Micro Ch 11
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Micro Ch 11

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Micro Ch 11 Micro Ch 11 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 11 The Prokaryotes: Domains Bacteria and Archaea
  • Classification of Prokaryotes Figure 10.6
  • Domain Bacteria
    • Phylum Proteobacteria
      • Mythical Greek god, Proteus, who could assume many shapes
      • Are Gram-negative
      • 4 sub groups
        • The  (alpha) Proteobacteria
        • The  (beta) Proteobacteria
        • The  (gamma) Proteobacteria
        • The  (delta) Proteobacteria
        • The  (epsilon) Proteobacteria
  • The  (alpha) Proteobacteria
    •  Proteobacteria include most proteobacteria capable of growth at very low nutrient levels
    • Some have unusual morphology
    • Includes agriculturally important bacteria
    Dichotomous key
  • The  (beta) Proteobacteria
    • Usually found in sewage and decomposition areas
    • Contains Neisseria gonorrhoeae which causes gonorrhea and Neisseria meningitidis cause of meningitis
  • The  (gamma) Proteobacteria
    • Largest proteobacteria subgroup
    • Contains the Pseudomonas which are
      • Opportunistic pathogens
      • Metabolically diverse
    • Contains Enterobacteriales
    See next slide
    • The  (gamma) Proteobacteria
      • Enterobacteriales (enterics); inhabit intestinal tracts of humans and other animals
        • Gram negative, facultative anaerobic
          • Enterobacter
          • Escherichia**, e.g E. coli
          • Klebsiella
          • Proteus
          • Salmonella**
          • Serratia
          • Shigella
    The  (gamma) Proteobacteria
  • The  (delta) Proteobacteria
    • They include bacteria that attack other bacteria
    • Also include Sulfur reducing bacteria
  • The  (epsilon) Proteobacteria
    • Slender and helical
    • Helicobacter causes peptic ulcers
  • Classification of Prokaryotes Figure 10.6
  • The Nonproteobacteria Gram-Negative Bacteria
    • Gram-positive and Low G + C ratio
      • DNA is made up of base pairs
      • Guanine (G) + Cytosine (C)
      • Adenine (A) + Thymine (T)
    • Includes important endospore forming bacteria
    Firmicutes Includes Bacillus anthracis and Staphylococci Includes Streptococcus
  • Actinobacteria
    • Gram-positive and High G + C ratio
    • Take on many shapes/forms (pleomorphic)
    Causes TB and leprosy
  • Domain Archaea
    • Lack Peptidoglycan
    • Many different morphologies
    • Occur in extreme environments
      • Hyperthermophiles
      • Methanogens
      • Extreme halophiles
    • PCR indicates up to 10,000 bacteria/gm of soil. Many bacteria have not been identified or characterized because they:
      • Haven't been cultured
      • Need special nutrients
      • Are part of complex food chains requiring the products of other bacteria
      • Need to be cultured to understand their metabolism and ecological role
    Microbial Diversity