and Gouda24 1.3 Problem statement 25
  • 15. 1.4 Aims & research questions 1. Introduction The aims of this research, translated into research questions. something to the current practice of planning. that (regarding the subject of this research) Therefore, it is important to understand the all concepts should contribute to integrated system of Dutch spatial planning first. This transport planning. study is supported by the following question: The following objective is to see if these This research has several purposes: trends are described. An attempt will theoretical concepts (or parts of it) are be made to illustrate these trends in used in the daily planning practice, in terms  Firstly, the purpose of this research a ‘relational diagram’ of the Dutch 1. How does spatial planning work in the of regional infrastructure projects. This is to address the weaknesses within planning practice in terms of integrated Netherlands? approach can be seen in twofold – contains this regional gap between provincial transport planning. a problem addressing and a problem solving and municipal tiers of governance, component: it gives the possibility (a) to test if through the perspective of regional These purposes are incorporated in two main the weaknesses as addressed in the problem infrastructure developments such research questions, which represent the general This question should address what institutions statement are actually present in the daily as railway lines that cross various aims for this research and include a problem and agencies are authorized to practice spatial practice of spatial planning, and (b) the models municipal borders; do the lower tiers of addressing and a solution oriented section: planning, what (legal) instruments they have could function as a framework that support governance have sufficient institutional and what their attitude is towards spatial improvements within the current planning capacity to deal with projects of this planning – the principles, concepts and policies system; it helps with the formulation of scale (e.g. available legal planning that are used to steer spatial development. The recommendations for improvement. instruments)? What are the issues of governance between answer to this question should conclude with local planning agencies, around the integration the current trends on spatial planning – the  Secondly, the research should reveal of sectoral polices on mobility and land-use trends that might influence the paradigm of in how far lower governments have and around the implementation of a transport infrastructure projects at regional level. This 3. How are these models from theory (integrated) policies that facilitate such infrastructure project such as the Rijn Gouwe Lijn study can be found in the attachment (appendix represented in the Dutch spatial projects; what are their ambitions and at regional level? A). planning practice, and what can they do they use the right instruments to add to this? achieve these ambitions? What planning mechanism can address issues of When having a clear understanding of the governance, facilitate integration of policies and general planning structure in the Netherlands  Thirdly, the research should emphasize support the implementation of such a project? (together with the institutions, their roles, in how far provincial and municipal responsibilities, and policies) it is likely to The relevant theoretical models and theories governments use concepts for investigate what models and concepts from are tested in a case study (chapter 3). The area integration of sectoral policies on theory might be relevant in terms of integrated which is chosen for the case study needs to mobility and land-use; in how far is Ultimately, the main research question should transport planning: represent the issues that have been addressed their planning mechanism appropriate lead to a planning concept or model (or in the problem statement; regarding the for the implementation of such projects components of that model) that incorporates administrative problems around institutions and and do they have enough experience solutions for the problems around the governance, and related to the integration of in this? integration of policies on mobility and land- 2. What spatial, institutional and policies on mobility and land-use. use, and to an institutional framework with operational concepts or models are  Fourthly, the research should – the capacity to counteract the regional relevant when it comes to integrated Also, the last question should strengthen based on models from planning administrative gap between provincial and transport development at regional level? the arguments for alternatives for the region theory – (a) deliver spatial guidelines municipal governments. If the research does not What are the strengths and weaknesses and is supposed to help in the formulation of or recommendations in order to succeed in the aim to deliver a suitable concept of these models? spatial, institutional and operational design achieve regional adjustment in spatial or model, recommendations regarding both recommendations for the area. In the end, the development around infrastructure issues might be sufficient too. experiences and knowledge gained with the projects, (b) contribute to the proposal assessment of the case study area should be of an institutional model or conditions The questions accommodate several objectives The question refers to three dimensions based translated to a diagram that shows the relations for organizing the spatial objectives, which are steered by several sub-questions. on the integrated institutional approach of within the daily practice of spatial planning in and (c) help to formulate a strategy With both questions is meant that the focus of Koppenjan and Groenewegen (2005); technical/ the Netherlands. which enhances the implementation of this research is to (a) address the weaknesses of spatial, institutional and process (TIP). They those spatial objectives. the daily planning practice in the Netherlands state that a technical (or spatial) design in terms of integral infrastructure development needs to be supported with an institutional  Fifthly, the research should address (the case study in particular), by (b) projecting and a process design that facilitates the the current relations within the Dutch suitable planning concepts from theory implementation of a project. In a literature practice of spatial planning. During (theoretical framework) that, (c) in the end review I will pay attention to this approach, the research various related planning also have the potential to contribute or add and to concepts within all three dimensions (chapter 2). An important condition here is26 1. Introduction /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 1.4 Aims & research questions 27
  • 16. 1.5 Research approach 1.5 Research approach In order to achieve the aims for this research the questions are supported with several studies. These studies are done according to various methods. This can be translated to a research strategy and methods used within the strategy. It is importance to notice that more specific sub-questions and related studies for the assessment of the case study area will be mentioned at the end of the theoretical framework. 1.5.1 Research components Thus, after the research has finished spatial, institutional and operational recommendations can be formulated – for the region and to the In headlines the research contains three main practice of integrated transport planning in the studies: Netherlands. Possibly the multi-dimensional recommendations can be presented in a design 1. An exploration of the Dutch system of within each dimension or combined, in some spatial planning (appendix A). sort of a ‘relational diagram’ which represents the complex relations of a regional projects 2. A theoretical framework that contains a where different scales and dimensions come Empirical analysis literature review on theoretical models together. Because it is uncertain at this stage of integrated planning within three how such a design would look like, it might be dimensions (space, institutions and useful to address some components that have process); to be part of a design – for every dimension. 3. An empirical assessment of models These can be the design components: from theory on one case study area in order to find answers to the research Spatial design: type of development Fig. 1.8 Structure of research in headlines 1. questions (by desk research, interviews concept, type of policies, the ambitions and mapping). behind the policies, amount of stations, type of stations, type of spatial The various studies of the research cover development, regional traffic and theory and practice (reflected in a theoretical public transport networks, regional framework and an empirical assessment) public facilities, type of programmatic (fig. 1.8). Within this structure, the theoretical functions, mix of functions. framework helps to organize the empirical research (projection). Subsequently the 2. Institutional design: institutional information derived from the empirical arrangements, degrees of policy assessment on the case study area helps to adjustment, type of institutions, type and adjust the theoretical framework (reflection). number of resources, type and number This interrelation between theory and practice of legal instruments, actors involved, should help to refine and adjust the available type of organization. information during the research, in order to give answers to the questions as accurate as 3. Process design: type of spatial planning possible. strategy, dynamic framework for development, flexibility of arrangements, Next to the idea that the research should give visioning, gathering/encouraging answers to the research questions, it should stakeholders, tools that support provide crucial knowledge and expertise implementation, monitoring. regarding the subject and location, which can be useful by creating an alternative ‘design’ or recommendations for the area of the case study and perhaps, as contribution to the current practice of spatial planning in the Netherlands (in the direction of integrated transport planning). Fig. 1.9 Research method of triangulation28 1.5 Research approach 29
  • 17. 1.5 Research approach 1. Introduction 1.5.2 Research methodology not derive from theory; the research model is inductive (Mackay & Fayard, 1997). The relations between the dimensions of According to the inductive model the second space, institutions and process (TIP) described step of research takes place in the theoretical by Koppenjan and Groenewegen (2005) are world in order to define a theoretical framework reflected in the research and in the various in order to place the real world in perspective. studies that are part of the research (on theory This framework can be found in the following and practice). As already said the idea behind chapter (2) – it represents a literature review these dimensions and relations between them on various models and elements from the will be described in the theoretical section. spatial, institutional and operational dimension. Nevertheless it might be argued here that this Subsequently, research criteria or indicators requires a ‘multi-dimensional approach’, to the can be derived from the theoretical concepts, extent of the research structure and the analysis which can be used for the empirical analysis of but also for to the extent of an (alternative) the case study area in order to find answers to design or design recommendations. the research questions. The case study can be considered as the specific field study (the third The problem here is that such an approach phase regarding the model). would give the research a relatively large amount of variables as it reflects a multitude According to the original model the following of paradigms across multiple disciplines. This (fourth) stage proposes beholds a return to is why it is important to have strong indicators the theoretical world to refine or modify the for research, to understand the relations of theoretical framework. Here an issue occurs the research and to describe these relations, because it is not the intention of this research and – possibly even more important – to use to redefine the theoretical models but rather to a research method that accommodates these find models and recommendations that would relations: a framework for triangulation across be appropriate within the Dutch planning disciplines (Mackay & Fayard, 1997). practice of transport planning and for the case study area – the research does not only requires In general, triangulation refers to the idea that conditions for analysis but also asks for design different research methods and studies should (recommendations). According to Mackay and be used to verify results within one paradigm. Fayard (1997) a design process is quite different But it is also possible to triangulate across from a scientific method. Thus, such design scientific and design disciplines – which would (recommendations) in the form of a concept be even more beneficial in disciplinary fields or model behold somewhere between the (Mackay & Fayard, 1997). The latter would be theoretical and the ‘real world’. appropriate for this research regarding the multi-dimensional component (fig. 1.9). But In the other research models that Mackay and then, how would such a research approach look Fayard (1997) present, a world in between the like? What research model is needed for this? theoretical and the ‘real world’ is indicated as ‘the design of artifacts’ or the ‘cognitive veil’, As said above the research is built on several described in a somewhat similar model of studies within theory and practice (reflecting Jesperson (2009). In classical science an artifact the interrelation between the theoretical and is seen as an error in research (for example, the empirical- or ‘real world’). Drawing on the an undesired alternation in data). But in social problem analysis and problem statement of and cultural terms (used in social sciences) an this research it might have become clear that it artefacts can be seen as projects or products starts with the observation of ‘the real world’ – designed and used by humans in order to solve current issues within the Dutch system of spatial problems or accomplish certain aims. There planning (fig. 1.10). This stage can be typed as are (a) primary artifacts used in production a general field study, which is further elaborated (e.g. telephone, spoon), (b) secondary artifacts in a survey and exploration of spatial planning which are representations of primary artifacts in the Netherlands (appendix A). However, the (e.g. user manual of a telephone) and (c) research starts in the empirical world and does tertiary artifacts which are representations of Fig. 1.10 Inductive research: theory vs. reality30 1.5 Research approach 31
  • 18. 1.5 Research approach 1.6 Introduction of the case study area secondary artifacts (Wartofsky, 1979). Artifacts The ‘Rijn Gouwe Lijn’ (RGL) and its region have been chosen as the case study for this do not necessarily have a physical form; research. But why is this project used as a case study? What are the characteristics of this especially for designers (such as architects) virtual artifacts or interactive artifacts are project and what are the conditions for the empirical research? In this section a short important communicative instruments that introduction of the project is given together with its related policies (and with the current reflect abstract patterns of thinking. Schmidt & developments regarding the project). Wagner (2002) illustrate the idea of an artefact with the multiplicity work of an architect. The architects use a large repertoire of artifacts such as sketches, scale models, images, renderings, The selection of the case study has been 1.6.1 Policies on infrastructure done according to some criteria – the chosen CAD plans, samples 3D visualizations, but also area needs to represent the issues that have development calculation sheets and text documents. These instruments fulfil coordinative functions – they been addressed in the problem statement; support internal and external communication regarding the administrative problems around What infrastructure policies can have an with involved actors. The architectural practice institutions and governance, and related to the influence on the project? One of the policies represents a multiplicity of (coordinative) integration of policies on mobility and land-use. that may have an influence is the so called artifacts. The spatial planning practice contains Therefore, the area should be a region where MIRT-policy, which is explained below. similar interdisciplinary and communicative plans are made for rail infrastructure that cross relationships. What can be argued now is various jurisdictions and which involves various that the system of spatial planning in the governments of different tiers (preferably Netherlands, which is neither theory nor municipalities and provincial administration) MIRT projects practice. It might be seen as artificially-created (fig. 1.11). In this respect the ‘Rijn Gouwe Lijn’ The national government presents a MIRT artifacts, rather than naturally-occurring (RGL) is chosen as the case study area for the project book every year, which are multiple phenomena. This approach where research empirical research. years investment programs for infrastructure, takes place within and between different worlds space and transport (Meerjarenprogramma This project is interesting because it always Ruimte, Infrastructuur en Transport) (fig. 1.12). of thinking (theoretical, empirical) with an in- has been marked by uncertainty and with MIRT-projects are the main infrastructural between level of artifacts or a cognitive veil is political, institutional, operational and spatial developments. The national government called ‘critical realism’ (Jespersen, 2009). challenges. Institutionally and operationally, supplies subsidies for the development of these One of the aims (or rather final aim) of this the project is known of its difficulties regarding projects (Rijksoverheid, 2011). research is to come up with a (conceptual) the decision-making process, the political model or design (recommendations) – or, a changes, the involved institutions, their interests MIRT-projects are national interventions set of design implications/criteria – regarding and agreements that have been made for that cross all governmental layers (fig. 1.13). integrated transport planning, at the level the project. In spatial terms the project was Provincial and mainly municipal governments of the case study area and at the level of the characterized by technical complexity and have little to say about these projects. They spatial planning system in the Netherlands. In marked by questions regarding the integration have to deal with it. This makes regions where this respect it might be argued here that the and adjustment of sectoral policies on mobility MIRT-projects will be planned or realized end product – that should anticipate on the and land-use. Recently it has been announced interesting locations for the empirical part of daily practice and theory of spatial planning – that the project is cancelled (in its intended the research. rather can be typed design of artefact rather form) – only some parts of the plans remained than a then a theoretical or practical model. (Leidsch Dagblad, 2012). An underlying Fig. 1.11 From national territory to case question for the case study area in that respect study area might be in how far it had come so far – the struggles around this project need to be figured 1.6.2 Geographical conditions out. What is the Rijn Gouwe Lijn (RGL), what are the But in order to find an answer to this a facts and characteristics around the project and better understanding of the case is needed its region? How can this region be defined? (input for research is needed). Therefore, In order to understand the geographical scale some expressions of the (decision-making) and technical challenges of the project some environment and the critical issues around the characteristics, facts and figures regarding project are explained below. the infrastructure project and its spatial and programmatic surroundings (the area wherein the project is positioned) are given.32 1. Introducton /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 1.6 Intrduction of the case study area 33
  • 19. 1.6 Introduction of the case study area 1. Introduction Infrastructure website Vervoersplanologie (2011) is also Two MIRT projects play an important role in announce that the vehicles will be using the the area between Leiden and Gouda (fig. 1.14). regular railway connection – the railway track They are related to each other and are currently is already there but the amount of stops will point of discussion. One of them was the ‘Rijn be increased (but less compared to the original Gouwe Lijn’ (RGL): the aim of this project was to plan agreed in 2005 with the general project develop a light rail connection from Noordwijk contract) and the frequency will be raised. Boulevard via Leiden, to Gouda central station. In the same area there is another MIRT project Thus, where in the original plans the vehicles planned: the so called RijnlandRoute (RR): the were supposed to run on different type of provincial road near Leiden will be widened tracks from the west coast all the way to Gouda and extended. Despite the possible effects both (East) and through the city centre of Leiden projects will have on each other (an interesting (without any transit), the project is now more case in itself), this graduation project focuses following the current situation, whereby several on the RGL because this project crosses several transits between different modes of transport municipal borders and represents therefore are needed when making a trip from the west an interesting case within the discourse of the coast to Gouda – on the western part of Leiden devolution process of spatial planning policies. there will be a ‘guided-bus-track’ (shuttle Another argument is that it would be simply busses) and from Leiden central station to the too much work in relation to the time available east frequencies of current existing railway lines to involve both projects into this graduation will be increased (but with transit on different project. Because the RGL project was divided in railway lines in Alphen a/d Rijn when travelling an east and a west side, the research will focus to Gouda (eastern part). Again it might be on one part of the project; the RGL-East from questioned here how it came this far; the Leiden to Gouda, which is already complex projects seems to be ‘emaciated’, regarding the enough on itself. original ambitions and plan departures – what can be learned from this project? Fig. 1.12 Several MIRT projects in the Randstad The RGL is divided in a western and an eastern part (namely the RGL-West and RGL-East). In its original form the RGL could be seen as a project where ‘hybrid’ transport vehicles would run as a Spatial development light rail through the western part of the region Both infrastructure projects in the area connect (from the west coast to Leiden – whereby the several towns and villages. As explained in the NATIONAL GOVERNANCE line should cross the city centre of Leiden), and model earlier infrastructure brings on activity Infrastructure Urban fabric would run on an already existing railway track and mobility which lead to new forms of on the east side running from Leiden via Alphen spatial development. It is interesting to look PROVINCIAL GOVERNANCE aan den Rijn to Gouda. On that east side the back in history and to see what infrastructure Infrastructure Urban fabric light rail vehicles were supposed to move in has meant for the area in terms of spatial between frequencies of regular trains (which development and on what locations this has MUNICIPAL GOVERNANCE were also scheduled on the same track). taken place. From brief observation it becomes Infrastructure Urban fabric clear that the area between Leiden and Gouda – During the research provincial government both classical Dutch cities with city rights (Cox, has decided to cancel the project in its original 2005) – have been car dependent during the form (Leidsch Dagblad, 2012). At the moment last decennia. This is well represented in the this hybrid construction is not part of concern type of industry – located around car roads – MIRT which is mainly oriented towards transport and anymore – vehicles will not run through the PROJECTS city centre of Leiden. The project now draws on distributional activities. plans that have been presented a year before (Vervoersplanologie, 2011) wherefrom becomes The densities of population are quite low Interaction model clear that the RGL-West is running from Leiden compared to other urbanized areas in the to Noordwijk Boulevard, as a so called ‘guided- Randstad (fig. 1.15, 1.16, 1.17). Except for Leiden Influence of MIRT projects bus track’. The RGL-East will connect Leiden and Gouda, these cities are already highly on urban sprawl through different and Gouda and several towns and villages connected to the main infrastructural network governmental scales in between with higher frequencies. On the in the Randstad. Fig. 1.13 Influence of MIRT projects34 1.6 Introduction of the case study area 35
  • 20. 1.6 Introduction of the case study area 1. Introduction 1.6.3 Territories 1.6.4 Use of data for empirical research Spatially, the region has been defined according to the infrastructure and spatial descriptions Most difficulties around the project which above. Institutionally, the region can be have been introduced above will be analysed defined by the involved territories. Because the in the empirical research (chapter 3). The infrastructure development is cross-border; critical issues around the project will also be several territories ( jurisdictions) are involved addressed more in detail at the beginning of Leiden in the regional project. In the empirical part of that section – a theoretical framework needs the research these territories with their specific to be formulated first (around the subjects jurisdictions and policies need to be taken into represented by the problem statement) in Alphen aan consideration. The following municipalities den Rijn order to assess the issues of the case study. The which are located along the axis of the gained knowledge by researches on theory and Zoeterwoude infrastructural project (the East part of the RGL on the daily practice of planning give room to from Leiden to Gouda) will be included into the strengthen the framework (including indicators) Rijnwoude research: for empirical assessment of the case study area, Boskoop which means that more specific questions to  Leiden; the case are formulated in a further stage.  Zoeterwoude; Because plan departures, involved actors, Rijn-Gouwelijn West attitudes, decisions and agreements on the  Rijnwoude; project have changed over time, it is important Rijn-Gouwelijn East Waddinxveen to use a starting point on which the analysis  Alphen aan den Rijn; of the case study area will be measured. The RijnlandRoute Gouda  Boskoop; analysis will take into account the original plans that where formally agreed in the general  Waddinxveen; project agreement of the RGL-East at July 2005. With the recommendations (for design) that  Gouda. follow after the analytical research on the area, the new situation will be taken into account. The provincial government which will be included in the research is Zuid-Holland. Fig. 1.14 Overview of the case study area Leiden ! € 73,6 mln 2 2 117.914 Municipality Population Surface area km Density pop/km Alphen aan Leiden 117.914 23,16 5.372 Zoeterwoude den Rijn 72.729 8.118 Zoeterwoude 8.118 21,91 383 Rijnwoude 18.511 Boskoop Rijnwoude 18.511 57,85 327 15.065 Alphen aan den Rijn 72.729 57,68 1.321 Waddinxveen Boskoop 15.065 16,96 1.014 25.282 Gouda Waddinxveen 25.282 29,39 905 71.096 40.579 Gouda 71.096 18,1 4.207 N N Total 328.715 225,05 1.461 Fig. 1.15 Figures of the involved authorities Fig. 1.16 Figures of the involved authorities Fig. 1.17 Figures of the involved authorities36 37
  • 21. 2 Title Integrative concepts from theory About The main question of this research is oriented towards the delivery of a possible planning mechanism that could help in addressing the issues of regional governance and of integration of policies around transport planning. In study on Dutch spatial planning the context of these issues has been explained (appendix A). But in order to assess such issues at the case study area a theoretical framework is needed. A framework that provides theoretical understanding of models and concepts, which makes it possible to take a look at the case from a critical point of view. Secondly, such theoretical models can support the main research question in finding an (alternative) planning mechanism for the case (and possibly, for similar projects of integrated transport planning within Dutch practice). The section contains several theoretical dimensions related to the subject of research and relevant for the case study area. The first theme contains spatial development concepts regarding integrated transport planning (space), the second is about the institutional capacity building which is needed for the support of the spatial concepts to integrated transport planning (institutions) and to address the issues of the ‘regional gap’. These concepts are followed by spatial planning strategies and funding mechanisms for integrated transport planning concepts (process). The section concludes with the formation of the assessment of the case study area, based on the theories of discussed in this chapter. Keywords TOD - Institutional capacity building - Policy adjustment - Strategic spatial planning Paragraphs #2.1 Space, institutions, process #2.2 Spatial concepts of integrated transport planning #2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment #2.4 Strategic planning and integrated funding concepts #2.5 The empirical assessment38 Fig. 2.1 Photograph: landscape Hazerswoude 39
  • 22. 2.1 Space, institutions, process 2. Integrative concepts from theory In the introduction of this thesis it has been mentioned that the subject is researched private bodies bounded by their expertise or according to a multi-dimensional TIP-model of Koppenjan and Groenewegen (2005) (fig. legal powers, need to create an institutional framework for adjustment of policies, together 2.2). This model allows incorporation of dimension-specific concepts (space, institutions with contracts and arrangements around the and process) and anticipates on the multi-dimensional content of the issues around regional content of the project. governance and integrated transport planning. But why is this model relevant? How do both issues relate to the dimensions of space, institutions and process? To make the triangle complete, a process design is needed because ‘in view of the complexity and multi-actor nature of technologically complex systems, a design cannot be a “blueprint” created through an Hartman et al. (2011) explain a certain case rules, cultures, customs, values and norms intellectual process by a designer behind a as a ‘situation’ (for example, a study on that structure the world view of planners. desk.’ (Koppenjan and Groenewegen, 2005: the potentials for a railway line with spatial The distinction between these dimensions 242). A process design can be made in developments around stations). The situation is recognized with the TIP-model (technical, order to facilitate the interactive processes can be analysed through scales and by different institutional, process) of Koppenjan and between stakeholders, for stimulating an angles or dimensions. The scales can be divided Groenewegen (2005). To a large extent, this arena or platform for discussions and for in macro level (long term expectations and approach corresponds with the dimensions defining the project in stages. For example, a trends, or the context of the issues), meso addressed by Hartman et al.: Koppenjan regional railway project which crosses various level (the issues represented at regional level and Groenewegen propose a format for an jurisdictions and thereby does an appeal on – the manifest and the core of the issue is (institutional) design for ‘complex technological various public authorities, needs a process considered at this level) and micro level (where systems’ such as transport infrastructure, which of negotiation between involved public and local consequences of changes at higher levels incorporate a ‘technical’, ‘institutional’ and private actors in order to align policies: legally, become apparent). ‘process’ design in order to steer developments financially, in terms of expertise etc. Defining within each of these particular dimensions. a strategy could be helpful for doing so, The exploration of the system of spatial Although the definitions are not the same, the placing the project in perspectives of time and planning in the Netherlands (appendix A) can need for a technical design seem to correspond decisions. be regarded as the observations at macro level, with the ‘material’ dimension of Hartman et where trends and institutional environment al., because Koppenjan and Groenewegen also In order to make a spatial, institutional or have been studied (which form the context consider transport systems (rail, road, water, operational design, supporting concepts can of this study). The subject and supporting tube) as technological systems (next to non- be helpful. From the perspective of integrated questions of this study are intended to address physical systems as information system, e.g. transport planning such concepts are addressed the issues at regional scale; the meso level. It internet). In terms of the case study however, in the next paragraphs, according to the three is expected that the case study area (the RGL- the RGL transport project which is a railway line, dimensions. Each dimension will be translated railway project and its region) represents those can be considered as the spatial or technical to the situation of the case study, together with issues; therefore it is considered as the core of dimension that needs a design to become some appropriate concepts which are supposed the study. The stations and their transit zones realized or adjusted. to address the issues occurring within each of along the railway line can be considered as the dimensions. the micro level – agreements made at higher Koppenjan and Groenewegen argue that authorities around adjustment of spatial such technical systems also ‘pre-supposes development around stations (or absence of coordination of the behavior of parties those agreements) may have consequences for necessary to make the system function (…) Space Institutions the development at these locations. which is organized through institutional arrangements that regulate the positions and Because this research particularly takes place at relations between parties. In addition to a regional level, it makes sense to take the other technological design, an institutional design is Study & variables of this model into consideration; the also needed.’ (pp. 242). They further argue that Design ‘material’, ‘organizational’ and ‘institutional’ an institutional design is not separate from dimension. According to Hartman et al. (2011) technological design nor it is determined by the material dimension is about the physical it. Considering the railway project at the case and morphological elements and their mutual study, this would mean that also an institutional relation. The organizational dimension is design is needed to support the technical and about actors and their organizations and the spatial intentions of the project – actors, such Process institutional dimensional dimension comprises as governments of various tiers and (semi-) Fig. 2.2 Schematic model of spatial, insitutional and operational dimension40 2. Integrative concepts from theory /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 2.1 Space, institutions, process 41
  • 23. 2.2 Spatial concepts of integrated transport planning 2. Integrative concepts from theory This paragraph draws on the spatial part of the main research question; what are the issues co-determines location decisions place singly or in combination: (1) expansion around the integration of policies on infrastructure and land-use and what planning concepts and so results in changes of the land of existing town, (2) corridor development, use system (Dieleman & Wegener, (3) ribbon development, or (4) sprawl or can facilitate the integration such policies? The purpose is to find appropriate concepts in 2004:310), drawing on Hansen (1959). dispersed development (fig. 2.3). Corridor and terms of integrated transport planning and to place the spatial assessment of the case study ribbon development both might be seen as in perspective. This also means that before the bridge can be made to such spatial concepts, Within the comprehensive approach of the linear development types. He further explains the spatial conditions that require such concepts need to be addressed: the understanding Netherlands government has policies for that the type of spatial development (its of spatial relations from a theoretical point of view and how these could be expressed in the both infrastructure and land-use (appendix form) could have an influence on traffic and A). The way in which this interaction between mobility, wildlife, biodiversity, financial costs of case study area. The issues within the spatial dimension should address the necessity for infrastructure and land-use takes place is infrastructure, the viability of existing services (alternative) spatial concepts around integrated transport planning. therefore also determined by government and facilities, the composition of the population policies and not only by spatial interactions. For and might lead to undesirable segregation. the case study area, which concerns a railway line together with station and agreed numbers These questions indicate the influences of of spatial developments between involved spatial development on other closely related The spatial dimension (or material dimension) ‘The compactness of the medieval city resulted participants, it would be interesting to see dimensions such as environmental quality can be decomposed in two spatial categories; from the need for fortifications and from the how these elements of transport and land-use (biodiversity), mobility, social welfare, economic the physical and the morphological elements fact that most trips had to be made on foot. influence each other, what (sectoral) policies growth and spatial coherency. If spatial (Hartman et al., 2011). Subsequently, the When these two constraints disappeared in have been used and in how far these have been development stays controlled (up to a certain undesired outcomes of such spatial interactions the nineteenth century, urban development, adjusted for steering this interactions. extend), its consequences for other aspects or existing spatial policies are explained. following this paradigm, largely became a will not be totally unforeseen and may be Finally this leads to the spatial policies (from a function of transport technology.’ (Dieleman reduced, or might even be improved. This can theoretical point of view and not as in study on & Wegener, 2004:310). As an example of these be achieved with ‘integrated development’ the Dutch planning context – appendix A) and developments in the nineteenth century they concepts of spatial development which are able mention one of the first studies on the spatial 2.2.2 Morphological elements: approaches (where sectoral policies are being integrated). With a lack of control within to address the spatial issues around integrated development of cities (Hansen, 1959). ‘This types of development spatial development, or in the case of spatial transport planning. research shows the inter-relationship between policies being misused, this may damage the transport (and thereby infrastructure) and The appearance of spatial interaction as other aspects. This poor appearance of spatial spatial development of cities: locations with explained above goes accompanied with development, often as unforeseen outcomes good accessibility had a higher chance of being rural-urban land conversions (Wasilewski & of policies or non-policies can be headed as 2.2.1 Physical elements: developed, and at a higher density, than remote Krukowski, 2003) or land allocations (Fleischer ‘urban sprawl’ (Squires, 2002). locations.’ (Dieleman & Wegener, 2004:310). infrastructure & land-use Hansen explained this in a model called ‘land- & Tsur, 2009), which are processes whereby use transport feedback cycle’ which works as open land is being transformed into urban follow: built up areas – the so called greenfields. Such Because the subject of research is mainly Undesired outcomes of spatial processes lead to different type of spatial about ‘integrated transport planning’ and involves integration of policies on infrastructure  The distribution of land uses, such as development patterns: it can be argued for development residential, industrial or commercial, instance, that when more greenfields are used Although the undesired outcomes of spatial and land-use, it can be questioned why it is over the urban area determines the for spatial development, this creates another development do not form the main topic of needed to integrate such policies. What are the locations of human activities such as type of spatial morphology compared to spatial this research they do need a short explanation underlying spatial conditions for integration of living, working, shopping, education or developments on existing locations. But what because it is important understand the negative transport and spatial development policies? leisure. are the spatial development options in terms outcomes of spatial interaction – the urban Not surprisingly, one of the underlying spatial of spatial morphology? And what patterns are growth process addressed above – in order  The distribution of human activities considered as ‘undesired’? This might be useful to show what is ‘supposed to be avoided’. conditions can be found in the relation between in space requires spatial interactions to know, in order to understand the spatial This does not mean that the process of urban infrastructure and land-use (urban growth or, or trips in the transport system to ‘characteristics’ of the region, connected by the growth is only negative; it also has benefits spatial development). In order to understand overcome the distance between the RGL-project (the case study). (urban and economic growth often goes hand this relation it might be helpful to explain a locations of activities. in hand). model of this interaction. For the location it is important to understand theory which explains  The distribution of infrastructure in the Undesired outcomes of spatial development how (urban) spatial development takes place. transport system creates opportunities Dieleman and Wegener (2004) address theories Types of spatial development and can be subdivided in two dimensions which are for spatial interactions and can be of concern in the Netherlands: of urban sprawl. In their paradigm of urban measured as accessibility. their impact on other factors development they say that technical conditions In his book Needham (2007) mentions several  urban sprawl (spatial morphological determine the internal organization of cities:  The distribution of accessibility in space types of spatial development which can take expression, related to form, insufficient42 2. Integrative concepts from theory /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 2.2 Spatial concepts of integrated transport planning 43
  • 24. 2.2 Spatial concepts of integrated transport planning 2. Integrative concepts from theory policies, lack of authority); market outcomes (Krabben & Van Dinteren, ‘nuclearity’, mixed uses and proximity (Galster the combined effect of growing affluence, 2010) and territorial governance in particular. et al., 2001). Others (Ewing et al., 2002) mention changing lifestyles and the vast advance in  oversupply of allocated land and low development density, segregated land personal mobility made possible by the private property (programmatic expression, This also might be seen as one of the reasons used, lack of significant centres and poor street automobile.’ (pp. 309). With car use connectivity misuse of policies, competing interests, that in the Netherlands the term urban sprawl accessibility. becomes more important than proximity. lack of coordination within territorial is a little unconventional, but why oversupply Considering the spatial development patterns governance both horizontal and of allocated land and property is one of In fact urban sprawl can be simply explained of Needham (2007) and its consequences vertical). the most urgent problems within the field according to a brief simulation of urban again, a link can be made between linear and of spatial planning (indicated as one of the growth process addressed above: an area dispersed developments along car roads, more Maybe the main difference between the two trends in appendix A); at least 15 per cent of has been urbanized by the process of spatial difficult and more expensive to connect by dimensions can be seen in the idea that urban all municipalities in the Netherlands suffer interaction between infrastructure and public transport because of their widespread sprawl is more a natural process related to form, from oversupply of allocated land or property land-use, but the authority of that area has distances. This is a development which is not caused by the changing the patterns of socio- (ANP, 2012) – oversupply is partly the result of insufficient spatial policies to control urban desired from the perspective of integrated economic interactions (Salet, 2006), together the rural-urban land conversions as property growth or has insufficient capacity to respond transport planning which aims for connectivity with insufficient spatial development and investment. to external influences such as economic or and compact developments around transit planning policies, and with a lack of authority. mutual competition (Janssen-Jansen, 2010). nodes (VTPI, 2011). Oversupply might be seen more as an artificial Despite that urban sprawl does not seem to be The urbanized area has an attractive business undesired outcome and a product of competing as dramatic compared to countries with very climate and has a growing population. In As the simulation explained above already interests, competing policies or a misuse of little spatial planning policies, it might be useful this situation the urban area needs to extend illustrated, another important factor which goes spatial policies and a lack of coordination to take a closer look at the expressions of urban according to its demand, but does this in its accompanied with poor spatial development between public authorities (horizontal and sprawl, and its causes – possibly such patterns cheapest possible way (also because of pressure can be found in the negative expression vertical – multilevel governance). To continue, can be found at the case study area. According of the competitive market). In this form spatial of ‘externalities’ – it can be considered urban sprawl may be seen as a pure negative to Squires (2002) urban sprawl can be defined development can lead to endless suburban a an underlying component for spatial spatial expression, as a product of spatial as: ‘…a pattern of urban and metropolitan areas – which can be seen as urban sprawl, issues of urban sprawl and oversupply. The interactions without spatial control. And growth that reflects low-density, automobile- characterized by low densities, no diversity understanding of externalities might address although oversupply of allocated land and dependent, exclusionary new development on (single use), ‘strip and leapfrog developments’, the importance for regional governance. property is also a physical problem it might the fringe of settled areas often surrounding segregated land used, lack of significant centres be interpreted as a negative programmatic a deteriotating city.’ (pp. 2). Urban sprawl and poor street accessibility (causing excessive Several expressions of externalities have been expression (often characterized with contains several dimensions: sprawl, density, travel time and costs) (Dieleman & Wegener, described: political externalities (Zywicki, 1998; monofunctional development) of undesired continuity, concentration, clustering, centrality, 2004) Depoorter, 2006), environmental externalities (Zywicki, 1998), economic externalities (Aidt, According to Dieleman & Wegener (2004) 1998), agglomeration externalities (Meijers urban sprawl has the following causes: & Burger, 2009; De Vor & De Groot, 2010), positive and negative externalities (Netessine 1. General causes relating to the general & Zhang, 2005; Jou & Lee, 2008), regional and drift of change in developed societies; urbanization externalities (Meijers & Burger, n of 2009), to mention some. nsio expa g town 2. Insufficient government policy, spatial in exist t me n planning related. Originally, the term ‘externalities’ comes from n of p nsio expa g town ve lo economic literature. In the end externalities in de The first reason is mainly present in Western can always be expressed in financial costs or exist id or c orr society, where under the network society benefits. Sankar (2006) does an attempt to socio-economic interactions changed rapidly, explain the definition: and where territorial planning agencies have not been able to respond to these changes ‘Externalities arise when certain actions of immediately (Dieleman & Wegener, 2004; producers or consumers have unintended Salet, 2006). In third world cities which have external (indirect) effects on other producers or/ been affected by globalization the absence of and consumers. Externalities may be positive rib bo spatial policies plays a more important role. or negative. Positive externality arises when nd ev Historical and technological factors such as an action by an individual or a group confers elo sprawl pm car use also have been mentioned in literature benefits to others. A technological spillover is a en t (Dieleman & Wegener, 2004) as one of the positive externality and it occurs when a firm’s major contributors to urban sprawl, because invention not only benefits the firm but also the reaching distance by car is almost unlimited enters into the society’s pool of technological and it makes the driver less dependent on other knowledge and benefits the society as a whole. ways of transport – it gives the driver individual Negative externalities arise when an action by freedom. They state that: ‘urban sprawl is an individual or group produces harmful effects Fig. 2.3 Schematic diagram of options for urban development (Needham, 2007)44 2.2 Spatial concepts of integrated transport planning 45
  • 25. 2.2 Spatial concepts of integrated transport planning 2. Integrative concepts from theory on others.’ (pp. 1) been mentioned throughout this section. The are relevant because the case study area diagram of urban forms can be projected on concerns a project of cross-border, regional Thus, externalities can be interpreted as extra the case study area, which may help to find transport infrastructure connecting multiple costs which have been brought forward by and support an appropriate spatial concept or networks and locations for spatial development. decisions; decisions which might have been approach for the area. These concepts of spatial development get positive for the initiators, but unforeseen and negative for others. In terms of space, Drawing on the spatial interactions and specific attention below. 1 externalities can be interpreted as the development patterns above, it can be said situation whereby an authority takes (spatial that spatial networks have become important. planning) decisions for its own territory, which Also in theoretical approaches can be seen that 2.2.3 Transit oriented have an influence on the social, spatial or economic conditions in another jurisdiction. development In the Netherlands, this can be expressed in competing (specific) public facilities such Regarding the interactive relation between as swimming pools, theatres and shopping the development of mobility and land-use, malls within one region, but also in the and its possibility for producing ‘undesired quantitative sum of spatial program such as housing stuck, industrial estates and office development outcomes’ expressed by sprawl 2 and mono-supply or oversupply, it can be parks. In such situations the region can get questioned what spatial planning concept out of balance; too much mutual competition, can address such negative externalities of too less diversification, too less specialization spatial development – one that recognizes and – according to the variables of externalities anticipates on this mutual depended relation addressed by De Vor and De Groot (2010). of mobility and land-use. It might be argued It often might be matter of competition, that with the approaches to integrated transport where the one authority wants to distinct itself planning answers can be found. If it comes from the others. This can be associated with to spatial planning of regional infrastructure authorities having high ambitions to support planning, different transport approaches can labour activity, economic growth, attractivity be distinguished according to Curtis and James or liveability within their territories. Without Fig. 2.4 Schematic diagram of spatial patterns (2004) (fig. 2.5): 3 sufficient communication or coordination (Meijers & Burger, 2009) 1. Single modes; between public authorities this may lead to poor spatial development outcomes such as 2. Multi-modes; urban sprawl or oversupply in a region. In theory also can be found that both oversupply spatial planning has become more network 3. Accessibility modes (which can also (De Vor & De Groot, 2010) and urban sprawl oriented, which is characterized by new spatial be interpreted as Transit Oriented (Meijers & Burger, 2009) can be a result of concepts such as ‘networks of polycentricity’ Fig. 2.5 Schematic diagram of different Development – TOD). externalities. or ‘polycentic complexity’ (Salet, 2006). This transport approaches (Curtis & James, 2004) is reflected in literature of concepts drawing The single mode transport approach is Clear communication and coordination on polycentricity: polycentricity as a spatial characterized with the development of specific between authorities in one region (Janssen- planning strategy (Davoudi, 2003), as a model mode network plans which can be about roads transport lines are well connected or integrated Jansen, 2010), and clear spatial visions and (monocentric versus polycentric model) or public transport. Within this approach each and different interests are shared between the concepts for that region (Hartman et al., (Davoudi, 2003), and as green concepts (from mode-specific agency has its own interest and public transport agencies. In this situation, 2011) should avoid undesired spatial planning green belts to green infrastructure) (Amati & is (not always) concerned with the nodes along the bus stop at the front of a train station and outcomes and incorporate ‘free riders’. Taylor, 2010), or also in the form of cohesion the specific transport line. This can be a public planning of transport modes is adapted to policies (Faludi, 2005): ‘polycentric territorial transport company providing bus transfers; in each other. In such situations, land use patterns Now it is reasonable to make the bridge again cohesion policy’. Within such theories spatial its planning the company does not take into often follow the conditions of the integrated to morphologies of spatial patterns. Meijers development takes place among networks; account other public transport modes and stops transport plan. Thus land use is treated & Burger (2009) talk about consequences linear or around nodes. Through the latter the along the bus line are not well connected to passively. With the accessibility approach of externalities on the spatial structure and bridge can be made to ‘nodal development’ stations of other public transport modes such land use and integrated transport planning is relate this to the urban form (fig. 2.4). They (Filion, 2009), a spatial development type as subway or train. The multi-modal approach better integrated and makes better and more explain this according to a diagram with two wherefore promising and appropriate spatial goes a step further and comprises integrated intensive use of the geographical aspects of the axes: (1) between centralized and dispersed concepts such as ‘transit oriented development’ transport plans. This approach concerns a specific site. This approach is applied through development, and (2) monocentric and (Curtis et al., 2009) and ‘integrated transport broader transport perspective where different the use of place-based plans where land use polycentric development. In fact this diagram policies’ (Curtis & James, 2004; Bertolini et al., modes of transport are better integrated and planning, transport planning and urban design brings together the spatial options which have 2005; Hull, 2005) can be found. These concepts adjusted on each other. The nodes along the are brought together. The geographical aspects46 2. Integrative concepts from theory /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 2.2 Spatial concepts of integrated transport planning 47
  • 26. 2.2 Spatial concepts of integrated transport planning 2. Integrative concepts from theory especially refer to the quality of the space design principles that facilitate implementation? community is extremely important if it comes to openness of space etc.) because nodes should around a transport node, where the following the liveliness and activity of a neighbourhood. be approached as places with potential qualities components can play a role (Curtis & James, Specific (spatial) guidelines and conditions This means that with regional visioning around – which is called place-making orientation 2004: 286): for TOD can be found in the online database TOD, collaboration with the community must (VTPI, 2011). Every type of node needs another of the Victoria Transport Policy Institute. be taken into account and should be seen one adjusted approach. Based on the experiences  Spatial land use patterns (e.g. mixed According to the best practices in TOD of the measurements for the implementation of of the project ‘Stedenbaan’ in the South Wing use); (VTPI, 2011) the following points of attention TOD (Curtis et al., 2009). Additionally, it is not of the Randstad in the Netherlands, Balz and should be considered when it comes to the hard to understand that planning approaches Schrijnen (2009) have distinguished nine  Form of the physical environment at implementation of the concept: as TOD are often complex and require intensive degrees in potential developments, based on a sub-regional and local level (e.g. cooperation among wide and multiple ranges qualitative spatial dimensions: the interface between the transport  Create a vision for an attractive of stakeholders and those who are affected network and adjacent land uses); community. by the policies (Bertolini et al., 2005). The 1. Rural Areas: spaces in the middle of the organizational and institutional perspective on landscape for housing development in  Potential of economic and social drivers  Integrate transit and land use planning. TOD will be addressed under the next heading the countryside and recreational use. (e.g. retail shopping and employment). of institutional capacity building.  Provide high quality pedestrian and 2. Small Towns: new housing sites close In this situation, the different modes of cycling facilities around transit stations, Despite the spatial theories on TOD tend to be to small towns that can expand transport such as bus and train are well based on universal design. very technical, they sometimes focus on spatial into autonomous, compact, lively, integrated, and the integrated multifarious qualities also. As said above, regarding the multifaceted communities set in the nodes are positioned in a lively spatial  Manage parking to minimize the scope of this research (the case study) the focus countryside. surrounding with public facilities such as a amount of land devoted to vehicle will be on the latter – technical details of TOD town hall, a library, commercial centres, but parking around stations. will not be used in the assessment of the case 3. Outskirts of Cities: restructuring areas also social housing. In this way, the spatial study. With having the case study in mind, also on the quiet, spacious and green edges environment supports an active multiple  Encourage car sharing to reduce the these spatial qualitative aspects of the concept of the cities; these qualities can be transportation network (high frequencies) and need to own automobiles. need attention because (A) first observations consolidated, enhanced and used. vice versa. of the case study show a variety in spatial  Create compact, mixed-used 4. Cities of the Future: easily accessible environment around stations of the RGL-project For the case study it can be questioned to what communities. and dense housing areas; can gradually (rural follows urban landscape etc.). Secondly extent or degree integrated transport planning (B), it can be investigated in how far the project expand into mixed use developments took place around the project – did the  Create complete communities, with with their own identity. shops, schools and other services within corresponds with the spatial ambitions for the approach of the RGL-project correspond with region as a whole and in how far it corresponds the single mode, multi-mode or accessibility convenient walking distances within the 5. Business Sites: extensively used areas TOD neighborhoods. to the spatial characteristics, addressed above – mode of transport planning? Because for the the (spatial) embedding of the project. along the motorway to be turned into RGL-project a financial link between spatial intensively used employment zones. development and the railway line can be  Structure property taxes, development found, it is expected that the degree to which fees and utility rates to reflect the lower 6. Regional Crossroads: areas linked to one integrated transport planning took place public service costs of clustered, infill of the major motorways intersections corresponds most with the accessibility mode. development. A. Spatial differentiation by in the South Wing; highly suitable distinction of station typologies for developing services with a supra- The latter approach of Curtis and James is often  Understand and expand the market When thinking of qualitative approaches of regional function. associated with the spatial planning concept of for Transit Oriented Development. TOD also the stations can be considered, ‘transit oriented development’ (TOD). According Identify the types of households and because transit oriented developments take 7. Randstad Hubs: not intensively used to the Victoria Transport Policy Institute businesses that are most amenable to place around nodes (e.g. nodal development). areas, but highly accessible by road and (VTPI, 2011) TOD promotes: ‘…residential and TODs. Educate public officials, planners, But this does not mean the nodes are generic local public transport; excellent places commercial districts located around a transit developers, residents and business and similar to each other – a single node (A) for experimental new employment and station or corridor with high quality service, managers concerning the potential in a poor populated rural area is not the same mixed use areas. with good walkability, parking management and benefits of locating in a Transit Oriented as a transit node (B) in a high populated city other design features that facilitate transit use Development. centre. Earlier in this section the distinction 8. Creative Cities: urban centres accessible and maximize overall accessibility.’ (website). has been made between purely functional by every mode of transport well suited But a further understanding is needed in order  Encouraging commercial development or single nodes and ‘integrating centres of to new urban-type dwellings and to assess the case study project according around transit stations. multifarious interaction’. These typologies creative workplaces. to the requirements of TOD and in order to depend on the combination of transport From this list, visioning an attractive community modes or infrastructural networks. Anyhow, 9. City Centres: key sites, well served by make this concept applicable at the case study might be one of the most important aspects the emphasis should be on a more refined every mode of public transport but less area (in the last stage of this research, when with regard to the case study area. It needs to distinction between the nodes based on accessible by car; will have to be better (alternative design) recommendations or be said that TOD may not be successful without qualitative factors (environmental characteristics designed for users of public transport. proposals are done): What characterizes the sufficient cooperation of the community. The such as functional program, cultural diversity, concept or mechanism of TOD? What are the48 2. Integrative concepts from theory /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 2.2 Spatial concepts of integrated transport planning 49
  • 27. 2.2 Spatial concepts of integrated transport planning 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment This set of nodal typologies and station 2.2.4 How to apply at the case As the changing use of space does no longer meet with the institutional configuration (Salet, characteristics can be useful to assess the RGL project in the case study area on differentiation study? 2006; Salet & Woltjer, 2009), together with the existence of a ‘regional gap’ created by an in spatial developments along the line, because uncovered ‘institutional void’ between provincial and municipal authorities (Zonneveld this area is characterized with a similar diverse et al. 2012), it make sense to investigate what institutional structure can respond to these As said above in this paragraph, the interaction landscape as project Stedenbaan. Secondly, this between mobility and land-use, or conflicts spatial and institutional changes – especially in the case of regional integrative transport approach might be helpful for the application between policies on both sectors can lead to projects which are in need of adaptive spatial concepts as TOD. This raises the following of a ‘refined’ TOD concept for the RGL project, negative externalities, expressed by undesired questions: What institutional concept is needed to support a spatial concept as TOD? In how as a possible alternative to the current practice development outcomes such as mono- or of policy adjustment on mobility and land- far do policies around transport projects (similar to the case study) need to be aligned, in oversupply of functional program (e.g. program order to support a concept as TOD? What resources are needed for doing so? This asks for a use. This refined approach of TOD regarded as of offices, housing, industry or commercial integrated transport planning that recognizes functions). In order to investigate (and avoid) further observation of adaptive institutional models which have the capacity to deal with the different types of stations in the area and which such undesired outcomes a few studies can be dynamic institutional environment around large scale transport infrastructure projects. This proposes tailored development concepts for done on the RGL project: paragraph draws on the institutional part of the main research question; what are the issues each station according to their characteristics. of governance between local planning agencies involved in regional transport infrastructure 1. To define or apply an integral transport planning concept it can be questioned projects and what institutional concepts or models can address these issues? The purpose is to to what extent or degree integrated find appropriate institutional concepts related to integrated transport planning and to place B. Spatial embedding of the project transport planning took place around the institutional assessment of the case study in perspective. in its region the project – did the approach of the At the case study area the ‘embeddedness’ RGL-project correspond with the single of the project in relation to the region can be mode, multi-mode or accessibility mode researched according to the following question: of transport planning? Within this institutional dimension, these and planning. Nevertheless, cooperation In how far does the concept behind the RGL 2. To define the spatial differentiation (dynamic) institutional environments and the is considered here as a substantial part of project meet with the development concept of the transit zones along the line or meaning of institutions need to be explored institutional capacity because it can also be for the region – if there is any concept or vision for the proposal of a ‘tailored’ TOD first in order to come to specific institutional seen from the perspective of policy adjustment for both? This can be ‘measured’ by linking concept as an alternative for the current concepts that can be useful for the project at which will be explained in this section. those concepts together. The importance of practice, the project can be analysed the case study area. an (adaptive) regional concept is addressed The institutional dimension is characterized by Hartman et al. (2011) and Zandbelt (2011). through the distinction of station typologies. What are the spatial and The institutional dimension appears in by some substantial features. Coordination, With a regional concept they aim for a more literature in terms of ‘institutional practices’, integration and cooperation of policy flexible approach that responds to the changing programmatic implications of the RGL? What type of station environments ‘institutional density’ (Hajer & Zonneveld, adjustment could be seen as one of the dynamics in the region (adaptive planning), 2000), ‘institutional conditions’, ‘institutional key activities. Together with institutional address the need for acknowledging the can be found along the line? How are the nodes connected to other ambitions’, ‘institutional strategies’, ‘institutional arrangements, policy adjustments take place spatial qualities within the region (qualitative configurations’ (Salet, 2006) and ‘institutional within different contexts, within different embedding: what characterizes the region?) public transport modes (multifarious nodes of interaction)? What type of models’ (Curtis & James, 2004), to mention layers at different scales, formal and informal, and address the importance of defining the some. It can be interpreted in different ways. between public, semi-public and private players. key interventions/projects in the region that developments can be found around the nodes? What building heights do these For this reason it is important to describe the support the ambitions for the region. Especially meaning of institutions within this research. the latter argument can be important for buildings have? Institutions may be laws and regulations, addressing the link between the RGL-project and the vision for the region: In how far does 3. At the case study area the policies, contracts [or arrangements (Curtis 2.3.1 Types of institutions and ‘embeddedness’ of the project in & James, 2004)] and organizations [or social the RGL support the regional vision? Is the relation to the region can be researched agencies (Boelens, 2009)], which regulate and their relations project seen as the instrument to realize the coordinate the behavior of actors in complex regional ambitions or was the project an according to the following question: In how far does the concept behind the networks (Koppenjan & Groenewegen, 2005). Within the institutional dimension, it makes ambition on its own? The latter might be interpreted in a different RGL project meet with the development sense to take a more refined look at the concept for the region – if there is way; the behavior of actors has more to do appearance of institutions and their relations, in any concept or vision for both? In with the process of decision making, of the order to understand the institutional context of how far does the RGL support the implementation of a specific project, and the case study from a theoretical perspective. A regional vision? Is the project seen as often concerns public-private structures of distinction can be made, in the different layers the instrument to realize the regional cooperation (Stead & Meijers, 2004). From that where coordination takes place and wherein ambitions or was the project an perspective it might be argued that cooperation institutional arrangements are being agreed. ambition on its own? more touches upon the dimension of process The term layer refers to a vertical orientation.50 2. Integrative concepts from theory /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment 51
  • 28. 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment 2. Integrative concepts from theory There are also theoretical approaches to Within the discussion of top-down and institutional structures with a particularly bottom-up planning approaches addressed horizontal orientation. as one of the trends addressed in the study on Dutch spatial planning (appendix A), this relation between the institutional layers and their powers play an important role in Institutional layers the legitimation of decisions. Should spatial Koppenjan and Groenewegen (2005) make development take place in a predominantly a distinction between different institutional informal institutional environment (layer environments according to a ‘four-layer model’. 4: bottom-up), as the model of Koppenjan The model represents four types of institutions and Groenewegen pronounces, or in a more and their environment with a vertical relation formal institutional environment (layer 3: top- (fig. 2.6): down)? This might depend on how powerful an institutional layer is, but also on the type  Layer 1: Actors and games of project and who it may concern. It might be argued here that the two opposites of  Layer 2: Formal and informal top-down and bottom-up approaches are institutional arrangements always interdependent on each other and there is always a certain balance between the  Layer 3: Formal institutional institutional layers. environment  Layer 4: Informal institutional environment Nested territorial institutions & The model starts with the fourth level of strategies of flexible response the ‘informal institutional environment’ From another perspective, a distinction can (characterized by culture, norms, values, be made between the ‘nested territorial orientation and codes). This informal institutions’ and the ‘constitution of strategies institutional environment can be seen as the of flexible response’ (Salet, 2006). As the name most flexible layer, close to society and quickly already says, the ‘nested territorial institutions’ responding to social and economic interactions, are often characterized with a long tradition of in contrast with the relatively slow responding existence and are supported by formal rules, formal institutional environment, formed by laws, regulations and constitutions. Within ‘nested territorial institutions’ (Salet, 2006) the four-layer model of institutional layers operating in a political climate ‘that has little by Koppenjan and Groenewegen, the nested tolerance for intertwinement of public and territorial institutions can be positioned in the private interests and where self-enrichment ‘formal institutional environment’ (layer 3). and waste of government money is relevant.’ These institutions can be public administrations (Koppenjan & Groenewegen, 2005: 248 – table with their own jurisdictions such as provincial 1). Secondly the model shows the important or municipal governments, but also water influence of the fourth layer of the informal boards. The jurisdictions often overlap – the institutional environment on other levels – Dutch network of governmental agencies is the influence on the mindset of agents in characterized with an ‘institutional density’ networks at the first level: ‘this level influences (Hajer & Zonneveld, 2000). the perceptions of agents with respect to the problems they identify and the solutions In addition, due of the changing conditions they consider feasible. It determines what pushed forward by the network society, the kind of incentive structures are acceptable nested territorial institutions do not always and what would be effective.’ (Koppenjan & have sufficient institutional capacity; when their Groenewegen, 2005: 246)). From this point of jurisdictions do not cover projects or relations view it might be argued that the other layers of which are cross-border, and with the absence institutions are partly or should be based on the of direct financial resources, specific knowledge informal institutional environment in order to or legal power. Such uncovered ‘institutional Fig. 2.6 Schematic diagram of institutional layers (Koppenjan & Groenewegen, 2005) legitimate decisions. and governance types (Hooghe & Marks, 2003)52 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment 53
  • 29. 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment 2. Integrative concepts from theory voids’ in the Netherlands often take place at represent the horizontal organizational structure multiple institutional layers. The rescaling and or in other words, that governance Type II will the regional level (Zonneveld et al., 2012). As of institutions and agreements. Strategies repositioning of the institutional structures not work without Type I (Hooghe & Marks, mentioned in the introduction of the thesis of flexible response commonly take place around such projects is characterized with 2003). Type II governance (temporary from (chapter 1), these ‘regional gaps’ can be seen according to rules and laws, which make them both vertical and horizontal agreements, which character) is needed to fill the gaps between as an uncovered ‘institutional void’ between formal institutional structures. The relation require a lot of coordination and integration. the nested territorial institutions. Therefore provinces (the formal regional government) and between the nested territorial institutions and This will be explained below. inter-governmental arrangements are being state, and between province and municipalities. strategies of flexible response can also be made. Such processes are also called the At these administrative gaps at regional level compared with the two types of governance, ‘spatiotemporal fix’ (Allmendinger & Haughton, (provincial government) most challenges briefly described in an article by Zonneveld 2009) or ‘mutual fit’ (Salet, 2006). take place in terms of governance and policy (2010), drawing on Hooghe and Marks (2003): 2.3.2 Institutional With the recent chosen path of the national integration. In particular, this is the case with regional infrastructure projects, which cross  Type I: based on official public authority arrangements: ‘the mutual fit’ government of devolution of planning tasks multiple jurisdictions. boundaries and the hierarchical – which are not of national importance – to relationships between tiers of agencies at a lower administrative level (both Institutional arrangements can have a vertical According to Allmendinger & Haughton government. It reflects the world of provincial and municipal), the discourse of and a horizontal dimension. Arrangements (2009) such projects can be placed in the formal spatial planning which is usually horizontal institutional agreements have have a (multilateral) vertical dimension if they perspective of ‘soft spaces’: where hard spaces legitimized through the conventional become even more important. This exploration have been made between different layers are considered as the legal jurisdictions, the methods of political decision-making. of can be positioned in the context of the of institutions. In a horizontal dimension soft spaces can be cross-border and have institutional layers mentioned above: the  Type II: based on specific planning arrangements are made between institutions ‘fuzzy boundaries’. They furtherer argue that discussion on inner- and intra-governmental tasks. The spatial boundaries and the on the same layer. The latter needs further with a ‘spatial focus of strategy’ the types of arrangements takes place in a horizontal cast of players are both open. Often, explanation. spaces can be interpreted. These spaces need organizational structure of institutions and appropriate forms of governance; where hard Type II governance is ad hoc, project agreements (layer 2). Institutional arrangements between public spaces are characterized by ‘government bound, and therefore flexible. institutions know a long tradition in the Dutch bodies’, soft-spaces may be governed by culture of spatial planning (in the study on ‘non-governmental bodies’.In such cases the Looking at the characteristics, Governance Type I is comparable with the tasks of nested Dutch planning (appendix A) explained as nested territorial institutions often miss the territorial institutions. Governance Type II takes the process of negotiation). In the current 2.3.3 Adjustment of policies: institutional capacity and are in need of flexible, planning system, (local) planning agencies (temporary) strategic institutional frameworks place around the constitution of strategies have access to instruments such as ‘indicative integration, coordination, which can respond quickly to social, economic of flexible response. Also Albrechts (2006) and spatial changes, and have legal powers and Allmendinger and Haughton (2009) plans’ and ‘planning documents’ (e.g. structure cooperation acknowledge this relation in their articles by visions – appendix A) which in general form for the governance of cross-border issues. the key for inner-governmental agreements Such structures are called ‘the constitution of saying that strategic spatial planning often is The institutional environments and structures accompanied with new forms of institutional (Hajer & Zonneveld, 2000). Regarding the strategies of flexible response’ (Salet, 2006). have been explained, together with anticipating structures with a high presence of flexibility. institutional frameworks addressed above, agreements and strategies that deal with the In addition, it is important to understand it might be concluded that these inner- For the case study area, it will be interesting institutional complexity. But how can such that either governance types, or institutional governmental agreements are made within to investigate whether an institutional void agreements been made? What is needed structures, are present at the same time; they the nested territorial institutions, characterized exists. Especially at regional level this could be to achieve inter-governmental agreements? are interdependent. Governance Type II will by governance Type I. As said before, due relevant, where conflicts between municipal An answer for this might be found in the not even work without Type I; nested territorial of the changing conditions pushed forward and provincial governments might take place adjustment of policies. From the perspective institutions are needed in order to form ‘a under the network society, these inner- around the RGL; a project that crosses the ‘fuzzy of policy making Stead and Meijers (2004) constitution of strategies of flexible response’. governmental agreements are not always boundaries’ of various jurisdictions. Therefore, regard policy integration ‘…as the management sufficient; to overcome cross-boundary issues, a further elaboration is needed of possible of cross-cutting issues in policy-making that Within the context of regional infrastructure the Dutch spatial planning system is in need concepts and strategies that have the potential transcend the boundaries of established policy projects which are often cross-border, the of ‘inter-governmental agreements’ between to anticipate on the institutional complexities fields, and which often do not correspond to relation between both the two institutional public agencies, private actors (e.g. real estate and which have the capacity to overcome the the institutional responsibilities of individual structures seems inevitable. The ‘Stedenbaan companies, enterprises), societal actors (e.g. regional gaps. departments.’ (2004, 03). This seems relevant Project’ (Balz & Schrijnen, 2009) – and possibly, NGO’s) of similar and different levels of scale. for the case study because (drawing on the Strategies of flexible response do not need to the RGL-project in the case study area – might These agreements are being made within the theory of Koppenjan and Groenewegen, 2005) be confused with the ‘informal institutional be considered as ‘hybrid projects’ that involve constitution of strategies of strategies of flexible the RGL-project can be seen as complex environment’ (layer 4) in the four-layer model governance Type II, but not independent response, characterized by governance Type II. system that requires participations of various of Koppenjan and Groenewegen; the strategies from governance Type I. However, next to this institutions or actors which often have their horizontal relation these projects also have It has been mentioned that strategies of flexible of flexible response do not only take place own policies – it might be argued that most in common the vertical orientation, involving response can hardly be formed without the around cultures nor values and norms, but institutions make policies; for their own benefits presence of the nested territorial institutions,54 2. Integrative concepts from theory /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment 55
  • 30. 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment 2. Integrative concepts from theory (such as enterprises), or for others (e.g. public government) and according to combinations authorities). It raises the question in how far do of both. Also combinations of integration policies need to be adjusted in order to make and coordination are possible: Curtis and the project feasible. James (2004) address that different modes of policy adjustment are often combined Stead and Meijers (2004) describe several and adhere somewhere between the degree degrees of policy adjustment from the of coordination and integration. This is perspective of ‘policy-making’ (fig. 2.7): represented situations where a distinction is made between central organizations and  Cooperation: implies dialogue and others; the central organization gets a ‘steering’ information (more efficient sectoral (managing) role of the whole process, while policies). other organizations are hold responsible for ‘rowing’ (implementation). In such model, it is  Coordination: implies policy coherence usual that the central organization is formed and policy consistency (adjusted + more by others, and that the organizational structure efficient sectoral policies). of the coordinating body is supported by the representatives of all the organizations;  Integration: includes dialogue and all organizations are connected, directly and information, policy coherence and indirectly. policy consistency, joint working, create synergy and same goals ( joint new For the case study area, such combined forms policy). can perhaps be seen in the central project organization, which is set up around the RGL- According to this model the modes or project. This organization is formed by various degrees of policy adjustment can be placed representatives of the involved participants: in a hierarchical order: from cooperation public authorities (province, municipalities) and to integration. The degree of operation is (semi-)public (ProRail, water board) or private determined by interaction, interdependence, bodies (Chamber of Commerce – KvK). It is also formality, recourses needed, loss of expected that the organization has a portfolio autonomy, comprehensiveness, accessibility of varying tasks: for example the adjustment of and compatibility (between actors). Where policies on transport infrastructure and land- ‘cooperation’ implies dialogue and information use. This shows that adjustment of policies between policies, ‘coordination’ goes a step is often expressed in different ways. From further – in this form policy making has to this perspective it might be asked if there are be more transparent and coherent, whereby different policy types or categories of policies conflicts need to be avoided. ‘Integration’ or which can be adjusted. ‘integrated policy making’ recognizes the same characteristics as cooperation and coordination In the literature review of ESPON (2013) but as the word refers to, in this form policies drawing on Briassoulis (2004) three categories are integrated into one policy. Therefore joint of ‘policy integration’ (integration might working, the use of same goals and creating be interchangeable for the other modes of synergy is needed. This model shows that operation) are defined: integration of policies is the opposite idea of ‘cooperation’, where institutional responsibilities  Sectoral integration (cross-sectoral of different departments, organizations or integration and inter-agency or stakeholders stay strongly remained and stakeholder integration); separated.  Territorial integration (vertical and Stead and Meijers further argue that horizontal integration); integration can take place in different ways: horizontal sectoral integration (between  Organizational integration different departments and professions in (strategic integration and operational public authorities), vertical inter-governmental integration). integration (between different tiers of Fig. 2.7 Schematic diagrams of degrees of policy adjustment (Stead & Meijers, 2004)56 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment 57
  • 31. 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment 2. Integrative concepts from theory Sectoral integration ‘…is about the ‘joining up’ interest this is called ‘horizontal integration’. according to the degree of integration, territorial institutions’) earlier addressed. This of different public policy domains and their coordination or cooperation. Note that the means that in the case illustrated above the associated actors within a given territorial area.’ Organizational integration can be seen as descriptions above mainly concern coordination public administrations (national, provincial (ESPON, 2013 : 8) quoting (De Boe et al., 1999: the ‘…cooperation between parties.’ (ESPON, activities, or a combination of coordination and and municipal governments) are the nested 15). It might be argued that in general this 2013 : 8) quoting (De Boe et al., 1999: 15). This integration, and not integration alone. How territorial institutions. In order to address the process falls under the discipline of law- and form of integration is required to achieve both could territorial policy adjustment take place at cross-border issues with regional infrastructure, policy-making (Mastop, 1991) – management sectoral and territorial integration. According the case study? the public administrations form temporary laws, such as AMvB – Algemene Maatregelen to the article of ESPON (2013) supporting project organizations (constitution of strategies van Bestuur). Integration and coordination of arguments of Kidd (2007), the organizational Imagine the situation of a regional of flexible response), with its own legal (public) sectoral policy domains take place integration emphasizes the actor perspective infrastructure project, crossing multiple powers, with specific tasks, agreements (intra- to make them more efficient, to address and might even frustrate attempts for sectoral jurisdictions. The local governments or planning governmental agreements) and which can competing and contradictory objectives, and and territorial integration, when applied agencies (municipalities) do not have sufficient respond quickly to social, economic and spatial to align with complex interactions between altogether. Also organizational integration can capacity for the realization of the project. Here changes (governance Type II). Hereby, the multiple arenas of public policy interests, be categorized, in: ‘strategic integration’ which there are several ways possible; integration, project organizations are often accompanied by in order to achieve a predominant goal. In is about the alignment of linked strategies, coordination or cooperation can take place, in representatives of the public administrations. spatial planning this form of integration plays programmes and initiatives (e.g. strategic visions a vertical or horizontal axis. The municipalities These repositioning and rescaling activities an important role, especially when it comes or structure vision documents), and ‘operational can work to together (horizontal coordination), around institutions can be considered as to complex projects which cross multifarious integration’ concerns the alignment of related but they can also join-up and function public ‘territorial coordination’. environmental facets and which may have a delivery mechanisms (e.g. funding mechanisms administration (horizontal integration). In the considerable environmental impact. Sectoral or legal land-use plans). In other words, from same way the institutional structure can be integration can be distinguished in two the perspective of organizational integration reformed in a vertical context: the municipalities dimensions: ‘Cross-sectoral integration’, we have a coupling between (strategic) spatial can work together with higher levels of Policy adjustment related to regional covering different policy arenas which visions, objectives and spatial concepts at the governance – provincial and national agencies one hand, and operational decision making at (vertical coordination), or they operate in one transport infrastructure (sectors) operate at multiple scales and ‘inter-agency’ Some of the organizational relations between or ‘stakeholder integration’, which refers to the other hand. within one public body (vertical integration). institutions have now been described (also integration between public, private, civil sector In terms of institutional reform the latter It can be argued that both dimensions relate to appendix A), which can be considered and agencies. example is not likely; in the case of a regional each other when the following to questions are interpreted more in general and in different infrastructure project, often institutional raised: ways. From the perspective of the project in the Territorial integration ‘…is about the integration structures with coordination between multiple case study area it makes sense to look closer, of public policy domains between territories.’ layers of governance are present. Also, for  What needs to be integrated (or to the role governance in projects of regional (ESPON, 2013 : 8) quoting (De Boe et al., 1999: the horizontal axis counts that coordination coordinated, or cooperated)? – sectors/ infrastructure; here adjustment of policies can 15). The aim of territorial integration is to or cooperation is more likely than integration territories/organizations be placed in the context of integrated transport achieve and legitimize efficiency in facets as (in terms of institutional reform – and not in planning. Thus, it might be questioned what governance, globalization and sustainability. terms of laws and policies, for which integration  To what extend or degree do sectors, configuration might be appropriate in terms of Especially in terms of large (regional is more common). It would not make sense territories or organizations need to be integrated transport planning? infrastructural) projects which cross borders of if municipalities with their own jurisdictions multifarious territories or jurisdictions, this is a ‘integrated’? – integration/coordination/ (including their constraints – concerned cooperation From this perspective Curtis and James (2004) relevant option. This action is also advocated with more issues than spatial planning only) have formulated how the degrees of policy to address positive and negative externality integrate, because a regional infrastructure adjustment should organize the different effects (externalities) of such projects. From the This dialogue or approach might be useful for project is not indefinitely; they are based on the assessment of the case study, where policy components around integrated transport perspective of a regional cross-border project, (strategic) spatial planning objectives instead, planning: where organizations, laws and policies integration of territories seem to be a drastic adjustment possibly can be applied in different which are selective and temporary in most dimensions. This can be explained by some meet each other – stating that integrated mode of operation (as governments have other cases (Albrechts, 2004). transport planning has a much broader responsibilities that fall under their jurisdictions examples, according to the different types of policy adjustment. context than just land use and transport besides such a project, e.g. education, Therefore coordination and cooperation integration only. Drawing on a document of the healthcare); therefore coordination seem to activities, or a combination of coordination and Department of Environment, Transport and the be a more appropriate measure. Territorial integration activities, in both horizontal and Regions [DETR] (1998), they identify three areas integration recognizes two dimensions: if policy vertical ways, are more likely than integration Policy adjustment for institutional of integration: coherence takes place across spatial scales only (in terms of regional infrastructure this is called ‘vertical integration’, and when reform (territories) projects). The degrees of policy adjustments in  Integration of modes policy coherence between takes place between The repositioning and rescaling activities around terms of institutional reform have the potential neighbouring authorities (nations, provinces, the relations described above, brings forward to facilitate the development of institutional  Integration of transport and land use municipalities etc.) and areas with some shared the discussion whether the transformation structures and relations such as the ‘strategies [sectoral integration] of institutional structures should take place of flexible response’ (in relation to the ‘nested58 2. Integrative concepts from theory /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment 59
  • 32. 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment 2. Integrative concepts from theory  Integration with ‘whole of government’ Policy adjustment of strategies and and Groenewegen (2005) and Hartman et al. tools (Curtis & James, 2004), which is also called policies [territorial integration] instruments (organizations) (2011). Strategies that facilitate the process are ‘resource management’. In general, and in the As explained above the adjustment of policies therefore further discussed under the heading light of this research, resources can be headed The ‘integration of modes’ can be seen as a of operations. into: in terms of organizations is regarded as the transport policy, and refers to the integration of alignment of linked strategies or of related different transport modes at specific locations,  Natural resources (land, products, delivery mechanisms. It can be argued that in order to improve the efficiency of public goods) – tangible this is more an instrumental expression of transfers and to reduce travel time. 2.3.4 Resources policy adjustment that facilitates the process of  Human resources (labour, intellectual The ‘integration of transport and land use’ implementation of ideas. From the perspective and human capital) – intangible can be simply explained by the idea that of integrated transport planning, this can In order to adjust policies within a situation this form of integration aims sustainable be explained according to adjustment of (organizations, laws, policies, regulation,  Financial resources (financial capital) – spatial development, by using the ‘modes instruments and actions which are needed etc.), the available resources need to be intangible of multifarious interaction’ (supported with to make the project realized. This raises the addressed; without an understanding of the transport policies) as the framework for question of how organizational integration available resources integration, coordination  Legal resources (legal capital, authority) fostering compact spatial development with could be translated in the RGL-project, which is and cooperation do not make sense. Note – intangible high densities around transport nodes – which a regional transport corridor. that resources imply a wide range of useful is in fact the concept of TOD. As explained sources or supplies (which also have to do with In classical economics three categories of As said above, organizational integration can be resources are recognised: land, labour and above this process often works vice versa: these skills, competences), and hence include the divided into strategic integration and operational capital (Mahoney & Pandian, 1992). Land policies stimulate the capacity and frequency dimensions of policies, laws, organizations etc. integration. In terms of strategic integration it includes ‘natural resources’, labour falls under of public transport, which creates a higher addressed above. It might be argued that the can be argued that involved authorities should ‘human resources’ and capital refers to ‘durable demand for spatial program (especially around amount of size of resources determine the level align their structure vision documents (appendix goods’ which are already-produced. These these transport nodes). Finally, the new spatial of institutional capacity: the more resources, A): integrating the different policies into one categories can be headed into tangible and development leads to a bigger pressure on the more powerful and effective the institution document, aligning concepts and giving intangible resources (Mahoney & Pandian, public transport and asks for larger capacity is (Gupta et al., 2010) drawing on (Yohe et al., priority to projects within their general vision 1992). Natural and capital resources fall under and higher frequency. The integration of both 1996; Mendelsohn & Nordhaus, 1999; Nelson et documents, in order to communicate their ideas tangible resources, human resources under policies should bring forward that this process al., 2010) and (Healey, 1992; González & Healey, to other potential participants. This illustrates intangible resources. Since this section is gets covered and stays in balance (both 2005)).For instance, Stead and Meijer (2004) that authorities (e.g. provincial government) not about institutional capacity it is worth to look transport and land use are regulated) and argue that environmental groups (NGO’s) often only need to be communicative, they also need at intangible resources. Bontis et al. (1999) negative externalities (as urban sprawl, together have limited resources and capacity for research to be selective in order to be strategic (Albrechts, further subdivide intangible resources in with its costs) are reduced. Because transport or publicity to support their arguments, 2004, 2006). ‘financial capital’ (money) and ‘intellectual and land-use policies are often aimed by compared to interest groups, which often authorities at the same level – whether public possess more financial capital. capital’ (information and more). Both these In terms of operational integration it can be resources seem to be the most influencing (cross-sectoral between different departments) argued that the delivery mechanisms such or private (inter-agency between different For the case study area it would be useful factors for determining the institutional capacity as land-use plans or financial structures and of institutions and stakeholders. Gupta et al. authorities) – this can be regarded as a form of understand what resources the involved agreements should be aligned. However, explain financial capital as the ‘…availability of ‘sectoral integration’. authorities and stakeholders had at their it can be expected that these instruments financial resources to support policy measures disposal, in order to analyse how negotiations often have high legal powers and are less and financial incentives.’ (2010: 06 – table 1). To The ‘integration with whole of government took place: for instance, did the participant had flexible than strategic instruments. From this continue, Bontis et al. explain that intellectual policies’ refers to the integration of other a lot of expertise, money or legal authority in perspective – it might be argued – it is difficult capital recognizes ‘human capital’ (competence, policies than only transport and land use. This order to influence the decision-making process? to integrate a sectoral restrictive project plan for attitude and intellectual agility) and ‘structural is more about governance, which is important waterways with a legal sectoral plan of railway Therefore is reasonable to take a closer look capital’ (relationships, organization, renewal and when it comes to integrated transport planning. infrastructure in case of a bridge. In such cases at what resource stand for, or what it can development). Human capital is a collection For example, environmental policies, which the policies are aligned, but do not necessarily be. A resource can be a source or supply. A of intangible resources embedded in the are strongly embedded in the Dutch system have to be integrated. Because legal plans are resource can be tangible or intangible, and members of an organization, whereas structural of spatial planning (appendix A). Other less flexible and adaptive it might be argued can be subdivided in different categories capital is more oriented to the dynamics of policies can be health and education. From that integration would be a ‘bridge’ too far: the such as material resources, rules and ideas the (external) market – the scope of structural this perspective the ‘whole of government’ degree of coordination might be more desired (Healey, 1992) – which also touches upon capital is embedded within the routines of an may refer to the public authorities, who have in terms of operational policy adjustment. the institutional layers (e.g. rules and games) organization, but does not concern nodes of such a wide ranging tasks belonging to their portfolio. Therefore, the integration with whole of Koppenjan and Groenewegen (2005). An human capital (Bontis et al., 1999). As might be seen in the two examples of government policies can refer to ‘territorial organization or institution can gain profit by addressed above adjustment of policies in Several categories of resources have been integration’. using their resources (Needham, 2007). Finally, terms of organizations corresponds with the addressed. But in the light of this research, resources can be managed, with instruments or operational or process dimension of Koppenjan60 2. Integrative concepts from theory /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment 61
  • 33. 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment 2. Integrative concepts from theory where regional infrastructure projects are point Legal capital Intellectual capital governmental body at one scale (including of subject, more specific types of resources are Legal capital (Mahoney & Pandian, 1992) can be Intellectual capital or its substantive; human the different public sectoral agencies), and can likely to be mentioned. Curtis and James (2004) compared with ‘authorization and regulation’, or resources (Bontis et al., 1999) have to do with therefore be considered as a party that knows a explain several types of resources, relevant as ‘rules’ (Healey, 1992); described by Curtis and the available knowledge. It might be interpreted little bit of everything (aware of all expertises). from the perspective of integrated transport James (2004) as a traditional resource – formal as the expertise of a stakeholder. Imagine a planning: (1) authorization and regulation; because of its statutory planning controls for complex project with diffuse structures but For the case study area it is important to be (2) pricing; (3) strategic asset management; land use planning or transport regulation. These with clear goals and objectives, as is often aware of the fact that different stakeholders (4) building community capacity. However, important planning controls can be laws of the case with projects of integrated transport have different expertises; what is the it might be argued whether these could be regulation and statutory planning documents. planning. These projects are also characterized stakeholders’ expertise, how did they use/ typed as resources. In particular the chosen Especially laws play an important role in the by a wide range of actors. Especially in such apply their knowledge and in how far did this definitions do not seem to stroke with the Dutch system of spatial planning. They support situations it is important that every party or correspond with the dedicated tasks and own notion of a resource. Definitions as ‘pricing’ spatial planning policies, determine how stakeholder knows its own tasks and operates interests? It can also be investigated in how are or ‘strategic asset management’ more touch planning agencies of all scales should act, and according to their own expertise, in order the expertise is adjusted or integrated between the idea of a coordination tool (such as ‘policy what instruments they can use – in this way to achieve the overarching objectives. And stakeholders of the project. making’, ‘integrated planning’, ‘funding’ and laws have an important impact on the power of even more important is that these parties are ‘research and monitoring’, addressed later a planning agency. Note that within decision- selected because of their expertise knowledge, in their article). Albeit both series have a making arenas (often characterized by a variety to pursue a balanced organizational structure. different meaning, the types of resources and of stakeholders) (Albrechts, 2004 & 2006) this The expertise differs among the range of Financial capital tools seem to be tangled up. In addition, the type of resource supports the public agencies stakeholders. The expertise can be categorized From economic theory it can be understood relation is not clear. For instance, it does not in particular – not the private stakeholders, into several headings and associated with that financial capital or resources are the seem likely that ‘authorization and regulation’ which operate under private law (Needham, possible types of stakeholders: physical and monetary assets, which have an can be coordinated by ‘policy making’, and 2007). It is the laws of regulation which are influence on the value of an organization or a ‘pricing’ by ‘funding’. In fact this represents subject to change, in the recent reforms in the  Environmental – different tiers of project (Bontis et al., 1999). It can be seen as a a tool coordinating another tool. Instead, Dutch system of spatial planning (appendix government/public sectoral agencies, stakeholder’s investment in a project. In other policy making can be done with the purpose A). Some of the laws of regulation which have consultancies, NGO’s. words this means that the finance of a project to save intellectual property, support patents, been changed recently, or which are subject to depends on the money made available by the or to pursue a sustainable approach on land change at this moment:  Land-use / development – different investors. With regional infrastructure projects use, which is a (natural) resource. In addition, tiers of government/public sectoral – characterized by a wide range of stakeholders in terms of resources, maybe authorization  WRO (Wet op de Ruimtelijke Ordening agencies, consultancies, real estate – it is often the case that each stakeholder or and regulation can be typed as ‘legal capital’ > Wro (Wet ruimtelijke ordening – companies. party invests a different amount of money. This which is a formal definition used in literature general law of spatial planning) depends on the interest and the financial power (Mahoney & Pandian, 1992), or falls under  Transport – different tiers of of a stakeholder. Often, interest and finance are ‘authority’ (Gupta et al., 2010) drawing  AMvB (Algemene Maatregel van Bestuur government/public sectoral agencies, linked to each other and interest is measured by on Biermann (2007); hence the fact that a – general administrative order) (public) transport companies. financial investment. Not only interest, but also regulation or law can support or strengthen the risk and reward are linked to the percentage of power, influence and efficiency of an institution.  ‘Bestemmingsplan’ (land-use plan) >  Social and civil – different tiers of financial investment. This share of investment is Addressed by Gupta et al. as the: ‘…provision of ‘Omgevingswet’ (environmental law) government/public sectoral agencies, called ‘equity stake’ (Hale, 2008). Hale explains accepted or legitimate forms of power; whether local communities/civil organizations. that equity stake plays in important role in or not institutional rules are embedded in These important changes in legislation have ‘equity-based business partnership’, whereby an constitutional laws.’ (2010: 06 – table 1). been described (appendix A). Also formal  Financial – different tiers of investor with for instance, an investment of 51% or statutory planning documents could be government/public sectoral agencies, also has a major influence in the project, but I want to conclude here that it might be more dedicated as legal capital or authority resources. consultancies. also bears the risk and gains profit (if possible) useful to stitch down to the idea of financial, These have also been described in the study according to this percentage. This share of intellectual and legal capital – or as addressed on Dutch spatial planning. In the case study  Management – different tiers of investment is often agreed within financial by Gupta et al. (2010): ‘financial/economic it can be investigated if the legal authorities government, consultancies. arrangements. It might be questioned if with resources’, ‘human resources’ and ‘authority’ – had enough legal resources to make the RGL- complex projects of regional scale and with which might be the most influencing resources project feasible. For instance, did the provincial  Legislation and juridical – different tiers a long time span the share of investment or in the decision making process and could play a government have enough legal capacity in of government, specialized juridical contribution should be fixed. major role as determining factors for (adaptive) terms of the ability of planning instruments offices. institutional capacity (Gupta et al., 2010). It is (e.g. land-use plans), in order to facilitate the But maybe the type of investment even plays implementation of the project? It is noteworthy that public administrations worth to pay some specific attention to these a more important role in regional projects (different tiers of government and public resources. with public-private partnerships (since public sectoral agencies) and consultancies often have agencies do not necessarily have to gain profit available different categories of expertise; there where private investors have to – public and are different types of public sectoral agencies private investors have other interests). Thus, and consultancies with specific knowledge. The public actors have other financial resources different tiers of government refer to the whole62 2. Integrative concepts from theory /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment 63
  • 34. 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment 2. Integrative concepts from theory than private parties; they get their money by (Gupta et al., 2010) or ‘adaptive governance’ But how can capacity building be to rescale the claim on the (sometimes un) other ways and have different purposes with and ‘resilience thinking’ (Baud & Hordijk, achieved? According to Healey (1998) clear available resources to another level of authority. their financial investment. From this perspective 2009). The authors of the latter state that ‘… communication among different stakeholders Hereby the amount and size of resources play these types of investment can be cathegorized. adaptive governance strategies aim explicitly at and greater flexibility belong to some of the key an important role. This distribution of resources equipping stakeholders to deal effectively with characteristics of institutional capacity, which is: is called ‘resource allocation’ (Healey, 2007).  Public financial investment (by subsidies change, surprises and risks.’ (Baud & Hordijk, The bundling of resources corresponds to a and taxation models) – there is no 2009: 1069). ‘Adaptive’ can be seen as an  …is the context within which where large extent with the adjustment of operational need for a financial profit according to important additive to capacity building because there is sufficient appreciation, trust policies addressed above. the share of investment, a balance is it concerns greater flexibility and autonomy and communicative skill for different sufficient. of institutions. Gupta et al. mention that stakeholders to find their ‘voice’ For instance, when a provincial government adaptive capacity is a useful concept to assess and ‘listen’ to each other involves has the intention to realize a regional project of  Private financial investment (by own institutions, but there has not been a systematic not merely careful design of specific transport infrastructure it does not have all the financial gains) – a surplus for the share framework for doing so. communication arenas; resources to achieve this: of investment is desired in order to survive. González and Healey (2005) describe capacity  …is characterized by a rich social - in terms of (a) legal resources this building as: ‘the ability of the institutional infrastructure (richly informed, and might depend on laws and regulations In projects with a wide range of stakeholders relations in a social milieu to operate as a outwardly oriented networks where (defined by national government: these two interests are often the cause of collective actor’ (pp. 2056), which not only knowledge – intellectual capital – can public law, law on spatial planning painstaking negotiations. Private companies indicates the joining up of policies but flow around) of positive relationships – Wro), the available legal planning often want to get financial profits out of their also represents integration of resources or between governance, citizens and instruments (e.g. provincial land-use investment, where public administrations only institutions, in order to ‘work collectively companies; plans) and on other (lower) public have to legitimate the financial investment by towards the creation of better and fairer authorities which are ‘automatically’ providing of services (however, the investment quality living environments.’ (pp. 2056). They  …allows rapid mobilization to affected by the new policy, because the should be reasonable, approved by citizens, also address that governance capacity can be new circumstances and enables project crosses their territory; and estimated as expected). This relationship assessed according to the (a) specific episodes flexible responses to be designed may also be the reason why public parties (such as the actors and arenas), (b) governance and developed (delivering of - in terms of (b) intellectual resources the often bear the risk for private stakeholders process (e.g. networks, coalitions, stakeholder policy objectives of concern to all provincial government may not have which otherwise do not invest their money in selection processes) and (c) governance cultures stakeholders); all the technical expertise regarding valuable and risky projects, especially in times (e.g. range of accepted mods of governance, the infrastructure and therefore needs of economic crisis. formal and informal structures for policing  …with a focus on enhancing the to involve (often semi-public or private discourses and practices). Such levels can be ability of place-focused stakeholders actors and institutions); This complex situation brings forward new used for the assessment of the case study. For to improve their power to ‘make a questions of where the financial investment for instance, it would be interesting to investigate difference’ to the qualities of their - in terms of (c) financial resources it is projects should come from (which stakeholders in how far there was a governance culture for place, which can be enforced by likely that the provincial government and what sort of money) and what (flexible) integration of policies or of resources. collaborative planning. does not have enough budget to get structures are needed. For the case study area the project financed and is therefore it could be interesting to figure out these Healey (1998) also specifically writes about Drawing on the latter, according to Healey dependent on author investors to relations and what alternatives might be more ‘institutional capacity’ and the relation with this capacity has three dimensions: (1) the become ‘stakeholders’ of the project. appropriate. Funding structures such as regional the local community; its relation with social knowledge resources, (2) its relational resources, This can be public and private actors. funds or crowdfunding can be seen as possible capital and the need for collaborative planning and (3) its capacity for mobilization. These For the public authorities that are new tools for investment, which are discussed as an appropriate tool (which is explained resources slightly intertwine with the range of involved in the projects because it further in this section. later in this section) for institutional capacity resources mentioned earlier (intellectual capital connects their territories, the provincial building. Institutional or governance capacity or human resources, legal or organizational government usually expects that they lies in the quality of local policy cultures and capital and financial capital). contribute because they will benefit the building up of distinctive policy cultures. from the new project (improved Institutional capacity building calls upon the 2.3.5 Capacity building Nevertheless, this local capacity is often available resources. The resources can be joined connectivity). fragmented. Therefore, paying attention to the local civil communities is an important or scaled up (according to the degrees of policy This illustrates the idea that a provincial The resources addressed above play an aspect of institutional capacity building. These integration also). As said before stakeholders government is very dependent on other actors, important role in capacity building. However it conditions does remind to the institutional can share knowledge, but they can also give usually raises its capacity by using resources of might be worth to look at the definition first. reform as a reaction on changing socio- financial support to achieve a higher total others. This is not without consequences; other What is capacity building? In literature capacity economic interactions, described above. The investment budget for a project (what will only ‘stakeholders’ will have more influence on the building is often combined (capacity building of social component of capacity building is also be done when the project concerns interest of project – they expect that their interests are what?) or corresponding with other definitions, recognized by Gupta et al. (2010) referring to the investors). In terms of rescaling of resources represented in the project. This process requires such as ‘governance capacity’ (González and refer to the ‘adaptive capacity of society’. It they can be distributed to higher authorities. compromises from all parties, often through a Healey, 2005), ‘community capacity building’ might be clear that institutional capacity has a In the case it is desired to raise the capacity of process of negotiation. (Healey, 1998), ‘adaptive capacity of institutions’ strong social component. an institution for instance, there will be tried64 2. Integrative concepts from theory /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment 65
  • 35. 2.3 Integrative concepts for the institutional environment 2.4 Strategic planning and integral funding concepts But resources are only a substantial part of 1. The existence of an ‘institutional void’ The institutional and policy reforms which are needed to support the spatial ambitions (institutional) capacity building. Gupta et al. between provincial and municipal (expressed in concepts and visions) cannot be achieved in one day. Such changes often (2010) state that this is just one of the six administration can be investigated at dimensions (variety, learning capacity, room for the case study area – in how far are require long-term processes of negotiation. These processes can be steered or facilitated by autonomous change, leadership, availability of did the involved institutions establish a different approaches and instruments. Such approaches particularly can be found in strategies resources and fair governance) which play a central project organization (framework which define actions on the long- and short-term. It can be expected that the RGL-project role in the adaptivity of institutional capacity. of flexible response), what agreements of the case study also requires long- and short-term thinking because of its high complexity, To come back to the systematic framework have been made and what have been large scale, and involvement of various stakeholders and decision-makers. But what proposed; they have developed an ‘institutional the tasks and responsibilities of the capacity wheel’ to measure the adaptive involved institutions and of the project operational structure, steering mechanisms, instruments or strategy would be appropriate institutional capacity. This method is interesting organization? to canalize the process of realizing the project ambitions? This paragraph draws on the because of its comprehensiveness, and it operational part of the main research question; what are the issues around the decision- contains several of the components addressed 2. To what extent have policies been making process of a regional transport infrastructure project and what strategic models or in this section. Nevertheless this approach adjusted (sectorally, territorially and concepts can support the operational structure (e.g. steering the available resources)? The contains too much variables; the research needs organizationally), in particular around to be done by a team of professionals and data mobility and land-use (sectoral) in order purpose is to find appropriate strategic concepts in process management (related integrated needs to be validated by several members of to support the RGL project – to the transport planning), and to place the operational assessment of the case study in perspective. a single stakeholder. Therefore the assessment degree of integration, coordination or criteria for adjustment of policies (and cooperation? In how far did involved resources) addressed above might be sufficient governments adjust their policies? In to assess institutional structure and capacity of how far do did sectoral departments the project at the case study area. and public and private actors adjust From the perspective of integrated transport and, equity finance). Research and monitoring their policies? In how far did strategies, planning Curtis and James (2004) have has the aim to inform coordinative bodies For the assessment of the case study area visions and other legal instruments have distinguished several tools or instruments about the impact of policies and planning it further can be questioned in how far been adjusted? that have the capacity to steer the policies or process and to ascertain if policies and plans the involved agencies had the capacity to resources addressed above: are achieving their desired outcomes. It integrate policies and in how far they had the 3. It can also be investigated to what facilitates the learning process (planning-as- available resources for doing so. Secondly, it extend institutional capacity has  ‘policy making’; learning) (Faludi, 1994, 2000). Research and can be questioned in how far there was the been built up within the institutional monitoring can be done during the process, governance culture to achieve this? structure around the project, in order  ‘integrated planning’; not only afterwards. The different type of to support policy adjustment. Did the instruments is further outlined below, and is involved actors (and central authority  ‘funding’; explained according to several relevant theories. or organization) have the right  ‘research and monitoring’. It can be noticed that the some of these 2.3.6 How to apply at the case instruments or resources? In how far did the involved (public) institutions have instruments in fact already have been discussed Policy making can be seen as a mechanism study? the governance culture to strengthen which provides the overall strategic direction in the former paragraphs: the discourse institutional capacity? of ‘policy making’ can be found within the for the project (portfolio). It sets the – formal – institutional dimension, in the model of policy As said above in this paragraph, the changing environment in which plans are developed and adjustments; and in the also expressions 4. In terms of the available resources the use of space does no longer meet with the actions are taken. Integrated planning can be ‘integrated planning’ have been mentioned in distinction can be made between the institutional configuration, which is expressed considered as a tool that integrates resources both the spatial and institutional dimension legal, natural, financial and intellectual in a regional gap between provincial and within a geographical setting, through different by the concept of TOD, and which can also resources: To what extent did the municipal administration. In particular levels (e.g. local, regional) that are concerned be regarded form of policy adjustment. Thus, involved institutions have appropriate around regional transport infrastructure with the spatial challenge. Funding mechanisms it can be argued that in reality these concept legal resources coordinate the project projects which are cross-border and ask can affect financial resources in different are strongly related to each other and do not or to align policies? To what extent to for an integral approach of various sectoral ways: through the use of subsidies, land take place within one dimension of space nor the actors have the (technical) expertise policies, institutions, agreements and available purchase, services, infrastructure and intangible institutions nor process. For instance, with the regarding the project? How is the resources, appropriate institutional structures resources. Funding can be used for (financial) model of policy adjustment ‘organizational financial contribution between involved are needed with sufficient institutional capacity. capacity building. Recently, bottom-up funding integration’ has been explained. This form actors been arranged? In order to assess the institutional environment mechanisms which support participation of policy integration could be subdivided around the RGL project at the case study area of communities have seen the light (e.g. in ‘strategic integration’ and ‘operational and to the support of possible institutional crowdfunding). Although it does not always integration’. It seems that such aspects are design alternatives for the case the following need to be the case, funding mechanisms are concerned with instruments that deal with researches can be done: often linked to structures of cooperation (e.g. processes. As said above strategic integration public-private partnerships, scope optimisation66 2. Integrative concepts from theory /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 2.4 Strategic planning and integrated funding concepts 67
  • 36. 2.4 Strategic planning and integrated funding concepts 2. Integrative concepts from theory refers to the adjustment of strategies and  project plan (blue-print plan): adjusted by different tiers of government flexible approaches, and operational integration conformance based / comprehensive / (vertical) and within a various network of actors more refers to legal instruments such as funding land use planning / government-led / (horizontal). mechanisms and agreements. Both instruments regulation plan; get specific attention. Although the literature on the theory of spatial  strategic spatial plan: performance planning strategies is plentiful, this has not yet based / selective / actor engaging / led to clear guidelines for practical use. The government-led-but-negotiated-form spatial planning model of Albrechts (2004) 2.4.1 Strategic spatial planning of governance / providing a framework provides opportunities. The model contains a (for actions). brief set of design criteria which is quite clear and suitable for the Dutch context to bridge For the case study area it might be questioned Where comprehensive planning is hierarchical the institutional void at the (sub-) regional what planning mechanism is needed for the and persuasive, strategic spatial planning is level. The ‘four track model’of Albrechts could RGL – one that meets with the social, spatial and selective and oriented to issues that really function as a framework wherein the municipal institutional conditions addressed above: open matter. Strategic spatial planning is action structure visions and other mechanisms could to integration of other mechanisms such as oriented: more focussed on the process of be integrated. The four track model concerns policy integration, institutional capacity building mobilization of third parties, therefore flexible (fig. 2.8): and adaptive spatial concepts for the region. in institutional design, and attentive to a various network of stakeholders. In spatial terms the  Track 1: a long-term vision is to be It can be argued that Healey has played an strategic spatial planning focus is on a limited shaped; important role in the debate on spatial planning: number of strategic key issue areas and on defining spatial planning from the perspective of spatial relations between territories with an  Track 2: long-term and short-term social sciences (e.g. ‘interactive decision making’, emphasis on quality. Because of this outcome actions will be determined; ‘collaborative planning’ (Healey, 2003, 2007a, is not fixed. Strategic spatial planning has the 2007b). But to find suitable planning approaches capacity for ‘rescaling’ spatial issues on agendas  Track 3: contact with stakeholders will from the perspective of this research, these of higher tiers of government and is flexible be made, which will be followed by; need to be considered in terms of regional in a way that it allows integration of other and integrated transport planning. Planning planning instruments or mechanisms such as  Track 4: the basic process – the contact approaches have to fit within the current climate ‘transit oriented development’, or institutional – with citizens. of spatial planning in the Netherlands (Salet capacity building. To deliver the desired & Woltjer, 2009), and deal with recent issues outcome strategic spatial planning depends not The model works as follows: it is divided in four as qualitative embedding, spatial performance on itself but on the custom made conditions tracks. Within (Track 1) a long-term vision is to and stakeholder engagement. Based on these formulated during the process: ‘The rationale of be shaped, in (Track 2) long-term and short- criteria the ‘strategic spatial planning’ model strategic spatial planning is to frame activities term actions will be determined, within (Track of Albrechts might be useful for the case study of stakeholders to help achieve shared concerns 3) contact with stakeholders will be made, area. about spatial changes.’ (Albrechts, 2004: 749). which will be followed by the basic process – the contact – with citizens (Track 4). Also this But what are strategic spatial plans and in how Especially on regional scale we see complex process is not linear. It is important to take into far do they differ from the project plans (as was structures that do not ask for just one but account all the further steps during the first the case within the comprehensive integrated for a various network of actors, which asks track. This model) seems to be a clear approach model of planning in the Netherlands)? Whereas for flexibility in the decision making process which might be useful for the use in the project. a project plan is more conformance based, – decisions around a network organization. strategic plan is more performance based Thereby needs to be noticed that ‘a process Strategic spatial planning approaches can (more focused on quality instead of quantity) solely dominated by experts and powerful be seen as a broad discourse, but which has (Albrechts, 2006). In fact the strategic spatial actors must be avoided’ (Albrechts, 2004: 754). proven to function as flexible frameworks for planning approach of Albrechts can be best Allmendinger & Haughton (2009) type such integrated planning (Albrechts, 2004, 2006; compared with the third model of Faludi: ‘the areas as ‘soft spaces with fuzzy boundaries’, Allmendinger & Haughton, 2009; Salet & interactive-perspective model’. According to which ask for ‘soft planning’ mechanisms. The Woltjer, 2009) and seem to have the capacity Albrechts (2004, 2006) we might say in terms of description of this soft planning shows many to integrate a various network of actors, plans: master plan/land-use plans vs. strategic similarities with strategic spatial planning (Salet multi-level governance, complex spaces and plans; in terms of planning type: legal regulation & Woltjer, 2009). Strategic spatial planning other concepts and mechanisms such as vs. framework; in terms of governance type: seems to be the most suitable instrument for ‘transit oriented development’, public-private government-led vs. government-led-but- cross-border spatial areas where both local partnerships (PPP/PPS) or other financial means Fig. 2.8 Schematic diagram of strategic negotiated form of governance. Or we define as regional issues need to be integrated and such as a ‘regional fund’, and the possibility spatial planning tracks the differences - Albrechts drawing on Faludi (Albrechts, 2004) (2000):68 2.4 Strategic planning and integrated funding concepts 69
  • 37. 2.4 Strategic planning and integrated funding concepts 2. Integrative concepts from theory to deal with issues at both local and regional available for increasing the quality of the project partnerships may vary. According to the equity stakeholders which are not only public (e.g. level if it comes to regional cross-border and for the realization of unprofitable parts of stake, different options within public-private ProRail, which is a semi-public body). infrastructural projects with an adjustment of the project.’ (pp. 200). Promotion of competition partnerships can be formulated. spatial development. beholds the participation of stakeholders according to a bidbook; ‘concessions are Hales view on public-private partnerships is In terms of the case study this model of rendered to the applicant who can add the most interesting because he explains it from the 2.4.3 How to apply at the case strategic spatial planning could support the value to the project, or requires the lowest costs, perspective of transit oriented development, (alternative) spatial and institutional design given the programme of requiremens.’ (Priemus, which might be relevant for the case study area. study? (recommendations). For instance, when 2002: 200). According to Hale (2008), there are four options a model of TOD and certain degrees of within public-private partnerships for projects policy adjustments have been proposed or In the study on spatial planning in the of transit oriented development: As said above in this paragraph, complex recommended for the RGL project, the spatial Netherlands (appendix A) different procedures technological systems such as the RGL-project planning strategy defines what actions can be that function as investment models for the  Model A: ‘Government Sponsored’ require long-term processes of negotiation done – and when – to achieve this. It could realization of a project already have been (public party has slight majority between involved actors, which also counts for place the spatial and institutional models in discussed: (a) the construction claim model, (b) influence); the processes of implementation. Strategies and perspective and show their relations (not only in the concession model, (c) joint venture (Boelens, funding mechanisms belong to the possible by time). 2002; Needham, 2007). The latter refers to  Model B: ‘Developer Led’ (private party instruments to manage available recourses. public-private cooperation, within public- has slight majority influence); For the case study it can be investigated partnerships (PPP/PPS). what strategy, funding structure or planning  Model C: ‘Public Sector Project’ (public mechanism has been used. The focus within party has major influence); 2.4.2 Funding mechanisms this operational dimension is solution oriented: a strategic planning concept or funding  Model D: ‘Private Sector Project (private Where organization meets funding party has major influence). mechanism could be proposed as an alternative Funding mechanisms seem to have a strong for the current practice at the case study. Some relation with organizational structures. mechanisms: public-private Looking at the system of spatial planning of these models have been investigated in this Often interest is measured by investment, partnerships paragraph. For the case study these models it which possibly can be derived when taking What exactly are these public-private Netherlands, in the past is it was usual to work according to model C; where public agencies can be investigated how these models can be a close look at the organizational structure partnerships and in which degrees can they applied: – the relation between the actors – and their be applied? Partnerships can be seen as invested in the project and had major influence (institutional) agreements. Such agreements cooperation mechanisms which are related on the elaboration of the project. Nowadays 1. The possibilities of strategic spatial often incorporate financial arrangements. An to a funding mechanism. Public-private we are slightly moving to model A (see planning concept of Albrechts with its example of this can be seen in the cooperation refers to the type of investor, or stakeholder appendix A), where the public agencies still four tracks (visioning, defining actions, mechanism of public-private partnerships. But (public stakeholders are supposed to be have a major influence, but give more space to stakeholder participation, involvement first the organizational structures and funding public agencies, private stakeholders can be private investors and hand in influence. With of interest groups) at the case study mechanisms are addressed separately. enterprises such as real estate companies, or the other degrees the private investors have a area in terms of organization of spatial individual investors). According to Hale (2008), major say. In current times of economic crises policies and institutional structures. both can be linked through ‘equity finance’. public-private partnerships are supposed to Equity finance is a definition used in economic be a lucrative organization model (Muskee, 2. The possibilities of funding mechanisms Funding mechanisms theory and within real estate. The equity stake 2011). However, despite that PPP/PPS might be such as public-private partnerships Funding mechanisms can be organized measures interest according to investment of useful for a regional infrastructure project in (PPP/PPS) – how can such alliances be in many different forms. Within spatial stakeholders. This means that with a minimum the case study area, it might be argued if this organized? Which actors can participate planning discourse in the Netherlands several of 51 percent equity holding in a development cooperative construction is appropriate when it as stakeholders and with what purpose? approaches to funding mechanisms have of a project represents a major interest of an is compared to the actor-relational approach of been discussed, such as: the identification of investor, and which makes that the stakeholder Boelens (2009). It has the following limitations: stakeholders (which can be done by ‘stakeholder has a major influence on the project. Hale because interest is measured by financial mapping’ part of the approach of Boelens), explains that within partnerships, the project investment, it excludes stakeholders which do scope optimization (explained above), value partners are the equity stakeholders. A party not have enough financial capacity to invest. So captering, and promotion of competition that does not invest money in the project does the model is not accessible for all the actors in (Priemus, 2002). Value captering is a funding not have a direct equity stake and is not within the region. In addition, interest should not only mechanism which can be applied within the partnership. If profits are to be made within be measured by investment, but also by other constructions of public-private partnerships. projects, the profit can be shared according resources. However, the understanding of such According to Priemus, value captering contains: to the percentage of investment. Also risk can funding mechanism might be important for the ‘agreements made between and public and be shared according to this. So the relation case study because for the RGL-project financial private actors so that the surplus profits remain between the stakeholders within public-private agreements have been made between various70 2. Integrative concepts from theory /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 2.4 Strategic planning and integrated funding concepts 71
  • 38. 2.5 The empirical assessment 2. Integrative concepts from theory In the theoretical framework, the theoretical approaches and concepts have been Finally, the outcomes of this study should networks, the different modes of subsequently categorized according to the structuring theory of (a) Koppenjan & help in delivering a spatial design concept public transport, the history of spatial (or recommendations) which supports in the development, the spatial functions, Groenewegen (2005): technical (here considered as spatial), institutional and process design; adjustment of development within the region the public facilities, relations between but also to (b) the corresponding dimensions of Hartman et al. (2011); spatial, institutional and between the various transit nodes of the spatial development and functions and organizational. project (which support integration of transport and infrastructure, the transit nodes infrastructure and spatial development). and the relation between these transit nodes. For the studies regarding the transit nodes a radius will be used of 1200 meters (for the stations of Leiden In the theoretical framework the theories The questions are supported with different Research indicators and Gouda) and of 800 meters for the have been aligned according to the following studies, and indicators that need to make sure stations in between (drawing on the three discourses (based on the TIP-model of that the research delivers the right answers to  What are the spatial characteristics of conditions of ‘Stedenbaan+’ addressed Koppenjan and Groenewegen): the questions. The indicators are derived from the region: how could the form of the by Balz & Schrijnen, 2009). the concepts that have been addressed above physical environment at a sub-regional  The spatial dimension (spatial in this chapter. The studies are done by various 3. Interviewing: Questions concerning and local level be described (e.g. development concepts/policies) research methods. Both the indicators and the spatial policies will also be raised the interface between the transport research methods are explained below. during the interviews with involved network and adjacent land uses), and  The institutional dimension (institutional actors of the project (which in particular what has been the effect of (national) development/capacity building) The latter two questions are combined in one are intended for addressing the spatial policies on the urbanization of study because they because it is expected that institutional issues).  The operational dimension the region? answers to both questions are to be found in (implementation instruments/spatial the study on institutional capacity – the different  What nodal typologies or station planning strategies/actor-relational dimensions are intertwined. environments can be found along the approach/cooperation & funding 2.5.3 Studies on institutional line? How are the nodes connected mechanisms) to other public transport modes capacity & process (multifarious nodes of interaction)? 2.5.2 Studies on spatial & What type of developments can be found around the nodes? What The related questions: 2.5.1 The purposes of the programmatic implications building heights do these buildings - How has institutional capacity being empirical research have? built up around the RGL? The related question:  How far do municipal plans for spatial These dimensions are linked to various studies, To what extent have the spatial development development do correspond with the - What mechanisms have been used to as part of the empirical research on the case implications of the transport infrastructure (RGL) conditions for nodal development (or realize the project? study area. The main purpose of this research been considered in the planning of the line? integrative infrastructure concepts) and is to address the spatial, institutional and with the agreements made within the The aim of this question is to (a) understand the operational issues at the case study area. The aim of this question is to understand project contracts of the RGL? institutional issues (legal power and attitude), Therefore a set of indicators and questions the geographical relations between the the degree of policy adjustment around the can be formulated according to some of the infrastructure and land-use in the region. In RGL project and within the region and (b) what theoretical approaches. The relevant research order to answer this question it is important instruments and mechanisms (also financial) questions are formulated according to these to understand the spatial characteristics of the Research methods have been used. This can be the agreements three dimensions of space, institutions and region and to consider the effects of the RGL. that have been made, the partnerships, the process. This will be investigated on regional level and attitude of institutions, the type of resources, 1. Desk research: Observing the recent the availability of the legal planning instruments on the level of the project (RGL): the spatial 1. To what extent have the spatial data concerning the project, its region and the use of them, and the common interest and programmatic characteristics of the various development implications of the and the project agreements. Notice between the involved actors, and finally to what transit nodes and there relation. Subsequently it transport infrastructure (RGL) been significant sections and elements, which extent different policies have been integrated. is the aim to find out what the effect of spatial considered in the planning of the line? can be useful further in the research. Special attention goes out to the scale of policies on the spatial structure has been – the history of urban development. The spatial governance between provincial and municipal 2. How has institutional capacity being 2. Mapping: Geographical mapping level because of the expected institutional studies will be done from a qualitative point of of the spatial patterns of the region, built up around the RGL? view (without a large number of figures). capacity issues: the ‘regional gap’. This will be the morphological types of spatial investigated according to the indicators that are 3. What planning mechanisms have been development, the infrastructure formulated below. used to realize the project?72 2. Integrative concepts from theory /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 2.5 The empirical assessment 73
  • 39. 2.5 The empirical assessment 2. Integrative concepts from theory Finally, the outcomes of this study should territorial/organizational) around the After the case study area has been investigated help in proposing an institutional structure project? by empirical research, after questions have been which supports a spatial design concept that answered, after problems addressed, and after integrates policies on infrastructure and land- alternatives have been presented into designs use. and strategies, it is worth to zoom out and look Organization: how the gained knowledge relate to the recent trends within the field of spatial planning.  In how far did the institutional Finally, some recommendations for further Research indicators organization around the project research and regional projects can be done. correspond with the various common institutional partnerships within the Legal power (instruments): region?  How far did the provincial government have sufficient legal power (legal capacity) to support the RGL project agreements? Research methods  How far did the provincial government 1. Desk research: Observing the recent have integrative instruments which data concerning the project, its region facilitated adjustment of land-use and and the project agreements. Notice infrastructure, and how far did they use significant sections and elements, which them? can be useful further in the research. 2. Interviewing: Interviewing various involved institutions and actors: (a) the Responsibility and accountability (ambitions province, (b) some of the municipalities, and interests): (c) ProRail/NS, and (d) an actor of private interest (Chamber of Commerce  How far did the provincial government – KvK). The list of the involved have the attitude (administrative interviewees can be found in the culture) for integration of policies on appendix (E). The questions are based infrastructure and mobility (use of on the theory and on the first findings integrative instruments)? of the empirical research.  What has been the provincial attitude 3. Mapping: The history of capacity towards lower authorities and (semi-) building in the region can be illustrated private actors or NGO’s within the and abstracted in a diagram. institutional structure?  How far where the institutions transparent: was their clear communication between the involved 2.5.4 From case study to actors? alternative design, and further  How far did institutions (provincial government) have created spatial The gained knowledge from the empirical concepts, visions or stories that research and the theoretical framework support the adjustment of policies on should contribute to design alternatives for infrastructure and land-use, and bind the case study area (in spatial, institutional, regional actors? and operational terms, according to the TIP- model of Koppenjan & Groenewegen (2005)).  What has been the degree (integration/ Whether this could be a detailed design or coordination/cooperation) of an abstract concept or model, or just a few adjustment of policies (sectoral/ recommendations for the area, depend on the answers that the empirical studies give.74 2. Integrative concepts from theory /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 2.5 The empirical assessment 75
  • 40. 3 Title The case of the RGL About The Rijn Gouwe Lijn (RGL) forms the case study area of this research. This case study is analysed according to the empirical assessment formulated at the end of the theoretical framework (chapter 2). The studies are done by mapping of the region, interviews of involved professionals and by desk research on the project agreements. The findings of the case study form the basis for (alternative) design recommendations, for future research of the case study and for future studies on integrated transport planning in the Netherlands. Keywords Case study - Rijn Gouwe Lijn - Project agreements - Decision-making process - Planning instruments - Governance culture Paragraphs #3.1 Rijn Gouwe Lijn: the details #3.2 The spatial and programmatic implications #3.3 The institutional capacity & steering process76 Fig. 3.1 Photograph: windmill Hazerswoude 77
  • 41. 3.1 Rijn Gouwe Lijn: the details 3. The case of the RGL The project of the case study area has been introduced in the introduction of this research made between public and semi- - There was the time of the first (chapter 1). It has been explained that the east track of the Rijn Gouwe Lijn (RGL) will be public actors, the structure does not wave of decentralization regarding incorporate potential leading actors in railway lines: several railway tracks part of the research and how the empirical assessment of the case study will be done (chapter the region. where transmitted to the province 2). But there are more details around the project that need to be understood before the including the line between Alphen outcomes are described. With the details is meant a description of the project agreements Especially the way in how integration of policies a/d Rijn to Gouda (part of the RGL- (which have been published on the official website of the RGL (Rijngouwelijn, 2011) that on mobility and land-use is agreed leaves east track). At the same time the does not exist anymore), the well-known difficulties during the long-term process of decision questions; within the project agreements the national railway company (NS) was relation seems purely financial. In the next been privatized and regarded this making and the organization. empirical studies on the case study these track as no longer profitable – the findings are taken into account – results of company was not willing to bid in a the interviews can be compared with these new concession. observations for instance. - The province was looking for her 3.1.1 Project agreements Several notable issues appear in the project own identity or raison d’être (there agreements and with the general contract in particular. These are the most remarkable was a strong tension between For the project of the case study area – the findings from the desk research on the 3.1.2 The crucial steps in the mayor cities The Hague and east part of the Rijn Gouwe Lijn (RGL) – various agreements: Rotterdam and the province) project agreements have been made between decision making the involved actors. For all the studies on  The project agreements do not - The municipality of Leiden realized every dimension (spatial, institutional and incorporate qualitative embedding The project has faced a difficult and long run the city centre needed an impulse operational), it is important to know what of spatial development related to the in terms of decision making. Based on the since it was losing competition agreements have been made in these contracts RGL. Spatial development is agreed in information of the former project website (e.g. connectivity) with their because the content is mostly multidimensional. quantitative terms – the agreements do (Rijngouwelijn, 2011) and on some of the neighbouring cities. not mention anything about location, interviews of the empirical research the most During the process the general and various crucial moments over time are presented below - The governments in the region densities or mixture of functions. The specific contracts have been made between the (fig. 3.2). (northern part of the province of only arrangements made other than following actors: Zuid-Holland) concluded that the financial are about the project scope It is important to realize that different writers infrastructure connections from per municipality, which concerns  1st General project agreement (July, and interviewees have different conceptions east to west were relatively weak. the distribution of tasks towards 2005): Province of Zuid-Holland, implementation of the RGL (appendix on how the project is initiated and how it has municipality of Leiden, Zoeterwoude, developed. Thus, the steps that are mentioned - The level of public transport B). remained behind the national Oegstgeest, Alphen aan den Rijn, are at least confirmed by more than one source. Boskoop, Waddinxveen and Gouda. average.  The project agreements are financial agreements in particular. The content  1993/1994: Plans where initiated for  2nd Specific project agreement - the a light rail connection through the city  July 2005: The first (general) project of the arrangements is mainly about agreement for the eastern part have territory of Leiden (November, 2008): the distribution of tasks and the costs centre of Leiden by local entrepreneurs Province of Zuid-Holland, municipality in the city centre, represented by the been made between province and related to those tasks. municipalities. of Leiden. Chamber of Commerce (Kamer van  The funding mechanism is fixed, Koophandel (KVK)).  3rd Specific project agreement (a) -  2006: In Leiden plans where been based on subsidies and is not flexible; made to hold an (A/B) referendum the territory of Gouda (July, 2006): financial contribution is based on a  Around 2000: Provincial government Province of Zuid-Holland, municipality (provincial deputy Marnix Norder) because it was not sure yet which route minimum quantitative program of should be chosen through the city of Gouda. spatial development per municipality. placed the project on its political agenda. The approach of the project centre. Each municipality is committed to that  3rd Specific project agreement (b) - contribution, despite the number of was more integral now because the the territory of Gouda (November, plan was covering the northern part  2006: Former alderman of the portfolio spatial development will fall out higher ‘Traffic’ (Alexander Pechtold) was 2010): Province of Zuid-Holland, or lower. The project agreements of the province to a large extent: the municipality of Gouda. eastern part of the line should be against to hold a referendum because might not be capable to anticipate on this was a project of supra-municipal changing conditions through time. extended from Leiden to Gouda via  4th Specific project agreement - the Alphen a/d Rijn. There were several interests. territory of Zoeterwoude (July, 2006):  The project agreements represent an reasons for the provincial government Province of Zuid-Holland, municipality  March 2007: Referendum was been institutional structure which is public taking the responsibility for the project: hold in Leiden, not in (A/B) form but in of Zoeterwoude. and political; agreements have been (Yes/No). There was a lot of resistance78 3. The case of the RGL /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 3.1 Rijn Gouwe Lijn: the details 79
  • 42. 3.1 Rijn Gouwe Lijn: the details 3. The case of the RGL against the project: a majority voted would not go ahead (as intended in the against RGL-East. This would mean that project agreements). Instead, regional the total project could not continue and local governments are now looking (the whole track). for alternatives of high qualitative public transport services (e.g. the HOV-  December 2007: Executive board of bus corridors). Also the frequencies on Leiden rejected the outcomes of the the existing railway lines in the region referendum and continued cooperation (between Leiden and Utrecht and with RGL, which was also the reason for from Alphen a/d Rijn to Gouda) will be a delayed second project agreement increased and several stations will be (between former provincial deputy realized. Atsje van Dijk and former alderman John Steegh of the municipality of On the basis of these events it can be seen that Leiden). (a) the project mainly was of political and public administrative concern (which is common),  2007: Subsequently the municipal and (b) most of these issues took place at the council of Leiden (gemeenteraad) steps municipality of Leiden – while the project was of down because of the project. regional importance the decisions of one single municipality appeared to be crucial.  2007-2010: The new elected municipal council and executive board of Leiden rejected the signed project agreements (opinion of political party VVD regarding the RGL changed). The 3.1.3 The organization behind Provincial Executive reacted by putting the RGL municipality of Leiden under legal pressure to continue with participation An organization has been set up to steer the in RGL with a so called ‘proactive clue’ developments of the project (fig. 3.3). The (proactieve aanwijzing). organization was dedicated with tasks as coordination and implementation.  June 2010: Leiden started a committee (commissie Staal) to evaluate what The province of Zuid-Holland (Provincial would be the juridical and financial Executive) was the client of the project, by consequences if it would refuse taking the responsibility and bearing the risks the obligation of the province. The etc. The provincial government had formed committee concluded this would not a ‘steering group’ which was represented by be feasible: the municipal council came the municipal representatives (the alderman back from their decision and continued on the portfolio of transport) and a provincial with the project. representative (the deputy of Mobility). The steering group was the body for negotiation.  April 2010: The new elected Provincial Council had different priorities and At the ‘board of directors’ the same participants took over the advice of the minister have been involved but than on administrative of Infrastructure and Environment to level. Also representatives of ProRail (exploiting simplify the implementation of the and developer of railway lines) have been RGL and cut in the budget. Involved involved at this board – ProRail was the only municipalities were concerned; contractor of the project which was not public they feared financial losses because but semi-public. Additionally the Water Board the project might go ahead. The and the Chamber of Commerce (KvK) where municipalities were bearing a financial involved, but not as contractor. The Chamber risk. of Commerce could be seen as a lobby group, representing the interest of local and regional  May 2012: The provincial government entrepreneurs. officially announced the RGL project Fig. 3.2 Timeline of decision-making process of the RGL (indication)80 3.1 Rijn Gouwe Lijn: the details 81
  • 43. 3.1 Rijn Gouwe Lijn: the details 3. The case of the RGL The participants or contractors of the RGL-East were the municipalities of Oegstgeest, Leiden, Zoeterwoude, Rijnwoude, Alphen a/d Rijn, Boskoop, Waddinxveen and Gouda. For the implementation of the project a project team was formed. This office employed approximately twenty professionals. Fig. 3.3 Organizational structure around the RGL (indication)82 1. Relevance /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 3.1 Rijn Gouwe Lijn: the details 83
  • 44. 3.2 The spatial and programmatic implications 3.2 The spatial and programmatic implications The RGL was a spatial and infrastructure of project of regional scale. In order to understand the embeddedness of the railway project it is important to understand its context: the region of which the line is taking part of. Therefore it is worth to address the characteristics of the region from a spatial point of view first, before the spatial and programmatic relations of the railway line can be explained. How diverse is this region? What type of functions can be found within the region and within the transit zones along the line? Finally, the results of another study are explained – a study which was intended to map the municipal plans for spatial development expansions of towns and villages along the line, and in how far such plans are located within the reaching distance of the transit zones. 3.2.1 The spatial characteristics distinguished according to a distinctions in infrastructural layers and by its patterns of the region (appendix C2) (fig. 3.5) – based on some of the principles of Zandbelt (2011). This approach When addressing the regional spatial patterns learns that the network of car roads in the according theoretical model of Stead and region is multi-layered and high densed: the Meijers (2004) learn that, in general, the region is served by several regional corridors composition of spatial development within the and a local grid of car roads. With the mapping region as a whole can be typed as ‘dispersed’ of spatial development patterns together with and ‘polycentric’ (appendix C1): there are some the infrastructural characteristics can be seen major clusters of urban development defined that indeed, the linear spatial developments in by the various towns and cities in this region the region often correspond to the local grid of (e.g. Leiden, Alphen a/d Rijn, Waddinxveen and car roads. Gouda), which are surrounded with dispersed spatial development in the rural areas. Before the mutual and external spatial and programmatic implications of the RGL can A closer look at the morphology of the be addressed it also might be important to spatial development types – according to the have a picture of the way how the region has development options of Needham (2007) – grown geographically: how did urban and shows that these patterns of urbanization are infrastructure development evolve through mainly characterized by linear developments time and (roughly), what might have been the and some large town extansions dating from effect of some of the policy interventions that the last decades of the twentieth century (fig. have been done by different levels of public 3.4). Especially these linear developments authority? draw attention because of their clear presence within the region. It seems that the linear In geographical terms, it can be seen that over development corresponds with the local grid time – since the start of the nineteenth century of car roads – which is a very clear example of – most urban growth in the region is related the direct interrelation between infrastructure to the development of hard infrastructure (fig. networks and spatial development. This could 3.6) (appendix C3). Subsequently it has been be one of the indications that the rural areas influenced by waterways, railways and car in the regions are quite car dependent (which roads. Spectacular is the urban growth since the also very depends on the networks of public eighties of the twentieth century, where large transport in the area – it might be questioned urban extensions seem to take place around here if it is financially efficient to facilitate public all the towns in the region (Leiden, Alphen a/d transport regarding the type of development). Rijn, Waddinxveen, Gouda and Zoetermeer) together with the significant development of The infrastructural morphology of hard especially regional infrastructure networks (e.g. infrastructure (e.g. car roads), can be provincial roads). Simultaneously, a rapidly increasing number of dispersed developments Fig. 3.4 Type of spatial developments in the region of the RGL (spatial morphology)84 3.2 The spatial and programmatic implications 85
  • 45. 3.2 The spatial and programmatic implications 3. The case of the RGL can be seen in the rural areas. The illustration Heart Growth Centres’ such as Alphen shows that this situation continued up till a/d Rijn, Gouda and Leiden almost present. But why did the spatial patterns of this doubled in surface. At the same time region changed so radically in a time spend of a urban development at the rural areas few decades? It is fair to say that this cannot be stayed limited. Maybe this is the effect influenced by the geographical relations only. of the strong spatial twin concept of ‘Randstad - Green Heart’ that was Here the bridge can be made to policies that introduced in the same period (urban have been introduced and how they possibly development should take place around influenced the spatial patterns in this region. the Green Heart). This is possibly And although the link between the (national) reflected in the region, which is located and spatial patterns cannot be made directly in the middle of this Green Heart and (there are too much factors of influence which development is concentrated at the are hard to monitor), rough indications can borders around (e.g. Leiden). be found for the impact of the policies. First the possible impacts of national policies will  In 1988, the Fourth Policy Document be made since the national government has on Spatial Planning was introduced, produced several strong concepts over time followed up with the supplement ‘Extra’ (appendix A). in 1992 which is also called VINEX. The context for large areal development  The first possible impacts can be seen was set; several cities where appointed in the introduction of the housing to extend with residential districts – law (woningwet) in 1901. One of the the VINEX locations. According this requirements and consequences was policy the developments should be that residential units needed to be concentrated in and around existing larger, thus it is not hard to realize that towns. In Zoetermeer (Oosterheem) (residential) buildings took more space. and in Alphen a/d Rijn (Oosterwijk) The first city extensions (1900 onwards) such districts can be found. whereby it was needed to take the housing law into consideration can be  With the various national planning seen in particular around Leiden and documents that have been presented Alphen. But possibly because of the since 1988 the national government World War II period in between (1940- aimed several urban nodes and 1945), the urban growth remained for compact towns or cities (within relatively stable. drawn borders by red contours) and preservation of nature reserves  Partly because of the WWII, there (by drawing green contours which was a short of housing in the country. restricted those areas from urban In this post-war period the national development). Strangely enough it government came up with strong can be seen that from the nineties policies and concepts for spatial onwards the rural countryside did development (appendix A). With the not stay free warded from urban first three national policy documents development. On the contrary, the on spatial planning between 1960 rural areas around the towns seem and 1987 the government used the to urbanize more rapidly than ever concept of ‘bundled de-concentration’ (regarding the dispersed patterns of (gebundelde deconcentratie) whereby the illustration). Nevertheless, despite several locations where designated that the national government aimed for as new ‘growth towns’ for spatial compact development last two decades development. Zoetermeer (left how can it be declared that dispersed underneath) was one of these towns. development could take place at Indeed a rapid urbanization can be the rural areas? Was this the effect seen between the sixties and nineties of local planning? Was the national of the twentieth century. Several ‘Green government loosening up control on lower authorities? Fig. 3.5 Conceptual represenation of infrastructure patterns in the region around the RGL86 3.2 The spatial and programmatic implications 87
  • 46. 3.2 The spatial and programmatic implications 3. The case of the RGL Regarding the explanations of Needham (2007) be said that urban growth around cities and which have been addressed in the study on towns has been determined by national (and Dutch spatial planning, this may indeed be possibly regional) planning policies. In contrast the result of local planning activities: local to towns and cities urban growth around authorities or planning agencies started to villages and on the rural areas can be seen as develop not only passively (to the level of a product of weak local planning policies, with conformance) but also proactively (to the level the absence of spatial principles and concepts of performance). This resulted in the situation (it is questionable if local authorities had aims of municipal planning agencies acting more or used strong concepts to support their as real estate developers (roughly said) by aims to address urban sprawl or uncontrolled participation with private actors: the agencies development). It can also be seen as a had a double agenda of (conformance, from weakness of the national government in spatial which they are ought to act accordingly) and planning, which has not been able to steer of (performance; the agencies used their legal local authorities in operating according to their rights to buy land, change destination of the spatial aims and concepts. land and sell the land afterwards which make land values increase). This legal ability made local governments relatively powerful, especially because higher authorities did not have enough 3.2.2 The spatial and legal instruments to steer the municipal land- use plans. programmatic embeddedness This behavioral shift of local planning agencies of the RGL in using land use planning as an earning model might be a reason which explains the dispersed With understanding of the spatial characteristics development on the rural areas in the region of the region, it is worth to look at the spatial – local authorities often did not have strong and embeddedness of the RGL project in concepts (as the national government used) the region: its spatial and programmatic which facilitate spatial development. Secondly, implications. Before this can be studied it is according to several interviews that have been importance to notice the spatial project scope done for the institutional study as part of this (as far as there is) at the moment of the project research, it appeared the province has a clear agreements in 2005, and what have changed intention to prevent the rural areas within the since then. Green Heart from urban development by having spatial concepts for promoting development The general project agreement of 2005 has in the belt of the ‘Oude Rijnzone’ between been made for the east part (Leiden to Gouda) Leiden and Alphen a/d Rijn, and by using of the total project scope (Katwijk (coastline) the policy of red contours which are drawn to Gouda) – the west part was from Katwijk to around the towns. Apparently, the provincial Leiden. The focus of this study is on the east government also did not succeed in preventing part, thus, from Leiden via Alphen a/d Rijn to urban development at rural areas, despite of Gouda. Originally, the project should be a mix their measures (regarding the study of urban of ‘heavy rail’ and ‘light rail’: from coastline growth in the area). More recently experiments to the east part of Leiden the hybrid vehicles have been done with other types of spatial or (which would be specifically developed for areal development. Such approaches are more this project) would run on light rail (through integral, combining living and leisure (large Leiden’s city centre), and from the east part till villas surrounded with green spaces and parks) Gouda via Alphen a/d Rijn the vehicles should at areas which had potential environmental run on the existing railway lines (from Leiden qualities in terms of water or countryside. Such to Utrecht and from Alphen a/d Rijn to Gouda) approaches also might have contributed to (fig. 3.7). With the general project agreement more dispersed developments. of 2005 several new stops had been planned (reflected by the dots surrounded by black and What can we learn from this historical study? red circles, which can be seen in the illustration). Generally, in terms of spatial policy, it might Fig. 3.6 Overview of historical patterns of urban growth in the region of the RGL88 3.2 The spatial and programmatic implications 89
  • 47. 3. The case of the RGL As has been mentioned in the introduction the frequencies; instead it focuses on the reach of the case study (chapter 1) since then the and adjustment of the networks. The study plans have dramatically changed: the ‘hybrid’ (fig. 3.7) shows that, regarding the reach of the construction of light- and heavy rail has been network, cities, towns and large villages seem reduced to just a ‘regular’ railway project, which to be well connected (higher accessibility). means that the transport frequency will be Small villages and rural areas seem to be poor raised (…) on the existing railway track of Leiden connected (lower accessibility). Together with to Utrecht and from Alphen a/d Rijn to Gouda. the type of spatial development addressed This means that the project will not cross the above, and which is linear and dispersed, city centre of Leiden anymore. Hereby several it might be concluded that these areas are planned stations (regarding the agreements car-dependent. Regarding the adjustment of of 2005) have been cancelled (red dots). Some the (planned stations) on the existing public other stations are still on the agenda or are transport network it seems that with every currently being constructed (black dots). The station a modal transit is possible between the current stations are: different modes of public transport (train and bus). In that respect the stations are seem to  Leiden CS; be strategic located – they can be regarded as transit nodes.  ROC Lammenschans; The next studies are focused on the spatial  Alphen a/d Rijn CS; and programmatic configuration in terms of diversity of the region and within the transit  Boskoop; radius of the stations. This can be done according a mapping method that shows the  Waddinxveen Noord; mix of functions in the region and around the transit zones, with:  Waddinxveen Centre;  the type of spatial function groups  Gouda CS. (commercial, industrial, residential, The current planned stations are: offices) (appendix C4), and;  Zoeterwoude Meerburg (depending  the type of public facilities (town hall, on future spatial developments in the museum, shopping center, hospital/ area); health center, library, (music) theatre, primary school, high school, wo/  Hazerswoude; hbo/mbo, swimming pool, sports complex, cinema, hotel/camping,  Boskoop Snijdelijk; cultural landmark, recreation area, entertainment/horticulture) (fig. 3.8)  Waddinxveen Zuid. (appendix C5). In order to support the relevance for this Note that shopping centers are research the spatial analysis are focussed on considered as supermarkets in villages this new situation – the current plans including and small towns, and in large towns the stations addressed in the lists above. and cities regarded as shopping centers. For hotel/camping counts that, in rural The first step of the study was to see in how far areas, villages and towns this can be the located (planned) stations along the RGL do interpreted as campings and bed and align with the current public transport network breakfasts, in cities this can be regarded within the region and in how far the network as hotels. facilitates the region (roughly). Therefore the all the bus lines of the current operator of the According to these two studies several public transport concession in the region have characteristics at regional level can be noticed: been mapped. The mapping does not include Fig. 3.7 Overview adjustment of regional public transport networks together with the RGL90 3.2 The spatial and programmatic implications 91
  • 48. 3. The case of the RGL  In terms of spatial program, the zones while there is a significant region can be typed as particularly number of residential program within mono-functional. This is expressed these zones. in the presence of mainly residential communities (commuter settlements).  Most libraries are situated within reaching distance of the transit zones.  The level of public facilities seems to be relatively high. Basic public facilities  Most shopping centers are located as schools, sport complexes and outside the reaching distance of transit supermarkets can be found in almost zones. every town or village. Large towns and cities comprise a wider range of public  Except for Leiden and Gouda, most facilities such as cinemas and theaters. museums are located outside the reaching distance of transit zones.  In terms of public facilities, the region can be seen as diverse. When  In general, most recreational facilities considered as a whole the region and landmarks are located outside the comprises a wide range of public reaching distance of transit zones. facilities.  Some leading private actors are  The northern part of the region above situated within reaching distance of Gouda and Leiden includes more transit zones. recreational facilities.  The region facilitates a significant number and diverse network of leading 3.2.3 The station typologies private actors, such as corporate headquarters, plants and trade centers. Some of them are located at strategic Drawing on the spatial and programmatic (accessible and diverse) locations, some implications (around stations), the station are not. environments within these transit zones along the line can be characterized according to At the level of the transit zones around the the nodal typologies of Balz and Schrijnen stations the following characteristics can be (2009) (chapter 2), in order to define the noticed: spatial differentiation of the railway line and to support a proposal of a ‘tailored’ TOD concept  Most spatial functions within transit as an alternative for the current practice at zones are spatial residential, except the case study area: every type of node needs for station Zoeterwoude Meerburg another adjusted approach. As mentioned in (with in particular industrial program), the theoretical framework these typologies Hazerswoude and Waddinxveen Zuid depend not only on the combination of (with particularly greenfields at the transport modes or infrastructural networks and moment). functional program but also on more qualitative factors (environmental characteristics such  Small towns are less diverse compared as size of building blocks, building heights, to cities and large towns but comprise densities, cultural diversity, openness of space basic public facilities. etc.). A field and photo study has been done on the station environments along the RGL project  Every village, town or city comprises done, based on the following criteria: building two or more educational institutions of heights, openness of space, location, size of the same degree within the distance of building blocks, station facilities – together transit zones. with the information of the studies on the programmatic configuration of transport modes  In Alphen a/d Rijn most primary and of spatial functions addressed above. schools are situated outside the transit Fig. 3.8 Overwiew of type of public facilities in the region and around the RGL92 3.2 The spatial and programmatic implications 93
  • 49. 3. The case of the RGL Fig. 3.9-1 Photo study of the nodal typologies along the RGL94 3.2 The spatial and programmatic implications 95
  • 50. 3. The case of the RGL Fig. 3.9-2 Photo study of the nodal typologies along the RGL96 3.2 The spatial and programmatic implications 97
  • 51. 3.2 The spatial and programmatic implications 3. The case of the RGL Of every station along the line two pictures are line and a highway (A4), together with firms). Small housing sites are planned enormous residential district at distance taken of each site, which illustrate the station residential developments (housing). At as expansions at the borders of the (Zuidplas polder). Except for this areal environment and at which the criteria such as the moment there are no public facilities village. The village seems autonomous: development public facilities in this area building heights can be seen. Accordingly, an and the area is poor accessible in terms public facilities are mainly concentrated are rare at the moment. Building heights attempt is done address the nodal typology of of public transport (one bus line is in the centre of the village – but located and densities are low (one or two each station (fig. 3.9): crossing the area). approximately a kilometer from the levels) and building blocks are relatively station. Around the station a casino and large (industrial halls). At the moment 1. Leiden CS – City centres: It connects 4. Hazerswoude – Rural areas: This station a restaurant can be found, together with this area is poor accessible by public Leiden’s city centre (which contains a will be realized in the near future but at some open space for public parking and transport (probably one bus line). diverse landscape of high quality public the moment this location is surrounded some development sites (housing). The facilities such as museums, theatre by rural landscapes – at the middle of station area seems well accessible by 10. Gouda – Creative Cities: This station and cinema) with the neighbouring the countryside, at several kilometers other public transport modes (bus lines). area is connects the city centre of Gouda metropolitan clusters in the Randstad. distance of from the closest village with other cities in the Randstad: various This station is characterized by large Hazerswoude. Within the transit zone 7. Waddinxveen Noord – Small towns: railway lines come together. Also other building blocks, up to ten floors various residential neighborhoods (old This town is larger compared to its modes of transport can be found (a of height, mainly offices and high family houses) can be found together neighbouring village Boskoop. The place bus station), which supports regional quality services such as an academic with some small industries: building (around the station) is characterized accessibility. Public facilities such as medical centre and various university blocks are small and building heights with mainly residential communities small restaurants can be found, together faculties, large public open spaces, mix and densities are low (up to three levels). and the rustic appearance of a with a new town hall and some offices. of functions, station facilities such as Public facilities seem rare in this area. village as Boskoop cannot be seen at Building blocks are quite large (offices) a bus stations. Regional accessibility Accessibility can also be achieved by Waddinxveen: very little old buildings and building heights up to ten floors also through other modes of transport other modes of public transport – various can be found. The building blocks vary can be noticed. Building densities do not (busses in particular). bus lines are crossing the area. from small (family houses) to large seem extremely high: large public open (apartment buildings) which also counts spaces surround the station – some of 2. ROC Lammenschans – Outskirt of 5. Alphen a/d Rijn – Cities of the future: for building heights (three till ten floors). them waiting for new developments. cities: This station is located at one of The town Alphen can be characterized as Building densities seem relatively low. the outskirts of Leiden and separates a ‘cities of the future’ (although the term Public facilities are rare and clustered in a residential neighbourhood from future is not totally relevant) but also some small commercial centres located This observation show that the (station) an industrial estate at the outskirt. It touches the identity of a ‘small town’, within the residential neighbourhoods. environments vary – the region is diverse connects the area to the city centre because the town is easily accessible Around the station a public parking and differentiated by mainly spatial and and to the region between Leiden and (by car), mainly contains (new) low space can be found. The station area is infrastructural characteristics – although most Alphen. Building blocks vary from small dense housing areas, in the middle of also connected through a bus line. towns and villages share that they mainly exist (residential) to large (college building). the Green Heart. The public facilities out of residential communities (which might Very little public facilities can be seen in around the stations are limited, large 8. Waddinxveen Centrum – Small towns: suggest that these areas contain a relatively this in the area, which is characterized open spaces (waiting for development) This is a second station situated in large amount of daily commuters). In general by a residential green environment are still to be found. Building blocks vary the town. The station environment is it can be seen that urban areas (Leiden and but also by industrial expansions (local from large (offices) to small (housing). somewhat similar to the transit zone Gouda) follow rural areas (e.g. Hazerswoude, entrepreneurs). Low densities and Building densities and heights seem to around Waddinxveen Noord, except for Boskoop). This also means that pressure on buildings heights of no more than three be low (vary from three till six floors). the amount of public space: a green mobility varies strongly and depending on levels can be seen – except for a large The station area seems well accessible park with a lake and some greenfield the sort of settlement along the line (city or college building (ROC Lammenschans by other public transport modes (various sites waiting for spatial developments in village?), which makes it difficult to adjust the – approx. ten levels). The station is also bus lines and a bus station can be terms of housing (first neighbourhood right transport frequencies for the whole trace. accessible through other modes of public found). has been built) can be found. Also this Also development locations vary from town to transport (bus lines). station area is connected through a bus town – at some locations as Alphen a/d Rijn, 6. Boskoop – small towns: The station can line. Gouda and Waddinxveen lots of open space 3. Zoeterwoude Meerburg - Business be found in a village, located in a rural can be found which means that program and sites: This station is supposed to be landscape. The village is characterized by 9. Waddinxveen Zuid – Business sites: A building typology need to be adjusted on the realized, depending on the amount a strong local economy – the presence of third station at Waddinxveen is planned type of station area or settlement. This study of spatial developments which will horticulture seems crucial in this village: but still needs to be developed. At the confirms that a ‘tailored’ or adjusted version be realized in this rural area between small canals and local agricultural firms moment the location of this spot is of TOD is needed to the support of the area Leiden and Zoeterwoude in the near can be found everywhere. Building still a rural area, but also surrounded in terms of mobility and land-use. In the future. At the moment some greenfield densities are and heights are low (no with some small industrial estates. The (alternative) design proposal for this region developments are taking place. Offices more than three levels), and building future plans promote expansion of these these characteristics need to be taken into are to be planned along the railway blocks seem small (residential and small industrial activities, together with an consideration also (chapter 4).98 3. The case of the RGL /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 3.2 The spatial and programmatic implications 99
  • 52. 3.2 The spatial and programmatic implications 3. The case of the RGL 3.2.4 The municipal plans for using more and more space of the adjusted (bus lines cross the (future) rural areas. This might be the result of stations of the RGL railway line). spatial development ‘liberal policies’ of municipal authorities Adjustment of the public transport in particular, because of having limited modes plays an important role the In collaboration with the foundation ‘Stichting or no spatial development concepts application of a TOD concept as a Deltametropool’, a broad study on the and policies for their jurisdictions, and possible design alternative for the area. municipal ambitions and plans for spatial because of insufficient adjustment development has been done – based on of spatial development between  The line of the RGL project seems the data presented at ‘De Nieuwe Kaart van the authorities in the region. Strong to cross a region which contains a Nederland’ by 2010 (appendix D). The aim (integral) and adjusted concepts and significant differentiation in spatial for this was that it would be crucial to see policies (between authorities) might be environments (not in functional in how far spatial extensions of villages and crucial in order to counteract the spatial program) – the stations and transit towns within the participating municipalities implications of urban sprawl. zones along the line seem to have very are planned within reaching distance of the different characteristics, which indicates transit zones – a direct comparison with the  In terms of spatial morphologies, most that spatial developments around every agreed number of spatial development per of these developments also seem to line need to be ‘tailored’ and adjusted municipality in the general project contract was be linear, along car roads. This might on each other. This asks for application not possible, because that agreement does not indicate a high car dependency in the of a ‘tailored’ TOD concept whereby say anything about locations an names of plans area (although this also depends on station environments are taken into or extensions. the level and accessibility of public consideration. transport ) – at least it is a threat However, it is interesting to see that because it might not be lucrative for  Although the link between the especially within a small towns or villages as maintaining public transport networks infrastructure and land-use ‘Hazerswoude Koudekerk’ more than half of within areas of dispersed developments developments in the project the planned developments (‘Herziening Oude in the near future, because this can lead agreements is purely financial (and Rijnzone’ and ‘De Nieuwe Hoop’) is considered to high operation costs. the fact that municipalities are outside the transit zones (appendix D). In how not encouraged or supported to far did the responsible municipality Rijnwoude  Residential neighbourhoods seem plan these developments around took the project serious? It is very unlikely to dominate the region, in terms of their stations because of weak that those extensions which are located far main function groups – living and (provincial) instruments or policies), from transit zones contribute to an increasing housing might be important themes, most developments are planned number of users of the line – these locations which could also mean that the area within distance of the transit zones. seem more car-dependent. This also raises the hides a relative large number of daily However, at some locations it might question in how far the provincial government commuters. For future developments it be questioned why the planned is able to steer or to adjust such municipal plans might be questioned if this should be developments take place outside or developments. housing, perhaps development of other these transit zones (e.g. Hazerswoude functional program is needed in order Koudekerk). At least it seems important to avoid monofunctionality but instead, that a higher authority promote to promote diversity in the region. developments around stations because this example shows that this does not 3.2.5 Conclusion of the spatial  In terms of public facilities the always happen. studies region seems quite autonomous – in most villages or towns basic public These conclusions will be taken into facilities are present (e.g. supermarket, consideration in the main conclusions and Based on the spatial studies on the project and education, health clinic). This also means in proposing improvements or alternatives its region, the following can be noticed: that communities are not completely (design) suggestions for the case study (chapter dependent on each other. 4).  In terms of spatial characteristics the spatial development patterns within  The level of public transport does not the region can be typed as dispersed seem to be very poor – at least in terms and polycentric forms of urban growth of accessibility: these networks (bus (Meijers & Burger, 2009). Especially lines) reach all towns and villages in the last decades (from 1980 onwards) the region. Also the different public of rapid ‘urbanization’ can be seen, transport modes seem to be quite well100 3. The case of the RGL /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 3.2 The spatial and programmatic implications 101
  • 53. 3.3 The institutional capacity & steering process 3. The case of the RGL The studies on institutional capacity revealed several remarkable issues, especially at the level ‘The provincial government does not have Integrative planning instruments of provincial governance. The first issue can be seen in terms of the available legal resources, the right resources to negotiate with lower From the perspective of one of the intentions authorities, namely money and property (land).’ – of this research – the integration of mobility or planning instruments (that support integration of policies). The second issue regards the representative B. and land-use – did the province have the attitude and (shared interests) of the involved institutions. This is followed by a distinction ability of integrative instruments for doing in type of policy integration and accordingly, to what extend the policy integration took Despite of this constraint the provincial so? It can be seen that provincial structure place (what degree). The paragraph concludes with the meaningful role of the regional government appeared to be the most visions allows such integration, but when it partnerships. powerful during the decision making process comes to the implementation of regional of the RGL (since it was able to oblige the projects an integrative approach does not municipality of Leiden to continue participation seem possible; the former (streekplan) in the project). Also with their legal spatial and the current ‘provincial land-use plans’ development policy red contours they are able (inpassingsplan) – also regarded as ‘spatial This study also includes elements which can be government. Next to the municipality also to force municipalities to expand within the regulation’ (Verordening Ruimte) – has a more regarded as the operational dimensions (such province and national government are now able drawn boundaries. Within these boundaries, specific purpose can only be used sectoral in for as the strategies or financial mechanisms that to use some sort of zoning plan or imposed provincial government has relatively less to say; instance, the regulation of office space: have been used) because they seem strongly land use plan (for municipality this is called municipalities seem to have more freedom for intertwined with the institutional dimension. ‘bestemmingsplan’, for province and national their development perspectives within these ‘The ‘Verordening Ruimte’ or ‘inpassingsplan’ is government this is called ‘inpassingsplan’). This borders by the use of their land-use plans. not integral, it is committed to one single sector. allows more regional coordination for a regional In the case of the RGL for this has been used to body - the ‘Provincial Council’ (Provinciale Additionally the province regarded themself support the implementation of infrastructure.’ – 3.3.1 The legal powers Staten), instead of the ‘gemeenteraden’ not able to implement quality guidelines for Representative B. (municipal councils). This has made it easier to spatial development around stations (e.g. mixed realize regional projects: use, densities) and which also counts for the This means that in the initiative phase of adjustment of numbers in functional program regional projects sectoral ambitions (as Regarding the enforced legal powers for ‘The new law on spatial planning (WRO) has at regional level (e.g. offices, housing), because infrastructure and land-use) can be integrated higher authorities (national and provincial made it easier for provincial government to it was not feasible in administrative terms – by the use of ‘structuurvisies’, but in the phase government), with the introduction of the land- realize regional projects.’ – Representative A. regarding the available planning instruments: of implementation these are separated (with use plans for these tiers of government the following questions arise: Did the province have the ‘Verordening Ruimte’ or ‘inpassingsplan’). If ‘…the former provincial land use plan integration of restrictive plans is a must in terms enough legal power to support the RGL project (streekplan) allowed the province to incorporate agreements? And second, did the authority of integrated planning might be questionable, Dispersed powers policies for quality guidelines (that managed it would rather be a question if the provincial have integrative instruments which facilitated Nevertheless, this does not mean the provincial minimal density, integrated parking in order to adjustment of land-use and infrastructure? government is able to steer development on government was not facing difficulties regarding promote compact development) in their general the very local level (in order to achieve the the power of lower authorities. Where the policy for nodal development. But since the success of nodal development – by promoting provincial authority has most powers according former “streekplan” has been replaced by the development around stations). As has been to their planning instruments (legal resources), current ‘spatial regulation’ (Verordening Ruimte discussed above, the answer to this would be Instrumental changes municipal governments have strong powers – which more can be seen as a spatial law) such The new law on spatial planning Wro (Wet negative. Maybe it is more appropriate to speak because of their landholding in particular policies are not part of the instrumentation not in terms of having but of using integrative ruimtelijke ordening) introduced in 2008, (material resources). For higher authorities anymore, simply because the ‘Verordening has given the province more authority and instruments, or using the possibility to create the latter ability seems to be perceived as an Ruimte’ is too strict for such policies, while the such instruments, which will be discussed in the has given the province stronger instruments. obstacle in terms of negotiation – municipal new provincial structure visions are too soft Before 2008, the province had instruments to next paragraph. governments have strong stake in this because for this. (…) Currently such policies are now oblige lower authorities to work according to they can bargain with their material resources seen as the task of municipal governments.’ – In term of provincial legal power on spatial their plans – which were labeled as ‘proactive (the owned land). This issue is stated by several Representative B. planning, it can be concluded that the province indication’ (proactieve aanwijzing). However, interviewees: has the authority and ability of planning the province was only allowed to use this, if Thus, in terms of integration of policies, instruments that are powerful enough to restrict it had developed a ‘provincial structure plan’ ‘Although a regional partnership can make the instruments did not seem sufficient to lower authorities act according to their policies (streekplan) (appendix A). In case of the RGL, more agreements in terms of spatial adjustment support spatial development around stations. (and which are also able to overrule the land the province has used both instruments against nowadays, they do not have the instrumentation This brings us to a deeper explanation of the claims of municipal governments). the municipality of Leiden. to enforce local development. The strong integration of planning instruments. municipal powers and landholdings make it One of the issues however, and which can be The current law on spatial planning is more difficult to achieve powerful agreements on argued, is that the province is missing a legal functional than the former WRO (Wet op de higher level.’ – representative C. framework (that beholds somewhere between Ruimtelijke Ordening) goes less out from the ‘Verordening Ruimte’ or ‘Inpassingsplan’ contradictions between different layers of102 3. The case of the RGL /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 3.3 The institutional capacity & steering process 103
  • 54. 3.3 The institutional capacity & steering process 3. The case of the RGL and the provincial ‘Structuurvisie’, regarding done with the purpose to stimulate external agreements on the RGL-East this never has been instruments and authority, but has an a degree of ‘restrictiveness’) which allows for communication of spatial ambitions of provincial done. (…) For the RGL-East it was more the case administrative culture which is not there to incorporation of specific policies. At the very government (appendix A). The provincial of the province having an ambition to develop invite NGO’s and private actors regarding such local level (e.g. around stations) the provincial government did not use the structure visions a certain number of functional program and projects. (…) And the province can have all government seems to have insufficient control according to this purpose: that’s it. Subsequently, in the provincial structure the powers an instruments, but administrative on spatial development, which does not mean vision and the former ‘streekplannen’ guidelines relations do not change from day to day.’ – the province cannot take that responsibility ‘Currently, the provincial government has a for development around stations have been Representative G. – it has the possibility to develop planning structure vision that is strongly based on the included, but constantly on a very general level.’ instruments that are able to do so, but they former “streekplannen”. During the time of – Representative B. ‘…the provincial government did neither exclude did not make use this possibility. Additionally transition, there has been discussion in the nor invite private actors directly (municipality it would have been possible to incorporate way how to develop the new structure visions. …which is reflected in the original intentions of of Leiden involved its university). Currently such arrangements (regulation of the way how Eventually the former provincial executive the provincial government on the project: the province is more negotiating with regional land is used around stations) in their project decided to make the structure vision as less leading private actors (such as Heineken), agreements, but this also has not been done. progressive as possible, to fit the document ‘Originally the RGL has been intended as a but that is also part of the provincial learning Would this then be the result of an attitude in the former ambitions. (…) Hereby has been public transport project in a classical form curve regarding regional projects; earlier the which is not there to stimulate integrated chosen to use the new planning document as a (without a link to spatial development), because province did not dare to involve such actors – development? sort of “interim policy” whereby ambitions for the province saw it as their task to maintain the maybe it would have been better if the province spatial development where postponed. (…) This public transport connection which was about to negotiated with private actors earlier in the is reflected in the provincial structure vision, be abolished – the essence could be seen in the process (especially in terms of investment).’ – which is a good example of the integration financial instruments to which the provincial Representative B. 3.3.2 The interests and of the various former “streekplannen”, but government was looking for in order to maintain where ambitions are hard to find – the the accessibility of the region. (…) the linkage This issue feeds the discussion in how far ambitions document is simply not focused on the future.’ – of spatial development locations and public private actors need to be involved in the Representative B. transport has never been the original choice.’ – process, and in what role. One of the RGL Representative B. participants stated as follows: Regarding the project agreements, why is the arranged number of spatial developments A reason for this can be found in the ‘Private actors will always say that they want to between province and municipalities not been No administrative culture for spatial administrative culture of authorities in the be involved in a very early stage to develop their promoted around stations? Does the provincial regulation on local level region: product and to have influence on the process, in government use other instruments to promote Secondly there has been the absence of specific order to deal with the often high complexity of this, or was it simply not the intention of the ‘…it also has to do with the steering philosophy such projects. (…) Within the process of the RGL policies regarding the RGL. The provincial province to concentrate the agreed number of the authorities (…) the provincial government it has been tried to involve leading private actors government had the intention to promote nodal of developments around stations – a matter took responsibility for the infrastructure of in the region for financial contribution, but they development around public transport corridors, of attitude an insufficient stories perhaps? the RGL, while the task of municipalities was will always appoint to the other firms in the area and to keep the rural areas in the Green Heart And subsequently, what has been the attitude to take priority for the other subjects (spatial and say why do they not contribute? – otherwise by supporting urbanization in an axe called the towards lower authorities and (semi-)private development was seen as their task) – the they will benefit from our investment: private ‘Oude Rijnzone’. Nonetheless, this was a general actors or NGO’s within the institutional provincial government simply has executive actors want to be involved only for own benefits policy and not specifically intended for the RGL: structure? boards which are quite reserved in the use of and interests.’ – Representative D. ‘In 2003 the provincial government started to instruments that would steer development on the The interest and attitude (of mainly the incorporate the concept of nodal development local level, that is not part of the administrative In that sense it is likely that private actors let provincial government) are explained according in their former ‘streekplan Zuid-Holland West’ culture. (…) Instead, the relation between the themselves representing by a body that joints to the following issues: which shows the ambition to invest in public province and municipalities is built on trust.’ – the shared economic interests of regional transport corridors which have potential for Representative B. and local enterprises, which actually did spatial development. (…) But this is a generic happen with the involvement of the Chamber policy, thus not specifically intended for the RGL.’ of Commerce (KvK). Within the RGL this Unintended use of provincial – Representative B. organization did only raised interest (right structure vision Restrained attitude towards (semi-) from the start – early nineties by representing Also, specific guidelines for nodal development private actors the initiatives of the local entrepreneurs The first issue can be seen in the provincial for the RGL have not been embedded in Another aspect of this administrative culture in the city center of Leiden) but did not government having insufficient visions on provincial plans: was the reserved attitude of provincial contribute in financial terms. Regarding the spatial development for their regions, which is government towards the involvement (single) form of participation (if involvement of private also reflected by the use of their legal planning ‘…within the project agreements on the RGL-West private actors (as stakeholders of the project): actors should take place in a public-private instruments. Regarding these instruments, a reference to the currently valid planological partnership or PPS), the same representative the replacement of the former ‘streekplan’ framework has been included. For the project ‘…the provincial government has the right stated the following: by the provincial structure vision was being104 3. The case of the RGL /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 3.3 The institutional capacity & steering process 105
  • 55. 3.3 The institutional capacity & steering process 3. The case of the RGL ‘For the RGL there was no public-private company was a very important player involved ‘The municipalities also did not cooperate According to the latter, the province also admits partnership, which has to do with the political at a very early stage (together they did tests) sufficiently, and from an individual interest in that it should be more active towards the and administrative attitude of the province. (…) A and had the technical expertise which the particular. (…) The municipalities competed with regulation of spatial development. They also reason for this can be seen from the perspective province did not have, it is remarkable that the each other, they all wanted spatial development.’ want to do this by making more use of their that regional infrastructure developments are provincial government did not see ProRail as an – Representative C. restrictive planning instrument ‘inpassingsplan’ often so complex and abstract (especially in an equal developing partner. This also appeared (the provincial land-use plan): early stage) that PPS constructions are nearly out one of the statements of one of the According to the institutional relations of possible.’ – Representative D. representatives: governance this development of competing ‘If we did he project at this moment and in governments is very common (chapter 2). But the current setting, we would have used the An exception here can be made for the ‘Looking back on the project, it would maybe in this situation the role of a higher authority provincial ‘inpassingsplan’ more intensively. (…) involvement of ProRail, a semi-public actor have been better if an alliance between the becomes important. This brings us to the role This appears to be a powerful instrument which which has the technical expertise on the province and ProRail, instead of the relation provincial government. helps to decrease the administrative pressure.’ – implementation of the railway and the stations. client-contractor (and automatic contractor). In Representative A. For the project ProRail also represented various that sense benefits for both parties could have other interests; of ‘NS reizigers’ (the national been investigated; how the project could have But in that case the provincial government railway company ‘Nationale Spoorwegen’ has been done better than both institutions operating Conformance or performance would be more restrictive to lower authorities, a division for real estate ‘NS Poort/Stations’ separately.’ – Representative E. Thus, did the provincial government take its which is something the municipalities do not and a transport division ‘NS Reizigers’ – steering role seriously, in order to get the prefer: ProRail normally is responsible for the railway municipalities on board for the project? And infrastructure) and the interest of DB Schenker should the government – despite of their ‘The provincial government acted extremely Rail (a rail freight transport company), which Competing interests administrative culture – take more responsibility restrictive, because it had the most financial made ProRail an important player – of other Another important constraint can be found in by being more restrictive or more facilitative resources and was bearing all the risk. We would importance than for instance a ‘Heineken’ which the strong interest of municipal governments regarding these issues? rather have seen that the provincial government an actor of economic regional importance, but which compete with each other for spatial acted more as a mediator.’ – Representative F. not on technical expertise. The NS real estate development: ‘The province should show more administrative devise (NS Poort/Stations) was not involved power, they should be able to make both ‘The province should have acted less restrictive in the project because it appeared to have ‘Personally I experienced that municipal horizontal and vertical alliances and should but more to the role of performance – insufficient interest – the company owned land governments had strong individual interest inform other participants better in what their stimulating.’ – Representative E. around stations but did not act as a developer, because of their potentials for spatial interests are or should be.’ – Representative G. it rather would sell the land. Nevertheless, for development. (…) Everyone was considering their This dialogue shows that it is likely that lower the project ProRail was assigned as a contractor, own interest more important than the shared ‘The provincial government should have the authorities want higher governments to be less not as a stakeholder. The company always had interest. (…) The province had high ambitions aim to have more influence within their chosen restrictive, while the provincial government is difficulties with this position, or at least in the for the project and needed regional commuters; system; they should steer more intensive and now having the intention to be more active and way how the province considered their role – spatial development was needed, this could make better use of their instruments. But this restrictive in their role of steering municipalities there was no mutual trust between both parties: not be realized without the municipalities – in should have been done form a more integral in development. Thus whether the provincial that sense the province was dependent on the perspective – and focus one thing. With too government should be more restrictive or more ‘The collaboration between the province municipalities.’ – Representative E. many ambitions you cannot focus. The provincial facilitative is difficult to say. and ProRail was one without trust. (…) This government should also imperative that focus: is mainly because the province did not have ‘In my opinion there have been some jealous and warned municipalities in the meanwhile, sufficient technical expertise regarding such relations between municipalities – do I get if they want to develop somewhere else.’ – projects, and did not want to give ProRail the enough spatial development compared to my Representative C. Provincial compromises room for contribution; they hired expertise neighbouring municipality?’ – Representative E. municipalities from other consultants to control our input.’ – ‘In my opinion, the provincial government was During the process however, the province Representative E. ‘It was a project wherein everybody thought it not capable enough to take its responsibility for succeeded in getting all the municipalities on could realize it aims but the aims where not a project as the RGL.’ – Representative C. board (except for the municipality of Leiden – The reason for ProRail participating as a corresponding. Eventually the project became which had more an internal conflict because of contractor can be seen in the fact that the the aim itself and not the instrument anymore to ‘Slowly on both the Provincial Council and the complications of their referendum, and not RGL project could not be labelled as ‘regional’ achieve the aim.’ – Representative C. Deputy are wondering why lower authorities with other participants – there have not been (which would mean that the province could do not succeed in the adjustment of spatial serious constraints between the municipalities do the concession) but national, because the ‘The interventions of the municipalities were very development and accordingly, if they should (they all supported the RGL rail project). vehicles would partly run on existing railway limited – non-interventions. Each municipality act more enforce their role as a director Regarding the following representatives the lines which means that the concession goes had a strong individual interest. The cohesive for adjustment of spatial development.’ – problem better can be seen in the way how the automatically to ProRail. Thus, the province element however was created by the province.’ – Representative B. province dealt with the regulation of spatial had to cooperate with ProRail. But because the Representative G. development around the line, which can be106 3. The case of the RGL /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 3.3 The institutional capacity & steering process 107
  • 56. 3.3 The institutional capacity & steering process 3. The case of the RGL seen in the following: with the province than with each other: been the ambition, vision or reason behind the no shared interest in terms of spatial RGL was or everybody tells a different story – developments. Such communicative ‘If a real estate company wants to develop on ‘The municipalities had more contact with the there is no shared vision, no shared ambition.’ – tools possibly also would have helped a particular location but not around a station, provincial government than with each other. The Representative C. to decrease the matter of completion a municipality does not like to refuse such a province played an important role in the project between municipalities. Additionally, developer, because when such a company is and acted as a director. In global lines we knew ‘With such a long-term project the original strong concepts could have supported rejected by municipality A it goes to municipality what the plans of other municipalities where, but motives disappear to the background, in that the integration of policies on mobility B, which has land-use plans that offer more often we did not know how far they were in their sense it is hard to say for me what these original and land-use. space for development – thus it has to come plans.’ – Representative F. motives have been.’ – Representative F. from the market. The only thing you can do Altogether, it can also be argued if the about this is to invest in spatial quality and ‘Originally there was almost no mutual Strong concepts or stories can function as a municipalities were aware of the spatial and in good accessibility around stations to make correspondence between the municipalities on facilitator for integrative planning approaches programmatic implications of (each other’s) spatial development more attractive at these the RGL, on the assumption that the province and for organizational structures for project plans and agreements around the nodes.’ – Representative C. would do the communication.’ – Representative implementation of these projects. For the RGL RGL (which increases mutual dependency). C. this could have supported the integration of The issues addressed above might play a role ‘Within the municipality of Zoeterwoude there infrastructure and spatial policies. This did not in the sense that there was very little mutual was a discussion how the contribution to the ‘The communication between the involved actors happen. Additionally, even the organization communication (and transparency) between RGL could be paid. In those days agreements should have been better and should have been around the project was not created to support municipalities, partly because of the provincial have been made for development on new started in an earlier stage.’ – Representative D. integration of both spatial and infrastructure role in the project (ambitious in realizing greenfield areas at the southern part of the policies: their aims) by doing all the communication village “Zoeterwoude-Dorp” (Swetterhage) – This constraint could have been addressed by between the involved actors whereby mutually which is located several kilometres from the better communication during the process and ‘We now see that the project and its competing municipalities where not informed railway station – in order to pay the contribution more interactively so that municipalities realize organizational structure was strongly oriented on each other’s plans and developments – it as agreed in the first general agreement.’ – what consequences their interventions have for towards traditional infrastructure: the project might be questioned in how far the province Representative G. others. office for instance had as strong focus on was transparent in its communication to other technique, old and new railway tracks but not on actors. It is remarkable that the province accepted the areas around the stations.’ – Representative developments (financially linked to the B. railway project) that where located far away Absence of supporting visions and from the transit zones of the railway stations. concepts for the RGL According to the results of the study above The province did even go a step further The final and most agreed issue is that the most remarkable issues in terms of attitude can 3.3.3 Sectors, territories and by facilitating such developments and by provincial government had no clear supporting be seen in: organizations loosening up their policy of ‘red contours’ concept, vision or story for the RGL, in order to around the village – which can be seen as a inform and to bind the participants:  The restrained attitude of the provincial compromise of the provincial government government towards (semi-)private As explained in the theoretical framework to the municipality Zoeterwoude, in order stakeholders. Especially the relation (chapter 2), two discourses can be seen in terms ‘There has neither been a good supporting to guarantee the realization of the project. between the province and ProRail of policy integration: (a) sectoral integration, story for the RGL nor a good concept – never. Contradictionally however, such compromises was weak; there was no trust between territorial integration and; (b) integration, Interests can be told as strength for instance, can work out negative: both parties, while they were strongly coordination or cooperation. Both dimensions and as stories that bind. Both the province as the dependent on each other. relate to each other when the following to municipality of Leiden never succeeded in this. ‘The number of expected commuters had to be questions are raised: Leiden never had an integrative approach to downgraded, what was caused by the provincial transport.’ – Representative C.  The way how provincial restricts government not restricting municipalities spatial development at the local level.  What needs to be integrated (or when they continued with development in the Apparently, they do not act according coordinated, or cooperated)? – sectors/ ‘...often a strong story behind a development Green Heart instead of around the stations. The their own policies; they change red territories/organizations location (node) is missing. A strong spatial story province has never been restrictive towards their for the project is that we want to keep the Green contours as a compromise for getting the municipalities on board for the RGL  To what extend or degree do sectors, own spatial policy.’ – Representative C. Heart free form urbanization.’ – Representative B. project. territories or organizations need to be ‘integrated’? – integration/coordination/ Especially for long term projects a strong  The absence of strong spatial concepts cooperation concept or vision is important, because Insufficient communication participants often lose the original intentions of and visions that support and facilitate the project. Because there was no good Thus, in order to find an answer on the Subsequently their also was the issue of the project during the process: story, participants eventually forgot the predominant question to what degree policy insufficient communication between authorities. integration took place at the case study area, Apparently, the municipalities had more contact ‘Almost nobody can explain anymore what had original intentions of the project and this more distinctive approach is considered for108 3. The case of the RGL /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 3.3 The institutional capacity & steering process 109
  • 57. 3.3 The institutional capacity & steering process 3. The case of the RGL the assessment – the situation of the case study  Territorial integration (concerning policy 3.3.4 The degree of operation: At the case study area it can be seen that cross- is subsequently assessed according to both integration between different territories sectoral integration took place at the level of discourses. According to the first question on and is seen to minimise the negative integration, coordination or cooperation; the steering group (and project what needs to be integrated (or coordinated, or impacts of policy in the context of inter- coordination? office), where formed according to traditional cooperated) the options for the case study area territorial (cross-boundary) working infrastructural conditions (‘integration of can be considered as followed: and encourages complementarities) modes’ – Curtis & James, 2004). Spatial between the public authorities each For the case study, it can be indicated to what development did not belong to the portfolio  Sectoral integration (the ‘joining-up’ responsible for their own jurisdiction extent integration of the policies described of this steering group, and there was no clear of different policy domains and their (vertically and horizontally) – above took place – based on the information link and adjustment between infrastructural actors within a particular territory) adjustment of national, provincial and which has been gathered with the interviews and spatial policies (at least there was little can be considered as the integration municipal governments; these policy fields (table 3.1). The degrees to transparency between both policies, there between departments within one integration are cooperation, coordination and was just a dialogue between them), which is authority or as the integration between  Organizational integration (necessary to integration. Although these degrees have been confirmed by interviews with the province – (semi-)public, private sector and encourage the strategic and operational introduced above (in chapter 2), it is worth to within this steering group there was no cross- voluntary agencies. As mentioned in co-operation between actors that give a short overview of their characteristics sectoral integration. the theoretical framework sectoral is critical to effective delivery) can before the situation of the case study is integration can be subdivided in two be considered as the alignment of explained (according to Stead & Meijers, 2004): What also became clear is that in terms of inter- divisions, namely cross-sectoral and linked strategies or of related delivery agency integration there was a very difficult inter-agency integration. For the case mechanisms. Also herein a distinction  Cooperation – at the lowest level, relation between the provincial planning study area this is expressed as follows: can be made, for the case study area which simply implies dialogue and agency and ProRail. This company was the this is expressed as follows: information; only contractor of the RGL at provincial level - Cross-sectoral integration: between who was not public. It was a company with provincial departmental policies - Strategic integration: between  Coordination – implies cooperation other interests. However, this company was (reflected in the steering group) – linked strategies, programmes plus transparency and some attempt the automatic contractor (as explained above adjustment of policies on spatial and initiatives – alignment of of to avoid policy conflicts (but do not in this section) and had the technical expertise development and mobility or provincial and municipal structure necessarily imply the use of similar in terms of infrastructure which the province infrastructure; vision plans/strategic spatial goals); did not have. Despite they were dependent on visions and spatial concepts each other there was no trust between both - Inter-agency or stakeholder  Integration – includes dialogue and parties and little commitment, there was little integration: between (provincial) - Operational integration: between information (as in policy cooperation), transparency and there have been conflicts authority and (semi-)public, private related delivery mechanisms – transparency and avoidance of policy which not have been avoided; this inter-agency sector and voluntary agencies – alignment of decision making and conflicts (as in policy coordination) but relation took place at the level of cooperation. adjustment of Provincial planning financial mechanisms/agreements also includes joint working, attempts agency, ProRail and Chamber of to create synergies between different In terms of vertical territorial integration there Commerce (KvK); sectors (win-win situations) and the use was a strong relation between the provincial of the same goals to formulate policy. and municipal governments – as said above in this chapter they needed each other (in Degree of policy integ gration Form of policy integration Expression at case study Expression Integration Coordination CooperationSECTORAL INTEGRATION Cross sectoral integration Adjustment of (provincial) policy areas on mobility and land use in steering group X The steering group of the RGL was based on traditional infrastructure policy (they did not have spatial policies) Inter agency (stakeholder) integration Adjustment of (provincial) authority and ProRail or KvK X Relation between provincial planning agency and ProRail (only non governmental contractor) was weak no trustTERRITORIAL INTEGRATION Vertical integration Adjustment of provincial and municipal government X Provincial government was steering the project and keeping contact with municipalities Horizontal integration Adjustment of municipal governments X Strong competing interests between municipalities on spatial development very little formal mutual communicationORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRATION Strategic integration Alignment of strategic spatial visions or spatial concepts (provincial departments) X No strategic approach whithin provincial structure visions sectoral policies/plans have been combined but not adjusted Operational integration Alignment of decision making (sectoral legal planning documents) X Sectoral planning documents of the province have not been integrated or well adjusted Alignment of financial agreements or mechanisms X Financial mechanism has been agreed and adjusted but allowed to little freedom and flexibility for municipalitiesTable 3.1 The degrees of policy adjustment in terms of sectors, territories and organizations110 3.3 The institutional capacity & steering process 111
  • 58. 3.3 The institutional capacity & steering process 3. The case of the RGL financial, geographical, procedural and legal The same provincial representatives also development (chapter 2). In that sense this Especially the general partnerships (which terms). Government at both tiers made announced that it was not possible to integrate institutional and operational policy structure are all ‘WGR’ regions – appendix A) can be adjusted agreements (reflected in the general sectoral legal planning documents which are fails, not able to deliver a successful nodal regarded as meaningful clusters because project agreement) regarding the amount of more restrictive and which are used to the development. they deal with issues of different sectors (not development, the stations, the investments level of conformance (e.g. ‘inpassingsplan’ only of spatial but also of social or economic etc. The policies where not joint (and there was or ‘Verordening Ruimte’). Such planning importance) that ask for an inter-municipal the attempt to avoid policy conflicts between documents can be seen as instruments which approach. Additionally, these partnerships province and municipalities) but adjusted: the belong to the policy type of operational 3.3.5 The role of the regional sometimes have financial resources (e.g. relation between province and municipalities integration. Because such legal planning Holland Rijnland, that has a ‘regional can be regarded as the degree of coordination. documents are completely sectoral and not partnerships investment fund’ subsidized by the participating The discussion on whether the provincial intended to avoid policy conflicts (which often municipalities – which can be regarded as government should take more leadership, take place with the use of these instruments) Eventually, with the study on the institutional bottom-up investment) that is useful in be more restrictive towards municipalities or the degree of operation can be considered as and operational structure became clear negotiations of regional projects between just more facilitative or stimulating does not cooperation. that the role of regional partnerships has different clusters, and by raising interest; mean that the provincial government had no potential in terms of negotiation. But what is bringing a project on a higher agenda (which coordinative role. As mentioned in the first paragraph of this can be seen as some sort of lobbying). Thus, the the importance of such partnerships? What chapter the first general project contract of financial resources make it possible for these explains the presence of these partnerships As mentioned above in this chapter, there the RGL contained agreements on financial partnerships to function as a stakeholder and in this region? Another study is been done to was a lot of competition between municipal contribution per participant to the project. to strengthen their interest within such projects. investigate these regional partnerships and governments – especially in terms of spatial These financial contributions were linked to Finally, these partnerships function as a sort of other institutional relations in the region. Both development. Every municipal participant the agreed number of spatial development ‘knowledge institute’ for small municipalities; are explained below. wanted to have spatial developments within per municipality. Despite a municipality would the partnerships have the expertise in, for their territory. Thus there were a lot of realize more or less than the agreed number The study on the regional partnerships instance regional infrastructure projects, where competing interests. It also became clear that of development, the contribution was fixed. (appendix C7) – a diagram which is based the municipal governments sometimes do not there was very little (formal) communication Eventually municipalities seem not be able to on the list of public partnerships in the have enough ‘intellectual resources’ for: between municipalities regarding the realize what has been agreed (because of crisis), northern region of the province Zuid Holland, spatial developments (no transparency) – and were stitched to the high bills of investment published by NRC Weekblad (2010), and ‘The regional partnership acts as a sort of municipalities roughly knew about their in the line. This financial mechanism (the which corresponds to a large extent with the platform for discussion for municipalities. It plans, but not about the stage of those plans. amount of investment in infrastructure linked institutional structure of 2005 when the general can be regarded as a knowledge institute for Communication only mainly took place by the to expected number of spatial development project agreement has been made – shows small municipalities that are have less expertise provincial government. This horizontal territorial and benefits) can also be seen as a form of three general partnerships with general tasks in certain aspects. (…)They have a regional relation took place at the degree of cooperation. operational integration. The financial agreements (e.g. adjustment of spatial program as housing, investment fund where all municipalities deposit have been adjusted with the intention to avoid offices, industrial and commercial functions, money, which offers room for negotiation In terms of strategic integration the provincial conflicts; this can be considered as a degree in at certain arenas of decision making. The infrastructure projects, youth care services structure vision can be considered. The of coordination. However, these arrangements partnerships are always involved in the initiation and education), surround with specific inter- representatives of the provincial government where so fixed that they are little adaptive or phase, where they can function as a lobby group municipal partnerships engaged with economic, mentioned in interviews that their provincial flexible to unexpected changes. Possibly it in order to encourage a shared interest between environmental or planning activities: structure vision was a document where all would have been better if these arrangements different actors. Thereby it helps if such a former sectoral policies (housing, infrastructure, would be more flexible and if the participants  Economic relation: promoting partnerships has own money, which they can use environment etc.) where collected or stitched were less dependent on each other, what regional economic activities and local to do a first bid.’ – Representative C. together with little adjustment and which made supports the argument for a degree which is entrepeneurship such as offices and the document sensitive for sectoral policy more oriented towards cooperation. industries (e.g. Oude Rijnzone); Again, this shows that in this way interest is conflicts. This made the structure vision too built from bottom-up – municipalities bring comprehensive, very unclear and not oriented Overall, considering all the types of policy  Environmental relation: promoting their own money. But this statement is a desire, towards the future (representing very little integration and their degrees of operation it nature reservations, ecological main a reaction on something that did not happen ambitions) – the government did not have been can be seen that there is an institutional and structure (EHS), recreation areas or at the moments when the former project selective. However, the representatives admit operational policy structure which is more landscapes and heritage (e.g. Stichting agreements where made because municipalities the document could have been more integral oriented towards cooperation, than to the Land van Wijk en Wouden); had to bring their own money. when those policies where joined. The degree level of integration. It does not mean that all of this strategic alignment can be considered as policy areas should take place on the level of  Planning relation: promoting areal In the diagram that reflects the study on coordination. From the perspective of strategic integration, but the idea that most policies development: residential in particular regional partnerships it can be seen that the integration at provincial level also different are more touching the degree of cooperation (e.g. Regionale ontwikkelingsorganisatie institutional structure which was needed for the regional public transport concepts such as Rnet does not seem to be desirable in the context Zuidplas). RGL project is one of the scars organizational and HOV-net are running parallel to each other of integrated planning or of transit oriented structures that have a relation between all and are far from integration.112 3. The case of the RGL /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 3.3 The institutional capacity & steering process 113
  • 59. 3.3 The institutional capacity & steering process 3. The case of the RGL the three general partnerships (next to the provincial government to decide whether they for change – they can be seen as an example partnership also (with the same argument). organization around the RGL only the economic delegate authority to such partnerships). As of governance Type II (which also counts for This example shows that municipalities are relation ‘Oude Rijnzone’ does an appeal on mentioned above the province and municipal the steering group and the project office of willing to cooperate as long as they can all the partnerships). It might be argued here governments have most legal powers – the the RGL, which were represented by different enforce their political power, but with keeping that the relation needed for the RGL project provincial government because of their legal authorities and were temporary). their democratic legitimacy at the same time. was not common – most of the relation require instruments, the municipal government because Because the institutional structure around cooperation of municipalities of not more than of their landholdings in particular. Especially for the RGL calls on the municipalities instead of two different general partnerships. Because higher authorities the latter ability seems to be partnerships the issues around collaboration these partnerships have strong interests for perceived as an obstacle in terms of negotiation 3.3.6 Governance culture might have another cause. Possibly because what is the best for their region, the required – municipal governments have strong stake the project was the only connecting element structure for the RGL might have been ‘fragile’ in this because they can bargain with their of the municipalities in the region, it might be and sensitive to competing interests. ‘material resources’ (the owned land). This issue argued that there was not enough commitment is stated by several interviewees: In the study on the institutional relations between them (and not as with general Having the importance of general partnerships of the regional partnerships (appendix C7) partnerships, often established to counteract in mind, it is remarkable that all municipalities ‘Although a regional partnership can make became clear that the institutional organization various cross-border issues and in different were involved in the project agreement more agreements in terms of spatial adjustment around the project did not correspond with sectors (e.g. youth care and safety) which individually, which could have encouraged a nowadays, they do not have the instrumentation the common institutional partnerships in the ultimately can lead to more commitment). ‘fragmented field of interest’ or ‘tragedy of to enforce local development. The strong region. But why might this have contributed commons’ (simply because more actors are municipal powers and landholdings make it to operational issues around decision-making Another argument might be found in the involved and with insufficient control of the difficult to achieve powerful agreements on between partnerships, but also between ambitions and interests of the province. As province in case of the latter). Anyway, this did higher level.’ – representative C. municipalities in particular? Does this have to explained at the start of this chapter the not happen, at least not to this extent: only do with the governance culture of authorities project has become an important project for the municipality of Leiden appeared to be ‘The provincial government does not have in the region? – some other empirical studies the province – perhaps a little too important: the municipality with conflicting interests (as the right resources to negotiate with lower (interests and ambitions) indicated that involved (private) actors were kept at distance (relation mentioned above) – with crucial consequences, authorities, namely money and property (land).’ – authorities (province and municipalities) did not province – Pro Rail), but also lower public however. representative A. have the governance culture to collaborate and authorities (whether municipal partnerships or to the support of policy integration. But this single municipalities) have been insufficiently Possibly it would have been better if the However, as became clear out of the analysis brings the following question: why? Perhaps involved in the initial phase (especially in provincial government involved the regional on the regional relationships it can be argued conclusions of both studies show the relation of terms design and defining the portfolio) – partnerships (representing the shared that the institutional organization around the these issues around the governance culture. the operational approach or intention of the interests of the municipalities) into the project project did not correspond with the common provincial government cannot be typed as agreement instead of the municipalities institutional partnerships in the region; the Partly, this could have something to do with ‘collaborative’. This is also reflected in the individually – in order to facilitate negotiation organization called on new intergovernmental the history of cooperation in the area: some communication of the provincial government and adjustment of different interests around the relations. This could have contributed to the of the regional partnerships have a long towards other participants: the province was project: difficult and long run during the project, with tradition and some have less (and some of the having a defective integral (regional) vision municipalities (part of different clusters) having partnerships have been established by own where project and region were aligned. This ‘The RGL East does no appeal on the difficulties to adjust their spatial policies and (bottom-up) interest, and possibly some have situation made it difficult for municipalities and partnerships, but on the municipalities. The having competing interest in this. been established by higher levels of authority other participants to realize the aims and in first project agreement has been made between (province) (top-down) – the provincial has the being aware of the implications of the project all municipal governments individual, which In general, the dialogue between regional possibility to oblige municipalities to establish – also the participants had little to say at the required a relative comprehensive steering partnerships and provincial government (with and collaborate a WGR partnership. Because early stage in this approach which was far from group. This can be seen as one of the issues the partnerships representing the municipalities the research did not involve studies on the collaborative. Possibly, as part of the strong regarding the institutional structure on the RGL- in their interest and with the province having the institutional history at the region it is difficult orientation of the province on the project, the East.’ – representative C. capacity for coordination and implementation) to prove such developments. However, in case municipalities became less communicative and is interesting because it beholds at the level of of the Holland Rijnland partnership it can be more reactive instead of proactive. Nevertheless, as has been mentioned above the ‘regional gap’. This gap can be addressed by argued that this has been established around in this section the involvement of general regional partnerships that have (a) the expertise 2002 by shared ambitions and interests of In the next chapter of conclusions and partnerships does not mean that the role of the on large scale issues, (b) represent and promote neighbouring municipalities, and that this recommendations some suggestions to these province becomes less important. The general interests of lower authorities and (c) bring them partnership draws on the integration of two issues are done (chapter 4). partnerships do not have legal resources – on the agenda of the provincial government. former collaboration in the area: the ‘Duin- en they do not have legal instruments to steer Such partnerships are created voluntary and Bollenstreek’ and the ‘Leidse Regio’ – mainly or facilitate other authorities (the fact that can change from structure (municipalities can with the purpose to strengthen decisive wefawe these are WGR regions does not say that these move between partnerships), which make power. More recently, in 2008 one of the partnerships have legal authority – it is on the these organizations dynamic and adaptive ‘Rijnstreekberaad’ joined the Holland Rijnland114 3. The case of the RGL /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 3.3 The institutional capacity & steering process 115
  • 60. 4 Title Conclusions & recommendations About This sec on contains the main results of the empirical research. Accordingly, recommenda ons are done for the case study area, which are translated in a process, spa al and ins tu onal design. The findings are also placed in perspec ve within the context of the case study: integrated transport planning in the Netherlands. Finally some recommenda ons for future research are done. Keywords Institutional capacity - governance culture - TOD - Design - Future research Paragraphs #4.1 Conclusions case study #4.2 (Design) recommendations for case study #4.3 Recommendations to similar projects in the NL #4.4 Recommendations for future research116 Fig. 4.1 Photograph: station area Alphen a/d Rijn 117
  • 61. 4.1 Conclusions case study 4. Conclusions & recommendations The purpose of the research was formulated in two main research questions; one problem environments (not in functional Institutional and operational addressing and one solution oriented question. The following question should address the program) – the stations and transit dimension zones along the line seem to have very Related questions: issues: different characteristics, which indicates that spatial developments around every - How has institutional capacity being What are the issues of governance between local planning agencies, around the integration line need to be ‘tailored’ and adjusted built up around the RGL? of sectoral polices on mobility and land-use and around the implementation of a transport on each other. This asks for application infrastructure project such as the Rijn Gouwe Lijn at regional level? of a ‘tailored’ TOD concept whereby - What mechanisms have been used to station environments are taken into realize the project? consideration. The conclusions are:  Spatial development implications of The question represents the general aim of the (integral) and adjusted concepts and the RGL have not been considered in  The provincial government had research in addressing the issues at the case policies (between authorities) might be the planning of the line; the project sufficient legal power; they had study according to three dimensions: space, crucial in order to counteract the spatial agreements pay little attention to appropriate instruments for policy institutions and process. For every dimension, implications of urban sprawl. the location of spatial developments making and for conformance of plans sub-questions have been raised. According to (guidelines for spatial quality) and there made at lower levels of governance. these questions, the conclusions of the case  In terms of spatial morphologies, most was no legal support to achieve spatial If the provincial government does study are presented in two headings: the spatial of these developments also seem to development objectives. Although not have the right instruments they dimension, the institutional and operational be linear, along car roads. This might the link between the infrastructure are technically able to develop such dimension. The latter two dimensions are indicate a high car dependency in the and land-use developments in the instruments because of their legal combined because it appeared that these issues area (although this also depends on project agreements is purely financial authority, defined by law. intertwine. They conclusions are based on the level and accessibility of public (and the fact that municipalities are evidence; the results of the empirical research transport ) – at least it is a threat not encouraged or supported to  In terms of integration of policies the (desk research, interviews, mapping). because it might not be lucrative for plan these developments around available instruments are not always maintaining public transport networks their stations because of weak sufficient: the provincial legal plans within areas of dispersed developments (provincial) instruments or policies), (inpassingsplannen) can only be in the near future, because this can lead most developments are planned applied sectoral. In terms of planning Spatial dimension to high operation costs. within distance of the transit zones. policies on local level the provincial Related question: However, at some locations it might government did not see possibilities to  In terms of public facilities the be questioned why the planned incorporate local planning regulations To what extent have the spatial region seems quite autonomous – in developments take place outside (that guarantee mix of use, densities development implications of the most villages or towns basic public these transit zones (e.g. Hazerswoude etc.) in their legal framework. transport infrastructure (RGL) been facilities are present (e.g. supermarket, Koudekerk). At least it seems important considered in the planning of the line? education, health clinic). This also means that a higher authority promote  Integration of policies (on infrastructure that communities are not completely developments around stations because and land-use) is possible in an early The conclusions are: dependent on each other. this example showed that this does not stage (on abstract level) with the always happen. use of the provincial structure vision  In terms of spatial characteristics the  The level of public transport does not which is open to integration. This spatial development patterns within seem to be very poor – at least in terms  It seems that the provincial government instrument is also suitable for external the region can be typed as dispersed of accessibility: these networks (bus did not have strong (integral) concepts, communication of the provincial and polycentric forms of urban growth lines) reach all towns and villages in visions or binding story to support ambitions. However, the province did (Meijers & Burger, 2009). Especially the region. Also the different public the project and align stakeholders not use the instrument in this way: the the last decades (from 1970 onwards) transport modes seem to be quite well (insufficient transparency and attitude and administrative culture of of rapid ‘urbanization’ can be seen, adjusted (bus lines cross the (future) communication between participating the provincial government was not using more and more space of the stations of the RGL railway line). actors). This also may explain why strategic or selective, not there to rural areas. This might be the result of Adjustment of the public transport agreed spatial developments (linked facilitate integration of policies (on ‘liberal policies’ of municipal authorities modes plays an important role the to the investments in the RGL infrastructure and land-use) and not in particular, because of having limited application of a TOD concept as a infrastructure) do not always take pro-active because of limited ambitions or no spatial development concepts possible design alternative for the area. place around transit zones spatial for future (not presented in their vision and policies for their jurisdictions, and developments: this is not very well document). because of insufficient adjustment  The line of the RGL project seems promoted and supported by provincial of spatial development between to cross a region which contains a government.  The establishment of a ‘flexible’ project the authorities in the region. Strong significant differentiation in spatial organization (with a steering group118 4. Conclusions & recommendations /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 4.1 Conclusions case study 119
  • 62. 4.1 Conclusions case study 4. Conclusions & recommendations and an office for implementation under pressure – since they had to operational approach towards discussion – it seems that stakeholders did not of the project), formed by various downgrade their ambitions because of stakeholders was far from have been encouraged enough to participate representatives (provincial and the financial and economic crisis. As collaborative: lower public through for instance, interactive scenario municipal governments, but also said above, there have been insufficient authorities (whether municipal making or planning support tools such as ProRail and Chamber of Commerce legal regulation mechanisms that partnerships or single gaming (e.g. Sprintstad). – KvK) can be considered positive encourage developments around municipalities) have been because this office could have been stations. Together with the pressure insufficiently involved in the initial able to deal with the high complexity on these municipalities – because of phase (especially in terms design of the project. This construction also the heavy financial agreements – this and defining the portfolio of the corresponds with models from theory would stimulate municipalities to build project). (chapter 2) of flexible governance and on greenfield sites (because benefits inter-governmental agreements. are higher when developing on such - The provincial government locations). was having a defective integral  The provincial government did not (regional) vision wherein project have the attitude towards adjustment Taking these issues into consideration, the and region are aligned. They and regulation of spatial development degree to which policy adjustment (sectoral, did not communicate with other at local level (they did not have the territorial and organizational) took place most participants through a strong intention to steer spatial quality around approximates a form of cooperation: there was integral vision, which could have stations that promote mix of use, little alignment between provincial departments, encouraged participation and densities etc.), but let municipalities little alignment of province and (semi-)private engagement. free in how they want to develop within actors, little alignment and communication the drawn red contours. between public authorities at the same level - The strong focus of the provincial of governance and little alignment of planning government in realizing the  The provincial government had a instruments. project and in their insufficient restraint attitude towards actors who communication might have were not public (ProRail) – there was According to the empirical studies, these issues brought municipalities into a no trust between both parties, despite also might indicate that involved authorities more reactive position instead the fact they were highly dependent (province and municipalities) did have no or of proactive, informed and on each other (province the authority, little governance culture to collaborate and communicative. ProRail the technical expertise on the to support policy integration. This raises the rail infrastructure). They did neither question of why? How can this be explained? Taking all the issues into consideration, the refuse nor invite such actors for This can have a few causes: project in its intentional form (the hybrid participation of the project. construction of a light rail vehicle running on - Possibly because the project was a heavy rail) might have been too ambitious.  Project organization was not oriented the only connecting element of The expertise of participants on such projects towards integrated transport planning the municipalities in the region, it appeared to be deficient. In particular the such as TOD, but more based on might be argued that there was amount of stops; it would be doubtful if enough traditional infrastructure concepts not enough commitment between pressure could be created on these stations, in (which consider the infrastructure them (and not as with general particular because developments around these in particular) – this structure did not partnerships, often established to stations did not have been enough promoted facilitate the integration of sectoral counteract various cross-border because of insufficient policies and policy- policies on mobility and land-use. issues and in different sectors adjustment. This also counts for the station (e.g. youth care and safety) which environments, which seem to be not well  The financial mechanism around the ultimately can lead to more considered in terms density, building heights project was fixed and not flexible for commitment). and program. Maybe, and partly because of change (adaptive): within the project the level of public transport in the region, agreements the financial contribution - (Private) actors were kept at where most towns and villages do not seem of the municipal stakeholders was distance. The relation between poor accessible, the project was not completely defined by a proposed number of provincial government and Pro oriented towards the needs of the region – and spatial developments per municipality. Rail was far from communicative, probably was more the result of an ambition Whether a municipality decided to there was no trust. Pro Rail was not which did not meet with the changing needs develop more or less than the agreed considered as a partner. over time. Also, it appeared to be difficult number, the contribution stayed fixed. to create commitment because of ‘passive’ This has put participating municipalities - The provincial attitude and participation and the absence for a platform of120 4. Conclusions & recommendations /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 4.1 Conclusions case study 121
  • 63. 4.2 (Design) recommendations for case study 4. Conclusions & recommendations The issues and their underlying causalities raise questions of how it could be done also. stations in their project agreements provincial government improved For example: How could the provincial government steer municipalities in their plans and was able to use a legal framework bias for negotiation by involving that supported such qualitative regional partnerships instead with or ambitions, in order to foster spatial developments (which are part of the RGL project developments within the transit zones. all the municipalities independently. agreement) around stations? How can different (transport) transport modes or networks These conditions could be formulated This would have eased the decision- being adjusted on each other create enough transport value for the line? What organizational by all participants in for instance, an making process simply because fewer of institutional framework is needed to facilitate this? In terms of clientship: who takes arena or platform for discussion. participants would have been involved, responsibility? and because some municipalities in  The project agreements have shown the region miss the expertise for such that investment in the infrastructure complex projects (which the regional was linked to a key distribution of partnerships have). spatial developments per municipality. This allowed very little flexibility. Better  Drawing on the subject of Both the theoretical and the empirical research organized by several project agreements with a adjustment in payment mechanisms communication, it might be argued appeared fruitful (e.g. degrees on integration financial link between infrastructure and land- (which anticipate on economic if the institutional structure around of policies, station typologies, strategic spatial use developments, and in a supporting project changes) might have increased the the project (e.g. steering group) planning approaches); knowledge which organization with representatives of the involved chances for legitimacy of the project: did create the right conditions for can support the project at the case study, authorities). the provincial approach to spatial achieving commitment – basing on but also seems useful for similar transport From the perspective of this research, how planning could be more strategic in the interviews. If an atelier, arena of infrastructure projects in the Netherlands at would the project have more legitimacy? Or is using mechanisms such as ‘transfer platform for discussion and interactive regional level. An attempt is done to provide this not possible because of governance culture development rights’ (TDR), which communication was established, some recommendations for the case study which does not support the project? Or would it allow for land trade-offs (between this might have facilitated more area, which ultimately can be translated to have been possible to create more commitment municipalities). A second opportunity commitment between participants. (alternative) design suggestions. Before several with an open or shared vision, through can be seen in the contribution or This also gives opportunities to recommendations and a design are presented, interactive participation like scenario making or investments of pension funds, which ‘test’ if there is the right governance the second main research question requires gaming? Some suggestions are given below: have large financial capacity. First culture to continue with the project. attention: signals of such developments in the In such arenas communication would What planning mechanism could address issues  Some of the interviewees have indicated Netherlands can already been seen not only take place vertically (by of governance, facilitate integration of policies that if the provincial government had a in participation of pension funds in provincial government), but also more and support the implementation of such a strong (integral) vision and concept for national infrastructure (NOS, 2012). horizontally (between municipalities project? the project, but open for adjustment or regional partnerships, but not (participation), and one which facilitates  The interviews as part of the empirical without supervision of the province) The answer on the main research question integration of infrastructure policies and research have shown that in terms and more interactively – workshops should be found in the mechanisms that land-use around transit zones – which of public-private partnerships, there could have been a good platform provide a (better) alternative. This question can be found in a concept as ‘transit was little trust between public and to realize such interactions because solution is oriented; it is focused on the delivery oriented development’ (TOD) – this (semi-)private actors. If the provincial they stimulate participation, mutual of a planning mechanism which anticipates on could have led to more transparency government was more open to (semi-) awareness and raise interests for the the issues which were at present in the case and commitment between stakeholders. private actors – in terms of the relation project (when the regional partnerships study area. Now these issues have become between the province and ProRail it were involved it would also have been clear, it is worth to look further in order to make  Because by the studies done on the could have been helpful to start an possible to organize such workshops). some suggestions. spatial differentiation of the region, alliance (a public-private partnership Examples of this can be found at atelier it became clear that this region was instead of client-contractor relation) ‘Zuidvleugel’ as part of the Stedenbaan There is of course, no single answer to this diverse; the line is crossing various for better integration of expertise, project, or the planning support tool question. However, in this paragraph an towns and villages with different investments and responsibilities. ‘Sprintstad’ (a game that facilitates attempt is done to give a possible answer characteristics. This means that if a TOD Also pension funds could become participation through interactive with the input of (a) the Dutch planning concept would be applied, preferably stakeholders in such alliances. scenario making). Such platforms have system, (b) the theoretical models and (c) the these characteristics should be been addressed in this thesis and are findings on the case study area. With this input considered.  The results of the empirical research translated into the design alternatives some recommendations can be made. These have shown that the provincial below. recommendations may help in proposing an  Based on the concept of TOD (chapter government involved all municipalities improved institutional, spatial and process 2), the provincial government could independently during the whole The planning recommendations are elaborated design for the case study area (which until have formulated or stimulated process which required complex in a multi-dimensional design proposal for now – as far as you can speak of a design – conditions (e.g. mixed use, densities) a complex organization for doing the area that allows integration of different have been plans for a ‘classical’ railway project, for spatial development around communication. Possibly the concepts (from spatial, institutional and122 4. Conclusions & recommendations /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 4.2 (Design) recommendations for case study 123
  • 64. 4.2 (Design) recommendations for case study 4. Conclusions & recommendations operational theories). The multi-dimensional documents to ease communication design proposal for the area is based on the TIP with possible participants/stakeholders. ‘framework’ of Koppenjan and Groenewegen (2005), who state that next to a technical  Track 2 (Long-term & short-term (spatial) design, an institutional and process actions) – Subsequently the provincial model is needed for complex projects or government can define the long- systems. The design proposals for the case and short-term actions. They can study area are also suggested according to draw further on the concept of TOD these dimensions. Although the process design by adjustment of the policies on has the capacity to facilitate designs for other mobility and land-use, their internal dimensions, they are not fully integrated – it is organization (the departments), not a meta-model which is presented. However, their planning instruments, and the designs do not stand on their own; most a legal framework that facilitates content is multi-dimensional. A process design implementation. will be suggested first because this gives an overview of the different phases and because  Track 3 (Stakeholder participation) – its capacity of steering the other designs. Note Because the initiative for the project that the designs are suggestions and represent started in Leiden, it can be stated that a situation of how it could have been done if contact between potential stakeholders the project was restarted. started earlier. However, once a clear vision and concept has been elaborated it is easier to get other actors on board. This does not mean that the vision is not open for change, after the vision 4.2.1 Strategic spatial planning has been presented, participants which (process) get on board can create adjustment in a platform or arena which facilitates participatory planning interactive The first proposed design, strategic spatial scenario making. Accordingly planning can be regarded as process design. institutional structure (authority) can The design is based on the principles stated be created around the project. Because by Albrechts (2004, 2006). As has been the RGL crosses a large number of mentioned in this report, the institutions have municipalities it might be better to to act strategic; they have to be selective, negotiate with the existing regional collaborative, flexible and need strong partnerships that represent the interest frameworks that allow and steer a high degree of the municipalities, in order to ease of flexibility in planning. This makes phasing of the process of negotiation. Besides, long-term projects highly important. Therefore such partnerships have the expertise of the design contains four tracks (note that the large-scale projects which the smaller process is not linear, tracks influence each other (rural) municipalities do not have. and sometimes run simultaneously), according to the theory of Albrechts (fig. 4.2):  The contact with (semi-private) actors dould be made to facilitate  Track 1 (Long-term vision) – Once the integration of knowledge, expertise provincial government decided to and investments. For the RGL this could take the responsibility for a regional mean that the provincial government projects as the RGL (the initiative should start an alliance or public- started at lower levels of governance, private partnership with ProRail, but are brought to a higher agenda, to instead of a client-contractor relation. where it is linked to other ambitions) Because public administrations often it can expressed their vision by a miss the financial capacity to invest in strong integrative concept (one that large-scale infrastructure projects, also supports integration of land-use and collaboration with pension funds (which infrastructure - TOD) and support this have high financial capacity) could be with clear diagrams and structure vision seen as a potential in finance. Fig. 4.2 Process design: strategic spatial planning approach according to Albrechts (2004)124 4.2 (Design) recommendations for case study 125
  • 65. 4.2 (Design) recommendations for case study 4. Conclusions & recommendations Drawing on the financial mechanisms 4.2.2 Transit oriented 3. Distinction in the hierarchy of stations important role. This would be crucial because around the project, it has been (according to the theory of Balz and of the spatial differences in the regions – concluded that the agreements development (space) Schrijnen (2009), or at least train stops as the empirical research has shown these between the participants where fixed, and stations (with transit possibilities to characteristics seem vary according to the place and did not leave room for change. As has been addressed at the first stage of other railway lines). the stations stops (e.g. the spatial environment These financial agreements could have the process design, it is important that the of Boskoop is different from its neighbouring been supported with a mechanism provincial government makes use of a clear 4. Presenting the railway line in relation to town Waddinxveen) (fig. 4.3 - next pages). In called ‘transfer development rights’. spatial and integrative concept that stimulates other modes of networks – the whole of order to apply such ‘tailored’ approaches of One mechanism for example, is participation of other actors and supports public transport networks in the region. TOD, the nodal typologies of Balz and Schrijnen one that allows exchange of spatial adjustment of policies regarding the project. In (2009) could be used. development rights between this respect transit oriented development (TOD) 5. Assimilation of spatial ambitions of municipal governments when they could be considered as a useful concept for the lower governments in the document Another recommendation to develop spatial are not able to develop the agreed RGL., with only when the characteristics of the (expansion areas) and placing this in design is that in an early stage, it might number of developments due of different station environments are taken into relation to the provincial ambitions. be important to keep the vision ‘open’ for unexpected changes. For instance, consideration. adjustment. These adjustments could be done when municipality A cannot build as 6. Presenting the locations of main according to the interests of participating much houses as agreed (and is not First it is worth to mention that the province function groups (offices, housing, stakeholders – the story should be built up able to pay the related contribution for would have benefited from acknowledging industry and shopping). together. Such a participatory planning process the realization of the infrastructure), and recognizing the spatial and programmatic with interactive scenario making could have municipality B can get the development qualities and its driving forces of the region. 7. Providing conditions for development encouraged more commitment and awareness rights of municipality B (together with In other words, the province has to address around station and presenting this in a between the participants. the related contribution of the line). the spatial characteristics of the region; they framework where recommendations for could have had a good story for the line if they mixed use of functions and for building Especially for the latter a ‘planning support  Track 4 (Basic process with citizens) – linked the concept of TOD to their concept for heights and densities (promote higher tool’ might be useful. The foundation In case of the RGL, the municipality of spatial development in the region of the RGL, density around stations). ‘Deltametropool’ has developed a corridor Leiden paid attention to the interest of and presented both concepts together on a simulation game, where municipal plans can their citizens by holding a referendum For the legitimation of the project, it seems be introduced. The software links the figures of vision document (fig. 4.3 - next pages). Thus, (with negative results). It might be important for the authorities to investigate spatial development to the transport frequency next to the RGL, the document should represent argued if this was the right instrument spatial and programmatic characteristics in on the railway infrastructure, places this in time ambitions for the region, which places the for civil participation. Maybe it would their towns and villages, especially around and presents the outcomes in variable diagrams project in perspective of the region. This means have been better if interest of citizens the (planned) stations. Also densities, mix which are not hard to read – the software is that the regional qualities should be addressed would have been paid in a more of functions and building heights play an interactive and open for adjustment (fig. 4.4). and mapped. The vision document contains consultative form (participatory or several aims and some conditions for station ‘open’ planning); invite neighbourhood developments (Boskoop and Waddinxveen used committees and citizen interest groups are used as an example): around the table – not in the latest stage but preferably earlier in the 1. The provincial government had the process already. This also counts for intention to keep the Green Heart free economic and environmental interest from spatial development as much as groups such as the KvK (who were possible by promoting development not able to do a financial contribution in an axe from East to West called the in the project), the water boards or ‘Oude Rijnzone’. This can be linked ‘Natuurmonumenten’. to the concept of TOD, because the transport corridor follows this axe. The (parallel) steps that have been suggested Spatial development could be promoted in terms of process are further elaborated in a within the transit zones of the stations process diagram, which is explained in the next along the line. paragraph (4.3 – ‘Recommendations for similar projects in the Netherlands’). 2. Promoting spatial developments within the transit zones can also be supported with ‘green buffers’ or corridors between the station areas – discourage linear development.126 4. Conclusions & recommendations /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras Fig. 4.4 Interface of planning support tool game Sprintstad (by Deltrametropool) 127
  • 66. 4.2 (Design) recommendations for case study 4. Conclusions & recommendations Fig. 4.3-1 Spatial design: concept of TOD linked to regional spatial vision and concept128 4.2 (Design) recommendations for case study 129
  • 67. 4.2 (Design) recommendations for case study 4. Conclusions & recommendations Fig. 4.3-2 Spatial design: concept of TOD linked to regional spatial vision and concept130 4.2 (Design) recommendations for case study 131
  • 68. 4.2 (Design) recommendations for case study 4. Conclusions & recommendations The involved participants of the RGL could became clear that with light rail (trams, subway) important because of its regional potential. strengthened, which may be useful in strategic have used this software in order to get clear it is usually the case to invest in accessibility However, it might be argued, such types of planning. understanding of the mutual programmatic first and where after spatial development will development are unlikely to support a concept implications of the individual plans. This could follow. With heavy rail (train) however, it is more as TOD.  In terms of cross-sectoral relations have led to better and more flexible adjustment likely to start with spatial developments (or the steering group (created by of developments around the line. Additionally, simultaneously with railway infrastructure) in What can be learned from this development? representatives of the involved this tool could have encouraged participation order to create pressure on public transport – That lower authorities are flexible and creative institutions) should be oriented to both because actors are involved actively and results otherwise public transport will not be feasible or enough to change their plans. But more policies on mobility and land-use, and are directly visible – it can be regarded as a beneficial and political support will be difficult. important that the agreements between endeavour adjustment of these policies strong communicative tool, which supports province and municipalities where so fixed in order to support the concept of transparency between stakeholders. The latter can be seen in a development which that an opposite situation occurred; where a TOD. Therefore it would be desirable takes place at a neighbouring municipality of station normally is needed to fulfill the need for that different provincial departments This instrument incorporates a little of all three the case study area (Zoetermeer), where similar connectivity, here the arguments for a station integrate their policies. the dimensions of Koppenjan & Groenewegen; agreements (as the RGL) have been made changed during the process, which led to a it deals with the technical/spatial issues, between the province and the municipality for type of spatial function that would not have  In terms of inter-agency relations the supports institutional capacity building and realizing an extra station (heavy rail) together been there without the original plans – the actors could operate together more has a steering role in the process by interactive with a town expansion (Nederpel, 2012). The station became the aim and was not considered intensively and acting as one authority. communication between participants. Therefore province required the municipality to realize anymore as the instrument to achieve the aim. The provincial planning agency and it might be argued that the instrument would a certain number of spatial developments; ProRail in particular because it has have been a very appropriate planning tool otherwise it would not get the station. Because become clear that they are very for the RGL. Unfortunately I was not able to of the crisis, the municipality realized that dependent on each other. They can elaborate on this planning tool within this they were not able to accomplish the required 4.2.3 Institutional framework start an alliance or public-private research – it would have taken too much number of developments and considered partnership to adjust their policies and time to invite all stakeholders and organize themselves compelled to change plans in order (institutions) share their expertise and authority in workshops. to get the new station; they came up with the order to support the concept of TOD. idea to realize an outlet centre instead of a This is a form of integration. From the perspective of institutional capacity it residential or office location – large enough is worth to take a look again at the degrees of to attract a number of visitors from the region  In terms of vertical territorial policy adjustment. In the empirical research a integration, here considered as Improving connectivity or which is needed to get the station. Despite of table has been used for ‘measuring’ the degree the resistance from local entrepreneurs in the the interaction between provincial stimulating economic activity? of integration, regarding several fields of government and lower public Regarding the concept of TOD it is worth to city centre – fearing a backdrop of commercial policies. The same table (table 4.1) can be used and economic activities – the provincial administrations, should take place give attention to the discussion whether railway to show what the relations should have been according to the level of coordination – infrastructure or its stations should be build government recently approved the plans for the instead. In the strategic spatial planning design outlet centre and the new station. The province territorial governments do not have to first or if functional program such as housing, (process) the indications for the new degrees integrate (which would be a bridge too offices or commercial functions instead. From acknowledged the possible commercial and have been given already, but here follows an economic decline in the centre of Zoetermeer, far for only the project as RGL, because the interviews of involved participants it overview on how it was and of how it could be governments also have other tasks in but considered the new outlet centre more Degree of policy integration Form of policy integration Expression at case study Suggested alternative Inte egration Coordination Cooperation SECTORAL INTEGRATION Cross sectoral integration Adjustment of (provincial) policy areas on mobility and land use in steering group X X RGL steering group should integrate policy areas on mobility and land use (use concept of TOD) Inter agency (stakeholder) integration Adjustment of (provincial) authority and ProRail or KvK X X Stakeholder alliance between provincial government and ProRail TERRITORIAL INTEGRATION Vertical integration Adjustment of provincial and municipal government X Provincial government should coordinate regional partnerships (instead of single municipalities) Horizontal integration Adjustment of municipal governments X X Better adjustment between municipalities (more transparency in communication) ORGANIZATIONAL INTEGRATION Strategic integration Alignment of strategic spatial visions or spatial concepts (provincial departments) X X Better adjustment between provincial sectoral visions Operational integration Alignment of decision making (sectoral legal planning documents) X X Better adjustment of sectoral legal planning documents Alignment of financial agreements or mechanisms X X More flexible financial arrangements between participants rrent degree of integration X = cur X = sug ggested degree of integration Table 4.1 Institutional design: proposed degree of policy adjustment132 4.2 (Design) recommendations for case study 133
  • 69. 4.2 (Design) recommendations for case study 4. Conclusions & recommendations their portfolio), but have to adjust their can be seen as a potential, because policies. exchange of municipal development rights (attached to the amount of  In terms of horizontal territorial contribution) break up the fixed integration, here considered as the financial agreements and allow for interaction between participating unexpected changes. municipal governments, could take place according to the degree of Another suggestion for an institutional design coordination; the municipalities should can be done in the way how the project be aware of their plans and actions, organization or authority is constructed. communicate this with each other and Drawing on the issues of commitment adjust their policies where needed. The between participating authorities (of too same as for vertical integration counts much authorities being involved), and can here that integration between the be proposed that in terms of collaboration territories would be a bridge too far for the province could involve the partnerships the RGL only. in the authority or steering group, instead of all the municipalities independently (fig.  As the suggested spatial design 4.5). This could ease the negotiations, and proposal (regional vision document) organization around the project. However, already showed, the provincial it has to be said that this construction is not government should communicate their without any risk; this construction makes it policies and strategies by bringing more difficult for local authorities to legitimize them to the level of integration the project. As mentioned above a project (strategic integration). They could authority in the form of a public private-private integrate their sectoral (supported by partnership or alliance could be established various departments) concepts and with representatives of participating public and policies within the provincial structure private actors and NGO”s, in order to create a vision document, or in a strategic vision platform for discussion and a body that takes for the region in order to support the responsibility for the project. project and the concept of TOD.  In terms of operational integration the provincial government could align their legal planning documents to the level of coordination, which are currently sectoral and not adjusted. For instance, the provincial land-use plans ‘inpassingsplan’ and various infrastructural policies can be better adjusted in order to support the concept of TOD – full integration of legal instruments would possibly be a bridge too far because some of these policies are generic. The financial mechanisms that have been used around the project could have been more flexible. The empirical research has clarified that participating municipal governments were facing difficulties regarding the ambitious and fixed financial agreements for the line. Adding more flexible mechanisms such as ‘transfer development rights’ Fig. 4.5 Inviting regional parternships instead of municipalities indepentently (and incorparate private actors by establishment of an PPS alliance)134 4.2 (Design) recommendations for case study 135
  • 70. 4.3 Recommendations for similar projects in the NL 4.3 Recommendations for similar projects in the Netherlands With the input of both theory and practice (of the empirical research on the case study area) the system of spatial planning of the Netherlands can be considered again, in terms of regional integrated infrastructure projects. It is not the intention to call the system into question, but just to show a personal understanding of the relations of infrastructure projects within the Dutch planning context, based on this research. What can be learned from the case study and what does this mean to other transport infrastructure projects within the Netherlands that ask for policy integration and regional, cross-border governance? What needs to be realized is that these large (because in general, higher authorities have scale projects seem context sensitive: the more institutional, legal and financial capacity). characteristics of the region play a crucial In terms of regional projects it would be likely role – in spatial and socio-economic terms, that this would be done by the provincial but also in political terms: local governance, government. After initiative has been taken over the governance culture and the institutional at provincial level, it can create an ‘open vision’; structures (the key actors in the region). This open in the sense that potential stakeholders means that the recommendations for this such is involved territories (municipalities, project do not count for all of such projects – at regional partnerships, water boards) but least not literally. Instead, a free interpretation also private actors and NGO’s could be part of the most crucial lessons can be given which of a participatory planning process through might be of importance when considering active participation which makes adjustment similar projects. Secondly, it turned out that of the vision possible. This supports mutual these projects are so complex because of such transparency between the actors, and creates a wide range of potential influential factors possibilities for an integral vision and for (social, economic, political forces). This means policy adjustment. This could be done in a that recommendations always need to be project atelier or arena which functions as a interpreted from the context of the research. platform for discussion, and where interactive simulation can take place to study the options The understandings of such projects can be the of different scenarios., which could be done best explained according a ‘generic’ process according to ‘planning support tools’ such as design (not completely of course, but only the game ‘Sprintstad’ as has been explained based on elements which regional transport above. The interactive process might lead infrastructure projects seem to have in common to more commitment between participants. up to a large extent). This diagram (fig. 4.6) Also, by creating this platform, governance explains a process for integrated transport culture can be ‘tested’: are these actors projects at regional level, according to some willing to collaborate? If this seems possible of the recommendations for the case study. a project authority can be established, with The process recognizes and provides answers representatives of (semi-)public and private to the question of how local governments actors and NGO’s – preferably managed by (municipalities) can be guided and involved in an independent person or office because these large infrastructure and spatial planning of integrity. The project authority could be projects, and how this could be organized (who delegated with the tasks and portfolio around takes responsibility and who has the authority). the project, and with most responsibilities around policy-adjustment and collaboration. As happened at the RGL, the initiative for a Also the project agreements could be made and (part) of the project was taken at local level; coordinated by this temporary organization. a local authority or actor has the ambition It seems crucial that during the process the for a project and brings this to the agenda project (also in initiative phase) is constantly of a higher authority. The higher authority monitored by the authority, in order to support could take this project in its agenda, extend the legitimacy of the project and to learn from the project portfolio and take responsibility the process. Fig. 4.6 Proposed process of integrated transport planning at regional level136 4.3 Recommendations for similar projects in the NL 137
  • 71. 4.3 Recommendations for similar projects in the NL 4.4 Recommendations for future research This process shows how (policy) adjustment The research was multi-disciplinary, involving spatial content, institutional structures and and collaboration in a situation of divergent planning approaches. This also means that the research delivers a lot of new questions for interests where actors cooperate parallel could slowly reach the level of integration. Of course future research; within the field of integrated transport planning, but also for the project of this process is not generic, but it shows what the case study area which is still subject to change. seems crucial for complex projects and what did not happen at the RGL project: creating commitment between (potential) stakeholders and creating a project which is integral by involving policies on mobility and land-use. The research on the case study area was interactive adjustment of mutual spatial mainly focussed on the plans agreed in 2005. developments and with transport In order to facilitate such processes within the Although new developments have been taken frequencies. spatial planning context – the daily practice into consideration also, the project still changes. of planning in the Netherlands – a shift in Recently the provincial government has decided  For future research on the subject of governance culture might be needed towards to cancel the RGL project, but continues with integrated transport planning (in the a more collaborative form of planning, wherein parts of the former project (e.g. new railway context of Dutch spatial planning) provincial governments should take the lead, stations, new transport frequencies, new public it might be interesting to further and where local authorities could follow. transport concessions) to keep the region investigate resilience and adaptability accessible by public transport. The knowledge of institutions on the uncertainty in which is gained during the process of decision- long-term planning – especially in making will be useful with future (cross-border) these times of economic crisis, where projects in the region. financial capacity, demands and behaviour of actors seem to change  For further elaboration on the rapidly. It would be useful to investigate (leftovers) of the RGL-project it in how far there are flexible planning seems very important that clear mechanisms that can anticipate on communication takes place between environmental changes (cultures, norms the involved institutions. Actors are and values) and support legitimization not transparent in their behaviour for long-term projects, such as ‘transfer so how can they be persuaded to development rights’ (TDR) might share their knowledge and expertise be helpful. For example, it could be regarding the project in order to create figured out how fixed agreements commitment between participants? It is regarding spatial developments, likely that en environment needs to be linked to investments in transport created where actors trust each other. infrastructure can be broken up and Because developments change rapidly, how the development rights can be interactive communication seems to be redistributed by exchange between crucial. Therefore it might be worth to participating stakeholders or public study the possibilities of the corridor administrations. simulation game ‘SprintStad’ developed by the foundation ‘Deltametropool’  Another recent issue in terms of finance and to apply this on the project. This and feasibility of large infrastructure ‘planning support tool’ is not only projects is that public authority seems technical but also very communicative. to have less financial capacity for The game studies scenarios of such projects. As has been mentioned integrated transport planning by in this report, public authorities are linking figures of spatial developments looking for new investors and are per municipality to transport doing experiments with participation frequencies interactively and requires of pension funds, which often have high active participation of potential actors. financial capacity. It can be investigated This might enhance the chances for a what the role of these pension funds successful project; more transparency can be in terms of integrated transport in communication, improvement of planning – positively and negatively. institutional cohesion, better and more138 4. Conclusions & recommendations /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 4.4 Recommendations for future research 139
  • 72. 5 Title Bibliography About This chapter contains the references of the all the consulted sources for the research of this thesis. For the bibliography a distinction is made between literature resources and illustrations. Keywords Books - Journals - Newspapers - Internet - Websites - Weblogs - Images Paragraphs #5.1 Literature #5.2 Illustrations140 Fig. 5.1 Photograph: flora building Boskoop 141
  • 73. 5.1 Literature 5. Bibliography This paragraph contains the list of all the consulted literature. This can be scientific literature Tool to a Normative Agenda. European FALUDI, A. (2000) The Performance of Spatial as books or journals, but also sources of daily practice like newspapers and websites. Planning Studies, 11:8, 979-999. Planning. Planning Practice & Research, 15:4, 299-318. DE BOE, P., GRASLAND, C. & HEALY, A. (1999) Study Programme on European Spatial FALUDI, A. (2005) Polycentric territorial cohesion Planning Strand 1.4: Spatial Integration, policy Town Planning Review, 76:1, 107- [Online]. Stockholm: Nordregio. Available: 118. AIDT, T. S. (1998) Political internalization of BAUD, I. S. A. & HORDIJK, M. A. (2009) Dealing www.nordregio.se/spespn/Files/1.4.final. economic externalities and environmental with risks in urban governance: what pdf [Accessed 12 July 2006]. FALUDI, A. & VAN DER VALK, A. (1994) Rule policy. Journal of Public Economics, 69, can we learn from ‘resilience thinking’. and order: Dutch planning doctrine in 1-16. In: IFOU, ed. The New Urban Question DE GIER, A. A. J. (2011) Kan het tij worden the twentieth century. Dordrecht: Kluwer - Urbanism beyond Neo-Liberalism. gekeerd? Essaybundel over decentralisatie Academic Publishers. AKAÇ, R., DAALHUIZEN, F., PIEK, M., PIETERSE, Amsterdam and Delft. ruimtelijk beleid, 3-10. N. & VAN DER WAGT, M. (2005) Het FILION, P. (2009) The mixed success of nodes gedeelde land van de Randstad. Den BOELENS, L. (2009) The Urban Connection: DE GRAAF, K. & KLEIMAN, G. (2012) as a smart growth planning policy. Haag: Ruimtelijk Planbureau. An Actor-Relational Approach to Urban Bottom-up aan de macht! [Online]. Environment and Planning B: Planning Planning. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers. Gebiedsontwikkeling.nu. Available: http:// and Design, 36:3, 505-521. ALBRECHTS, L. (2004) Strategic (spatial) www.gebiedsontwikkeling.nu/actualiteit/ planning reexamined. 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  • 74. 5.1 Literature 5. Bibliography GUPTA, J., TERMEER, K., KLOSTERMANN, J., International Conference on Funding Available: http://www.leidschdagblad.nl/ MINISTERIE VAN INFRASTRUCTUUR EN MEIJERINK, S., VAN DEN BRINK, M., Transportation Infrastructure, and Tenth. regionaal/leidenenregio/article15674993. MILIEU (2011) Ontwerp Structuurvisie JONG, P., NOOTEBOOM, S. & BERGSMA, Paris. Journée Transport. ece/Rijn-Gouwe-Lijn-definitief-van-de- Infrastructuur en Ruimte: Nederland E. (2010) The Adaptive Capacity Wheel: baan [Accessed 07-06-2012]. concurrerend, bereikbaar, leefbaar en A method to assess the inherent HANSEN, W. G. (1959) How accessibility shapes veilig. Rijksoverheid. characteristics of institutions to enable LUIJTEN, A. (2010) Coalitieplanologie is land use. Journal of the American Institute the adaptive capacity of society. het nieuwe sleutelwoord [Online]. MUSKEE, M. (2011) PPS biedt gouden kansen of Planners 25, 73-76. Gebiedsplanologie.nu. 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Available: http:// artikel/2454578/factory-outlet-center- through collaborative approaches WIERENGA, E. (eds.) Regions in Transition: www.gebiedsontwikkeling.nu/opinie/ geen-bedreiging-voor-zoetermeer.aspx to urban planning. Environment and Designing for adaptivity. Rotterdam: 010 interview/grondbedrijven-terug-naar-de- [Accessed 14-11-2012]. Planning A, 30:9, 1531-1546. Publishers. kerntaken/ [Accessed 20-10-2012]. NEEDHAM, B. (2007) Dutch Land Use Planning: HEALEY, P. (2003) Collaborative planning in HOOGHE, L. & MARKS, G. (2003) Unraveling the LUIJTEN, A. (2012b) Grondbedrijven: Planning and managing land use in perspective. Planning Theory, 2:2, 101- Central State, but How? Types of Multi- initiatief aan de markt laten [Online]. the Netherlands, the principles and the 122. level Governance. American Political Gebiedsontwikkeling.nu. Available: http:// practice. Den Haag: Sdu Uitgevers. 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Keynesian Perspective. Gheltenham, UK: Natural Science and Design: A Framework Chain Design. Manufacturing & Service Edward Elgar Publishing. for Triangulation Accross Disciplines. Operations Management, 7:1, 58-73. HULL, A. (2005) Integrated transport planning in In: COLES, S., ed. The 2nd conference on the UK: From concept to reality. Journal of JOU, J.-B. & LEE, T. (2008) Taxation on Land Designing Interactive Systems: processes, NOS (2012) Ruim baan voor pensioenfondsen Transport Geography, 13, 318-328. Value and Development When There Are practices, methods, and techniques. [Online]. NOS. Available: http://nos. Negative Externalities from Development. Amsterdam. ACM New York, 223-234. nl/artikel/415094-ruim-baan-voor- KOOIJ, P. (2006) How the Netherlands got a The Journal of Real Estate Finance and pensioenfondsen.html [Accessed 12-11- green heart and lost it again. BMGN The Economics, 36:1, 103-120. MAHONEY, J. T. & PANDIAN, J. R. (1992) 2012]. Low Countries Historical Review, 753-771. The Resource-Based View Within the KOPPENJAN, J. & GROENEWEGEN, J. (2005) Conversation of Strategic Management. O’HARE, G., ABBOTT, D. & BARKE, M. (1998) HAJER, M. & ZONNEVELD, W. (2000) Spatial Institutional design for complex Strategic Management Journal, 13:5, 363- A review of slum housing policies in planning in the network society - technological systems. Int. J. Technology, 380. Mumbai. Cities, 15:4, 269-283. Rethinking the principles of planning Policy and Management, 5:3, 240-257. in the Netherlands. European Planning MASTOP, J. M. (1991) Ruimtelijk beleid en OLDEN, H. (2010) Planning van Studies, 8:3, 337-355. LAMBREGTS, B. & ZONNEVELD, W. (2004) From bestuur: Onderwerpen voor onderzoek. bedrijventerreinen is niet gericht op Randstad to Deltametropolis: Changing Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen. vraag van bedrijven. TPE Digitaal: HAJER, M. (2003) Policy without Polity? Policy Attitudes Towards the Scattered Woningmarkt, 4:2, 39-55. analysis in the institutional void. Policy Metropolis. European Planning Studies. MEIJERS, E. J. & BURGER, M. J. (2009) Sciences, 36, 175-195. Taylor & Francis Ltd. Urban Spatial Structure and Labor PROPERTYNL (2012) Gemeenten boeken fors af Productivity in U.S. Metropolitan Areas. op grond [Online]. PropertyNL. Available: HALE, C. (2008) PPPs for Transit Oriented LEIDSCH DAGBLAD (2012) Rijn Gouwe Lijn ‘Understanding and Shaping Regions: http://www.gebiedsontwikkeling.nu/ definitief van de baan [Online]. Leiden. Spatial, Social and Economic Futures’. actualiteit/persberichten/gemeenten- Development - 4 Options. Third Leuven. boeken-fors-af-op-grond/ [Accessed 20- 10-2012].144 5. Bibliography /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 5.1 Literature 145
  • 75. 5.1 Literature 5. Bibliography PROVINCIE ZUID-HOLLAND (2012c) gevaar-voor-gemeente [Accessed 20-10- VAN BOXMEER, B. & VLIEGENBERG, I. (2011) WARTOFSKY, M. W. (1979) Models: Uitvoeringsregeling brede doeluitkering 2012]. De provincie in de hoofdrol [Online]. Representation and scientific verkeer en vervoer 2012 [Online]. Ruimtevolk. Available: http://ruimtevolk. understanding. Dordrecht, The Provincie Zuid-Holland. Available: http:// SALET, W. (2006) Rescaling territorial nl/blog/de-provincie-in-de-hoofdrol/ Netherlands: Reidel. www.zuid-holland.nl/loket/reglemen t?ac governance in the Randstad Holland: The [Accessed 20-10-2012]. tion=getregulation&regelingid=166&ver responsiveness of spatial and institutional WASILEWSKI, A. & KRUKOWSKI, K. (2002) Land sie=0&tab=toelichting. strategies to changing socio-economic VAN DE LAAR, T. (2012) Crowdfunding biedt Conversion for Suburban Housing: A interactions. European Planning Studies, kansen voor de stad [Online]. Ruimtevolk. study of Ubanization around Warsaw and RIJKSOVERHEID (2011) MIRT Projectenboek 14:7, 959-978. Available: http://ruimtevolk.nl/blog/ Olsztyn, Poland. CEESA Dicussion Paper, 2012 [Online]. Available: http://mirt2012. crowdfunding-biedt-kansen-voor-de- 8, 1-23. mirtprojectenboek.nl/mirt_2012/project_ SALET, W. & WOLTJER, J. (2009) New concepts stad/ [Accessed 09-07-2012]. en_programmabladen/projectkaarten/ of strategic spatial planning dilemmas in WRR (1998) Ruimtelijke ontwikkelingspolitiek. index.aspx [Accessed 20-10-2011]. the Dutch Randstad region. International VAN DEN ENDE, T. (2012) Tijdelijkheid, geen Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Journal of Public Sector Management, vrijblijvendheid [Online]. Ruimtevolk. Regeringsbeleid. Den Haag: Sdu RIJKSOVERHEID (2012a) Omgevingswet [Online]. 22:3, 235-248. Available: http://ruimtevolk.nl/blog/ Uitgevers. Available: http://www.rijksoverheid.nl/ tijdelijkheid-geen-vrijblijvendheid/ onderwerpen/ruimtelijke-ordening- SANKAR, U. (2006) Environmental externalities. [Accessed 20-10-2012]. ZANDBELT, D. (2011) Mid-Size Utopia: A en-bereikbaarheid/vernieuwing- Madras School of Economics. research by design study into emerging omgevingsrecht [Accessed 17-10-2012]. VAN DER HORST, H. (1996) The Low Sky: urban regions. In: OVINK, H. & SCHMIDT, K. & WAGNER, I. (2002) Coordinative Understanding the Dutch. The Hague/ WIERENGA, E. (eds.) Regions in Transition: RIJKSOVERHEID (2012b) Organogram Ministerie artifacts in architectural practice. In: Schiedam: Nuffiv/Scriptum. Designing for adaptivity. Rotterdam: 010 van Infrastructuur en Milieu [Online]. BLAY-FORNARINO, M., PINNA-DERY, Publishers. Available: http://www.rijksoverheid. A. M., SCHMIDT, K. & ZARATÉ, P. (eds.) VAN DER KRABBEN, E. & VAN DINTEREN, nl/ministeries/ienm/organisatie/ Cooperative Systems Design: A Challenge J. (2010) Public Development Of ZEILSTRA, A. (2012) Rol lokale overheden bij organogram [Accessed 17-10-2012]. of the Mobility Age. Amsterdam: IOS Industrial Estates in The Netherlands: begrotingstekort [Online]. Euforum.nl. Press. Undesired Market Outcomes And Available: http://www.euforum.nl/nl/ RIJKSOVERHEID (2012c) Gemeentelijke Policy Interventions. Tijdschrift voor themas/economie__financien/opinie/q/ herindeling in Zuid-Holland en Fryslân STEAD, D. & MEIJERS, E. (2004) Policy Economische en Sociale Geografie, 101:1, id/17#.UIKE-m_QeIA [Accessed 20-10- [Online]. Den Haag: Rijksoverheid. integration in practice: some experiences 91-99. 2012]. Available: http://www.rijksoverheid.nl/ of integrating transport, land-use nieuws/2012/09/21/gemeentelijke- planning and environmental policies VAN DER VALK, A. (2002) The Dutch planning ZONNEVELD, W. A. M. (2010) Fragmentation herindelingen-in-zuid-holland-en-fryslan. in local government. Conference experience. Landscape and Urban and Structure: Challenges for spatial html. on the Human Dimension of Global Planning, 58, 201-210. research and policy. TU Delft, Faculty of Enviromental Change: Greening of Policies Architecture, department Urbanism. RIJKSOVERHEID (2012d) Van Rijk naar - Interlinkages and Policy Integration. VERVOERSPLANOLOGIE (2011) RijnGouwelijn gemeenten en provincies [Online]. Berlin. “versoberd” [Online]. Available: ZONNEVELD, W. (2012) Verdwenen Rijksoverheid. Available: http://www. http://vervoersplanoloog.blogspot. basisprincipes van de nationale rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/ruimtelijke- SQUIRES, G. D. (2002) Urban Sprawl: Causes, com/2011/05/rijngouwelijn-versoberd. ruimtelijke ordening. In: MODDER, J. (ed.) ordening-en-bereikbaarheid/van-rijk- consequences & policy responses. html [Accessed 23-12-2012]. Stedenbouw en Ruimtelijke Ordening. Den naar-provincies-en-gemeenten [Accessed Washington D.C.: The Urban Institute Haag: Platform31/Nirov. 20-10-2012]. Press. VNG (2012) Grenzen bezuinigingen gemeenten bijna bereikten [Online]. NOS. Available: ZONNEVELD, W., WATERHOUT, B. & SPAANS, M. RIJNGOUWELIJN (2011) Project website Rijn TAN, W. & BERTOLINI, L. (2010) Barriers to http://nos.nl/audio/429804-vng-grenzen- (2012) Meta-governance and developing Gouwe Lijn [Online]. Available: www. Transit Oriented Developments in the bezuinigingen-gemeenten-bijna-bereikt. integrative territorial strategies: the rijngouwelijn.nl/ [Accessed 09-10-2012]. Netherlands: A luxury problem? AESOP html [Accessed 20-10-2012]. case of MIRT territorial agendas in the Annual Conference. Finland: Track 12: Randstad (Netherlands). RSA conference. RUBINTON, B. J. (2011) Crowdfunding: Mobility: Transport Planning and Policy. VTPI (2011) Transit Oriented Development: Using Delft. Regional Studies Association. Disintermediated Investment Banking. Public Transit to Create More Accessible In: ERRUNZA, V. (ed.) Advanced Finance TROUW (2001) Overaanbod kantoren in and Livable Neighborhoods [Online]. ZYWICKI, T. J. (1998) Environmental Externalities Seminar. McGill University. randstad dreigt. Trouw, 18-05-2001. Victoria Transport Policy Institute and Political Externalities: The Political Available: http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/ Economy of Environmental Regulation RTV RIJNMOND (2012) Grondexploitaties gevaar VAN BOXMEER, B. (2011) Samenwerken op tdm45.htm [Accessed 16-07-2012]. and Reform. Tulane Law Review, 73, 845- voor gemeente [Online]. RTV Rijnmond. regionale schaal. Utrecht: Procap. 921. Available: http://www.rijnmond.nl/ nieuws/28-09-2012/grondexploitaties-146 5. Bibliography /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras 5.1 Literature 147
  • 76. 5.3 Illustrations This paragraph contains all the references of the illustrations in this thesis, which are not made by the author. Fig. 0.2: GOOGLE EARTH (2012) Adapted Fig. 4.1: WEGMAN, W. (2010) satellite image of landscape between http://www.wimwegman.wordpress.com Leiden & Gouda. Google. Fig. 5.1: STEDEBOUW & ARCHITECTUUR (2010) Fig. 0.3: ROCCO, R. (2012) Portret Jasper Bras www.stedebouwarchitectuur.nl for graduation studio Complex Cities. TU Delft. Fig. 6.1: BIKEPC (2012) Fig. 1.1: ABSPOEL, P. (2011) http://www. http://www.toerpraat.blogspot.com vrijspraak.wordpress.com Fig. A.1: PUMA, M. (2012) Fig. 1.2: MINISTERIE VAN INFRASTRUCTUUR http://ronaldpuma.wordpress.com EN MILIEU (2011) Ontwerp Structuurvisie Infrastructuur en Ruimte: Nederland concurrerend, bereikbaar, leefbaar en veilig. Rijksoverheid. Fig. 1.4: VAN WEEZEL, T. G. (2011) ‘Randstad groeit razendsnel’. De Volkskrant, 11-10-2011. Fig. 1.5: VAN KEKEN, K. (2011) ‘Voorstel superprovincie dit jaar op tafel’. De Volkskrant, 19-10-2011. Fig. 1.6: WEEL, I. (2011) ‘EU tikt Nederland op de vingers over natuurbeleid’. Trouw, 18-10-2011. Fig. 1.7: GOOGLE EARTH (2012) Adapted satellite image of landscape between Leiden & Gouda. Google. Fig. 1.15: CBS (2011) Figures based on data CBS. www. cbs.nl Fig. 1.16: CBS & EDUGIS (2011) Figures based on data CBS. www. cbs.nl & www.edugis.nl Fig. 1.17: CBS & EDUGIS (2011) Figures based on data CBS. www. cbs.nl & www.edugis.nl Fig. 2.1: MINDERHOUD, M (2012) www. wikipedia.nl Fig. 3.1: WIKIPEDIA (2008) www.wikipedia.nl wefawe148 5. Bibliography /// Thesis /// Jasper Bras
  • 77. 6 Title Appendix Paragraphs #A Spatial planning in the Netherlands #B RGL project agreement: financial distribution #C Empirical analysis of the case study area #D Anaysis SprintStad (Deltametropool) #E List of interviewees #F Reflection150 Fig. 6.1 Photograph: lift bridge Waddinxveen 151
  • 78. A Title Spatial planning in the Netherlands About One of the supporting sub-questions raised in the introduction of this research (chapter 1) was: How does spatial planning work in the Netherlands? The question supports a study on the planning system, in order to get a basic understanding of the Dutch land use planning. This spatial planning environment can be considered as the arena of regional planning projects; the context of the case study, where and how decisions are made and what factors play a role in this. Altogether this study should help in understanding the planning language, the governmental structures and available planning instruments which can be used in both the theoretical and empirical research. The study is done according to some elements, such as: the principles, the concepts and policies, the legal authorities (planning agencies) who are in charge of the spatial planning system, and the resources and instruments they use. An important additional question for this exploration is: what influences the integrated planning process of a regional infrastructure transport project in the Netherlands, at regional level? Most of the content of this study is based on the literature of Needham (2007) because the message of this study is rather explorative than taking a position in the field of land use planning. The work of Needham is characterized with its comprehensive but explicit overview of the Dutch land use planning – similar kinds of sources which give a total description of the complex system of Dutch spatial planning are very limited. It is therefore necessary to use some of his explanations. At the end of this study some recent trends and debates that play a role within the daily practice of spatial planning within the Netherlands are introduced. These trends might have an influence on integrated planning projects at regional level, and through this play a role at the case study. Keywords Authorities - planning agencies - spatial concepts - legal power - instruments - coordination - trends Paragraphs #A1 The content of Dutch spatial planing policy #A2 The public bodies involved in spatial planning #A3 The power of the planning instruments #A4 Intergovernmental relations #A5 Practices within Dutch spatial planning #A6 Learning lessons & conditions for researchFig. A.1 Photograph: singel of Gouda
  • 79. A1 The contend of Dutch spatial planning policy A. Spatial planning in the NetherlandsIt might be said that the process of spatial planning in the Netherlands is internationally Zonneveld (2012). The national government will be done (roughly) to see the influence offamous because of the ‘clear’ spatial concepts and policies which have been produced, does not seem to use strong spatial concepts (national) concepts and policies over time have to canalize urbanization anymore. Also spatial on the spatial and urbanization patterns in theespecially on national level. This can be seen as an indication that public authorities and differentiation lost its priority at national region around the project. Also the extent toplanning agencies had strong intentions and ambitions of how to deal with the land – within level – supporting concepts are missing. Thus, which municipal governments in the regionthis environment of spatial planning, it might be argued, the creators of the policies feel such principles can no longer be seen as the were willing to cooperate in order to realize theresponsible for the use of the land. It might be questioned here which policies and concepts intention of the national government to steer project will be investigated.have been created and why? What are the purposes of spatial planning in the Netherlands? spatial development; such principles now more depend on the attitude of lower authorities (e.g. the provincial governments). A1.2 The history of spatialA1.1 The principles relationship between various activities concepts & policies in an area. Housing, schools, shops, Implementation of the principles employment and recreation must The national principles mentioned above are In order to communicate the principles andOver time, several principles have been used interrelate and close to each other. not always realized on the ground because ambitions the national government presentedwhich can be considered as the rules behind the of conflicts of interests between national land their future spatial visions for the countrydevelopment of concept and policies, the rules  Spatial differentiation. This principle use policy and local land use policy. It can be in a series of national planning documents:that impose how to act in land-use planning. comes out of the wish to avoid argued that this is partly the result of differing ‘National Policy Document on Spatial Planning’ uniformity and monotony, from another principles of the national government and the (Nota Ruimtelijke Ordening) (table A.1). Within perspective; attractiveness should provincial and municipal government – who these documents the planning principles were be created and maintained by a high do not always follow the principles of national often supported with strong spatial conceptsPrinciples of the national differentiation of activities and a clear government but have own principles instead. (Hajer & Zonneveld, 2000; Lambregts &government distinction between countryside and Zonneveld, 2004; Dühr & Lagendijk, 2007).That the Dutch government has high ambitions historical town centres should be Provincial and municipal governments can Officially, the following documents have beenin term of spatial planning can be seen in maintained in terms of density and be enforced by the national government produced:the principles formulated by the national characteristics. to implement their national policy, but itsgovernment. In an analysis of the policy of the powers were not always strong enough to  1960: ‘First Policy Document on Spatialnational government since the first ´National  Spatial hierarchy. In order to sustain the do so (for specific purposes however, such as Planning’ (Eerste Nota RuimtelijkePolicy Document on Spatial Planning´ in viability of towns and cities and realize infrastructural policies, the national government Ordening);1960, the Scientific Council for Government spatial differentiation and facilitate a has obtained more legal power recently – partlyPolicy ) Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het high level of services the principle of since the law on spatial planning has been  1966: ‘Second Policy DocumentRegeringsbeleid – WRR, 1998) claimed to be spatial hierarchy contains the relation changed). Besides, provinces and municipalities on Spatial Planning’ (Tweede Notaable to identify five ‘basic principles’ of that of size and grade of facilities. The make land use policy in the interests of their Ruimtelijke Ordening);national policy. These are the following (WRR, bigger the centre, the higher the range own citizens. This will pass the revue further in1998). of facilities. For instance, it makes this thesis.  1974: ‘Third Policy Document sense that an airport is situated near on Spatial Planning’ (Derde Nota  Concentration of urbanization. This Amsterdam rather than close to a small Ruimtelijke Ordening); principle is an expression of the wish to town. avoid urban sprawl and aims that urban Results on the ground  1988: ‘Fourth Policy Document development should take place in or  Spatial justice. In order to avoid It is interesting to notice the impact of such on Spatial Planning’ (Vierde Nota around existing towns and cities so deprivation and living conditions below policies and to see the results on the ground. Ruimtelijke Ordening); the open country and the agricultural the minimum standards it is aimed that It appeared to be very difficult to address land stays free of urban development. people should have access to good the spatial implications as a result of certain  1992: ‘Fourth Policy Document on At the same time this should lead to facilities and services (work, schools, policies or institutional structures – which is Spatial Planning Extra’ (Vierde Nota high quality services in towns and shops) in their direct environment. being acknowledged by Zonneveld (2010). It is Ruimtelijke Ordening Extra: VINEX); cities, reduce the need for mobility but therefore that there is hardly any clear research It cannot be concealed that these principles to be found. In his work Needham (2007)  2001: ‘Fifth Policy Document on Spatial sustain public transport instead. change over time; it is questionable in how far gives a few statements away from which one Planning’ (Vijfde Nota Ruimtelijke  Spatial cohesion. In order to avoid these principles still hold, especially since the is quite relevant to the subject of this thesis: Ordening); mono-functional development – which national government is transferring powers ‘Cooperation between municipalities in order to to lower authorities recently. Two of the basic make and realise land use policy at the regional  2004: ‘National Spatial Strategy’ (Nota contributes to long journeys between principles, ‘concentration of urbanization’ and scale is still scarce and problematic’ (Needham, Ruimte); different activities – it is aimed that there should be a good geographical ‘spatial differentiation’ have disappeared, argues 2007: 52). Within the case study, an attempt
  • 80. A1 The content of Dutch spatial planning policy A. Spatial planning in the Netherlands National Policy Document on Spatial Planning Policies Concepts Philosophy  2011: ‘National Strategy on Heart was more refined to the level of large-1960 Eerste Nota Ruimtelijke Ontwikkeling ANTI-SPRAWL: COHESION: Infrastructure and Space’ (Structuurvisie scale conurbations and megapolis (Lambregts1966 Tweede Nota Ruimtelijke Ontwikkeling Central open space (CORs) Randstad/Green Heart Spreading welfare and Infrastructuur en Ruimte). & Zonneveld, 2004) the country was divided by Western, Southern and Northern Wings,1974 Derde Nota Ruimtelijke Ontwikkeling (measures targeting and urban Bundled deconcentation relocation over regions towards development and housing expansion) Ring Central Netherlands perhipheral areas Probably the most famous concept that connected by an extended urban system that1988 Vierde Nota Ruimtelijke Ontwikkeling Urban Nodes Mainports returned in (and survived) several of the was considered as the ‘Urban Ring Central1992 Vierde Nota Ruimtelijke Ontwikkeling Extra (VINEX) ABC-locations SPATIAL COORDINATION: national documents is the twin concept of the Netherlands’ (Dühr & Lagendijk, 2007). Ecological Main Structure (EHS) Deltametropolis/Randstad Holland City-region ‘Green Heart’ and the ‘Randstad’ (Lambregts & Zonneveld, 2004). This concept was meant Subsequently, in 1988, the national government2001 Vijfde Nota Ruimtelijke Ordening COMPETITIVENESS:2004 Nota Ruimte Spatial quality Compact towns for the west part of the country, where most presented the ‘Fourth Policy Document on Regions on their own strengths Mixed land use Urban networks economic and spatial activity takes place. In Spatial Planning’, that contained a more Layers approach Decentralization2011 Structuurvisie Infrastrastructuur en Ruimte Mainports/greenports/brainports ?? general this should prevent the heart of the compact concept of urban nodes spread Decentralization area (qualitatively regarded as the area where over the country: public investment was to most natural or cultivated landscape could be concentrated on these nodes so privateTable. A.1 Overview of National Policy documents, policies and concepts of spatial planning be found, in the west part of the country) investments should follow (Needham, 2007). from spatial development by supporting With the ‘Fourth Policy Document on Spatial development in a shape of a ring around the Planning Extra’ (VINEX) in 1992 In 1988 a trend center. Note that a large part of the case study break followed, with the concept of compact area is located in what used to be the area of town: lower authorities should build within or as the Green Heart. near as possible within their existing towns and cities, that were well accessible by high quality But over time, also other strong spatial planning public transport and near to employment and concepts have been presented by the national recreational facilities (Needham, 2007). documents. The national government wanted to prevent the country from uncontrolled Also, since the ‘Fourth Policy Document dispersed development or urban sprawl, on Spatial Planning’ presented in 1988, the since suburbanisation was seen as one of idea of cohesion has been replaced by the the major threats in the post-war period (fig. provocation of spatial competitiveness (since A.2). Similarly, there was the fear of strong then regions have to compete and build on urban concentration (Dühr & Lagendijk, their own strength) (Dühr & Lagendijk, 2007). 2007). Accordingly, the government wanted The Randstad should function as a polycentric to prevent the pressure on the Randstad by metropolis in order to compete internationally promoting prosperity over the whole country. with other agglomerations (e.g. London or Therefore, the national government promoted Paris). In the ‘Fifth Policy Document on Spatial cohesion by spreading welfare and relocation Planning’ this ambition was translated to towards peripheral areas during the first three the ‘Randstad Holland’. Eventually (also by national planning documents between 1960 the ‘National Spatial Strategy’ of 2004), the and 1985. One of the most famous anti-sprawl concept of urban networks was introduced: concepts in this period was the concept of polycentric model would be supported with bundled de-concentration (promoted by the the connection of city-regions and wings by third document): ‘development should take eight identified urban networks. Within this place outside the existing towns and cities, document also the concept of compact town but ‘bundled and not dispersed.’ (…) people was enforced with policies as red contours and jobs should be actively moved out of (that where drawn around towns and cities the Randstad, to small towns which would where spatial development should take place) be greatly expanded.’ (Needham, 2007: 55). and green contours (for areas that should be Possibly, the effects of this concept are also prevented from urban development) (Needham, visible in the case study area, since a town 2007). The National Spatial Strategy of 2004 as Alphen aan den Rijn (located at the case also contained policies as mixed land use study area) was dedicated as one of the (stimulating multiple spatial functions in an generously sized grown towns that should area), the ‘layer approach’ and the ‘Ecological be well accessible by car. In the second and Main Structure (Ecologische Hoofdstructuur – third ‘Policy Document on Spatial Planning’ of EHS) which are explained further in this section. 1996, the twin concept of the Randstad-GreenFig. A.2 History of the spatial policies, spatial development and infrastructure in the Rands-
  • 81. A1 The content of Dutch spatial planning policy A. Spatial planning in the NetherlandsBecause of the idea that networks became more The document contained a policy for ‘bundled The municipal policies are expressed in local that town centres are attracting people for theirimportant (concept of urban networks), the deconcentration’. This means that “development land use plans which are legally binding. Most residential activities the subsidiary centres arelatter National documents where dominated by should take place outside the existing towns of all the municipalities want to grow and not a threat.another concept that could ‘…encourage inter- and cities but ‘bundled’ and not dispersed.” make land use plans for new housing andmunicipal collaboration between core cities (Needham, 2007: 55). Thereby employment employment areas abutting the towns andas surrounding suburbs and communities, to and housing should be taking place outside villages and thereby refuse the national policypursue both economic and spatial aims (Dühr the Randstad and be concentrated around of concentrated development. The national Policy for rural areas& Lagendijk, 2007: 14): spatial coordination small towns (groeikernen). With the ‘Fourth government has the power to make the land In the Netherlands governments always have(chapter 2). National Policy Document on Spatial Planning’ use plan invalid. However these plans often had relatively strong policy for rural areas. And (Vierde Nota) of 1988, the policy changed already have been made and contain a building as mentioned above land always has to beWith the most recent planning document, the to concentrated development where public capacity. When the national government wants used, which also counts for rural land – whetherNational Strategy on Infrastructure and Space investment should take place around urban the municipalities to change those plans this it was for agricultural use or for recreation. Butit seems that the decentralization process nodes (stedelijke knooppunten). The policy in could bring big claims because the land owners what happened and what is left from this rural(which has been introduced with the National the ‘Supplement to the Fourth National Policy will ask for compensation of development landscape? What sort of policies do the DutchSpatial Strategy of 2004) has been intensified Document on Spatial Planning’ (Vinex) of 1992 value. have for rural areas?(De Gier, 2011). Furthermore it supports a more supported the ‘compact town’. New housingintegrative approach to sectoral policies on was concentrated in seven regions, defined by The provincial policies are different from each Because the surface of the Netherlands, whichinfrastructure and space. However it can be three criteria: the amount of houses that can be other. Some provinces have loose policies to is relatively small compared to other countriesargued if the most recent planning document built within existing built-up areas; the amount avoid conflicts between different actors. Others – commuting distances between town andcontains clear concepts that concern the of houses that can be can be built abutting the have very strict policies for the protection countryside and the cities are relatively short –national level of spatial planning. From the existing area; the remaining supply should be of open space. One of the policies which are ‘the whole country is a potential developmentfirst national planning document to the most developed as near as possible to existing towns being used is called ‘allocating house building location’ (Needham, 2007: 77). Given thisrecent it can be seen that the orientation of and cities and be connected to high quality contingents’ which tells how many houses each situation whereby building land has a higherthese documents has slightly shifted from public transport and nearby green facilities town or village is allowed to build the next ten value than agricultural land, the temptationconcentration to a focus of deconcentration on for recreation. This policy was accompanied years. Another policy provinces are working for farmers to sell the land for development isspatial development. with another strong policy for the protection with is expressed in ‘red contours’, which has often relevant. Therefore, it is not strange that of the countryside. With ‘Fifth National Policy been described above. there is a long tradition of policy making forThe national planning documents contained Document on Spatial Planning (Vijfde Nota) of rural areas.various other spatial planning policies. Besides, 2001 the lower authorities got more freedomspatial policies also have been developed at for spatial development but where obliged to The policies for rural areas are often relatedregional level. This means that the policies can do this within strict conditions such as ‘red and Policy for towns and cities to the function of the rural landscape, whichbe subdivided between the different layers of green contours’: ‘red contours where drawn One policy in the category towns and is often being used in different ways: forgovernment. Additionally, policies are made around existing settlements and new building cities which is worth to mention; it restricts ‘public utilities’ (infrastructure, flooding areasat different departments (sectors). It might be must remain within those contours. Green competing developments outside the city for water), as ‘a playground for urbanities’worth to take a look at how the various subjects contours were to be drawn around rural areas centre. According to the principal of spatial (the inhabitants from the cities use the ruralof planning policies have been developed at which were to be strictly protected and where hierarchy mentioned above shops could only landscape for recreation), as a ‘historicaldifferent scales, regarding: no development was to take place. The rest of be built within the built up area. ‘Peripheral’ park’ full of monuments, or as a landscape the country was called ‘balance areas’ where shopping centres (PDV) where rarely allowed with ‘traditional’ natural functions with a  policy for the location of new housing; small developments were to be permitted if and only with a limited amount of shop. Due of rich biodiversity (mostly natural reserves) – they improved the countryside.’ (Needham, the pressure of property investors since 1993 dedicated as ‘cultivated landscape’. It may be  policy for towns and cities; 2009: 56) The ‘National Spatial Strategy (Nota it is permitted to build ‘large-scale’ shipping clear that a location cannot fulfil all of those Ruimte) of 2004 contains six ‘concentration centres (GDV) bigger than 1500 metres, functions and that these often conflict with  policy for rural areas. each other, which also counts for the related areas’ around existing settlements. The details on the location of urban nodes (stedelijke for development where left to the provinces knooppunten), and only if the province gives policies for those functions. Some of theseEach of these policies change over time and are and the municipalities. Municipalities with approval. However, most of the municipalities policies are relevant for the project, and aredifferent can be described through the changes small towns and villages where allowed to did not want competition with their own town being explained below.in time and being explained from national,provincial and municipal level. build according to their own ‘natural growth’ centres so the development of big shopping (natuurlijke bevolkingsaanwas). In the most centres is still quite limited. Because residential As mentioned above the Green Heart can be recent national planning policy ‘The National areas have been built further away from seen as the most famous spatial policy concept Strategy Infrastructure and Space’ (Nota the town centres and in lower densities the of Dutch planning (fig. A.3). Nevertheless, the Infrastructuur en Ruimte – MIenR, 2011) is inhabitants have become more car dependent. concept always remained relatively abstract; thePolicy for the location of new drawing further on this line by focussing on Therefore subsidiary centres have seen the national government never really succeeded inhousing the main (economic) regions (mainly in the light. These are big centres located along public elaborating the concept into specific policies forThe national policy for the location of new Randstad), by giving lower authorities more transport nodes and contain mostly big retailers preservation of the area (Akaç et al., 2005; Kooij,housing was first expressed in the ‘Third room for spatial development and allowing less (furniture shops, for instance) and are tightly 2006). In the nineties of the twentieth century,National Policy Document on Spatial Planning’. concentrated development. planned according to market demands. Because and especially with the ‘National Spatial
  • 82. A1 The content of Dutch spatial planning policy A. Spatial planning in the Netherlands Agency, the Dutch Association for the A to B, between work and living. Therefore Conservation of Natural monuments, the locations of houses and workplaces or the provincial nature management are dispersed. In his work Needham (2007) agencies); comes up with the following question which gives a good direction, concentrating on the  leaving the land in private ownership relationship between land use planning and (usually farmers); traffic: ‘…what should be the content of land use policy, so that people are able to make  through normal land use planning the trips they want to, without causing the regulations. problems (…) as noise and pollution from traffic, congestions and traffic jams, crowded trains Rural areas can also be protected from urban together with a vulnerable public transport development because of a great historical network, a landscape cut up by motorways value. Therefore policies for landscape have and railway lines…?’ Some policies are worth to been introduced. One of the policies is called mention: ‘Belvedère’, which is applied for areas from some of which are included in the ‘UNESCO  ‘Fairly intensive development’ World Heritage List’. Rural areas have been (concentration of development) with designated as ‘national landscapes’, ‘provincial fair distances for trips on foot, by bike landscapes’ and as ‘national parks’. Also some or by bus. of the areas function as ‘green buffers’ which prevent region between towns and cities from  ‘Policy for intensive development’ which urban sprawl but preserve opportunities for did not work out because most Dutch open-air recreation instead. cities have been built in low densities. As mentioned earlier towns and villages want  ‘ABC-location policy’ which is a to grow in terms of housing and employment policy that define different types of (according to natural growth of the local workplaces in order to reduce transport population) and are allowed to do so (by activities – (A) near to high quality national policy – ‘National Spatial Strategy). public transport, (B) accessible by In addition these areas are confronted with public transport and by car, and (C)Fig. 2.3 Supposed contours of the green heart a moving out of local services and facilities accessible only by car. The types of (the school, the bakery) and a changing social accessibility where interlinked to types composition (elderly people from the cities of land use and function with (A) asStrategy’ of 2004 the concept has been more spatial qualities should be more imbedded in move to countryside). Policies for the viability of the most intensively used, dedicatedrefined in different quality zones with: (a) ‘urban regional visions – did the provincial government rural areas have been introduced for that. to offices and with (C) as the lesslandscapes’, (b) ‘experience landscapes’, and (c) do this? intensively used, and dedicated to‘cultural historical landscapes’. This approach Because of the difficulties to deal with all the industry. However this policy failed todid not last long (the current national spatial But there are more rural policies worth separate policies for separate land uses which succeed.strategy of 2011 does not pay attention to this mentioning. For the protection of the has led to ‘messiness and fragmentation’anymore). It would be interesting to see what biodiversity policies for nature are being the need for integrated visions for the rural  ‘TOD’ (transit oriented development)the impact of this concept has been on the case introduced. Four types of protected areas landscape where increasing. Therefore which is a policy that is to intensifystudy area (which is located in the middle of can be distinguished: nature reserves integrated rural development has seen the development around nodes of publicthis former ‘zone’): was the national concept (natuurbeschermingswetgebieden), areas under light. The rural areas should be planned in transport (together with a higherstrong enough to prevent the area from the European policy ‘Natura 2000’ (Containing an integrated way. Mostly provinces work frequency and capacity of the publicurban development? One of the interesting the European bird directive and the European according to such a planning policy for rural transport network).recommendations that can have been made habitat directive) and areas under the national areas.and which might be useful for the empirical policy for an ‘ecological main structure’ (EHS) – In the course of time the impact of theresearch can be found in a report of the ‘Spatial some of these areas overlap. The protection of In terms of accessibility, mobility and traffic European Union has become bigger. EU policiesPlanning Office’ (Ruimtelijk Planbureau – PBL) the areas can be done in three different ways: it might be argued that the Netherlands is a have become more influential on the way the(Akaç et al., 2005). The report concluded with country of commuters. Because of its small land is used in the Netherlands. As has beenan advice that for a successful elaboration of  acquiring the land and putting them size but with a high concentration of nodes said above the ‘Natura 2000’ has been a verythe concept of the Green Heart, it should be into the ownership of a specialist (in the west) – located within small distances influential policy, but also air quality guidelinesmore worked out on regional level. Hereby organization (the National Forestry from each other – people often move from – quite often Dutch planning authorities seem to struggle with such policies.
  • 83. A2 The public bodies involved in spatial planning A. Spatial planning in the NetherlandsSpatial planning has been addressed by its purpose and by the concepts and policies which which deals with spatial planning was WGR(+) Regions & regionalare created to steer the land-use, or spatial development. Such concepts and policies are called ‘VROM’ – Volkshuisvesting, partnerships Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieubeheer There (have been) some regional bodiesdeveloped by institutions, which are legally authorized by law to operate within the daily (Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planningpractice of spatial planning. Actors involved in spatial planning can be public bodies, – different cooperating municipalities – and Environmental Policy) but this with regional planning tasks. This wasinstitutions, governments or their departments of spatial planning (spatial planning agencies) has recently being changed into facilitated by the ‘Joint provisions act’ (Wetbut also semi-public bodies, such as the transport authorities as NS or ProRail. the ‘Ministerie van Infrastructuur en gemeenschappelijke regelingen – WGR). In Milieu’ (Ministry of Infrastructure and 1994 this law have been empowered: the Environment). municipalities had to give away some of their powers to the new regional governments It often happens that the executive body or relevant provinces. The powers of theA2.1 The planning agencies it. This policy is called ‘dualism’. For decides formally to make a statutory plan regional government was expressed in a municipalities it is not obliged by law to under the guidance of someone of the regional structure plan, whereby the regional have a department of spatial planning. executive body: the alderman (municipality),In the Netherlands there are three tiers governments became planning agencies. There the deputy (province) or the minister (nationalof governance (national, provincial always has been a lot of tension between  Province the ‘Provincial Council’ government). When finished, the (draft) plansand municipalities), each with its own regional and municipal authorities, whereby (elected representatives) and the are waiting for provisional approval by theresponsibilities and statutory powers (for the latter did refuse the policies of the higher ‘Provincial Executive’ (the Crown’s elected representatives. The plan will becomemaking statutory plans) (fig. A.4). In terms of authority. The regions were identified from a Commissioner and the ‘deputies’) are legally valid if the elected representativesspatial planning the term ‘planning agency’ is higher level. working according the same policy of decide to adopt the plan. The public may havebeing used. In his work Needham describes ‘dualism’. For provinces too it is not any objections (a formal appeal) against the Since 2006 WGR+ regions have seen the light.planning agencies as followed: ‘The term obliged by law to have a department adoption of such plans. The regional bodies where now longer planning‘planning agency’ is used to refer to a body of spatial planning. The role of the agencies – only the municipalities instead. Theof the public administration which has the province can be considered very Next to the planning agencies with statutory provinces are able now to oblige a group ofstatutory task and responsibility of preparing important since the national authority powers there are many more public and semi- municipalities to work together (cooperate)and executing land use policy for its area, and is transferring its powers to lower public bodies involved in spatial planning, but if a regional planning approach for housing,which has been given statutory powers to authorities and is less concerned they do not have a formal responsibility for employment locations, transport, recreation ordo that.’ (Needham, 2007: 122) (drawing on with spatial planning. The provincial spatial planning. urban open spaces is desired or required. ThisAlexander & Faludi, 1996). government can be seen as the is also expressed in a structure plan, in rules intermediate authority, dealing with for economic development and policies forThe powers and responsibilities are for the regional issues (e.g. infrastructure,planning agencies are determined by law, industrial estates, office locations and shoppingdefined by: adjustment of spatial functions) A2.2 The ‘regional gap’ centres. In financial terms there must be rules which are not important enough for for dividing the costs of infrastructure and of national government, but are too land development between the municipalities.  National planning agency: Dutch complex for municipal governance In the Netherlands there is no public Constitution (article 21) administration at the ‘regional level’. The Therefore it could be questionable why the area because such issues cross-borders of the case study, the Rijn-Gouwe Lijn (RGL) and because of mutual competition country is too small for a permanent fourth  Provincial planning agencies: Act level of government. The problems here are never has been classified as a WGR+ region. between municipalities. The provincial regulating municipalities (article 108) government therefore might play a arising because ‘municipalities are often too small to tackle problems as public transport, Additionally it can be mentioned here that next very important role at the case study. to WGR(+) regions also ‘regional partnerships’  Municipal planning agencies: Act transport planning, housing and local economic The roles of the provincial authority are deal with regional issues (such as adjustment regulating provinces (article 105) policy (…) provinces do not have a strong explained further in this thesis. of functional program, or development of tradition of decisive power.’ (Needham,Within each layer of government various organs 2007: 125). Another important issue is that regional infrastructure). In that respect regional  National government the ‘Cabinet’ partnerships are similar to WGR regions excepthave a role in spatial planning. It is important to municipalities are often ‘jealous of their (executive body with members for the important factor that they do not haveunderstand these relationships because of the autonomy and refuse to give up any powers chosen by the political parties in the legal authority (in terms of spatial planning)legitimacy of large development projects, which to the provinces’ (Needham, 2007: 125). It majority) and the ‘Parliament’ – the – regional partnerships are often voluntaryalso counts for the case study area. Within the: might be argued however, that the role of the Second Chamber (directly elected based, and can be regarded as (temporary) representatives) and the First Chamber provincial government in addressing regional  Municipality the ‘municipal council’ issues is changing – they are ought to take and dynamic or flexible forms of governance, (elected representatives) has the (indirectly elected representatives) of different municipalities working together. have the responsibility for the general more responsibility and to play a more serious responsibility for the general content role in this, which is explained further in this Regional partnerships represent the interest of the policy and the ‘executive board’ content of the policy. The ‘Ministries’ of mutual dependent municipalities who feel (civil servants) work out the policy thesis. (mayor and aldermen) for working committed and feel the need to strengthen out that policy and implementing (and implement it). The ministry their region. Such partnerships also have
  • 84. A2 The public bodies involved in spatial planning A3 The power of the planning instruments Public bodies The water boards are public bodies – the oldest bodies with public powers in the The bodies of public administration (not the semi-public bodies) have certain responsibilities National Netherlands, older than any other body of in terms of spatial planning. To carry out those responsibilities they are allowed to use public administration – in the sense that they are responsible and accountable for water instruments – plans or documents – by law. It might be argued that these instruments define management and thereby, should serve the to a large extent the legal powers of an authority – the legal resources. But how much power interest of the public. These water boards have do the agencies have? The differences between these plans are described in this paragraph. Provincial a long tradition in water management and have an indirect influence on spatial planning because they are able by law to make water management plans, which statutory planning agencies have to take into account when making A3.1 Statutory plans planning agencies on higher levels their own spatial plans. Therefore water boards only had indirect influence on land are an important player if it comes to spatial use, because only the municipality planning. The areas for which the water boards Spatial plans which are regulated in the was allowed to make a land use plan). are responsible for often do not correlate with Spatial Planning Act (Wet op de ruimtelijke Municipalities want full control so they the municipal and even provincial jurisdictions ordening – WRO) are called statutory plans. The have made plans which cover their (cross-border). This sometimes brings forward planning agencies are allowed to use planning whole jurisdiction. Besides guidelines difficulties in arrangements and the making of instruments (spatial plans) according to this for allocation, land use plans containMunicipal law. Since 2008 the law has been replaced by new spatial plans. a lot of regulations (such as building the New Spatial Planning Act (Wet ruimtelijke regulations). ordening – Wro). With the introduction of the Wro planning agencies have seen new planning Since 2008 the municipal land use plan is still in Semi-public bodies instruments appearing and disappearing. charge but currently a serious debate is going Important semi-public bodies can be found in Thereby the power of a planning agency on to replace the municipal structure plan by a the public transport sector. The biggest railway increased or decreased. The trend is that so called ‘environmental law ’ (omgevingswet)Fig. A.4 Tiers of government company in the Netherlands are the NS - higher authorities (planning agencies on the – complex integration of various laws that and levels of planning agency ‘Nationale Spoorwegen’ (National Railway lines) provincial and national level) get more power concern spatial planning – which is more – a semi-public firm. They are public in the sense due of these changes in the instruments they flexible (gives more possibilities especially in that they have a similar responsibility (they are are allowed to use, especially if it comes to terms of regeneration), but is appearing to beexpertise (e.g. regarding complex, large scale responsible and accountable for the service and the implementation of projects (fig. A.5). The weaker than the current land use plan. Herebyprojects such as infrastructu