Theories of Discourse and InteractionChapter 9 Chapter 9
CommunicationIs a transactional process in which the onesactions have wide-ranging influences on theActions of others. Mutual influence = Two way impact
Key TermsSpeech Act TheoryCoordinated Management of Meaning Theory(CMM)Communication Accommodation TheoryExpectancy Violation Theory
Speech Act TheoryPerforming an Action 5 Types of Speech Acts1. Assertives 2. Directives 3. Commissive 4. Expressives 5. Declaratives
Assertives• You are the weakest link!The advocate that truth value of a proposition. StateTO: Claim Declare Hypothesize
DirectiveThat attempt to get the listener to do something Order Request BegTO: Invite Advise Ask
DeclarativesI am going to pass Comm. TheoryBy their very assertion, make something so Quit NominateTO: appoint Define Name
Illocutionary v/s PerlocutionaryIllocutionary Act What is the message? When I say: “It’s cold in here” Am I saying that because of experience or am I asking for a jacket or asking to turn up the heat.
Illocutionary v/s PerlocutionaryPerlocutionay Deals with the effect on the receiverDeals with the impact on the impact of the receiverCausing the receiver to put another log on the fire or turn of the thermostat
Coordinated Management of Meaning Theory (CMM)Providing some understanding of how meanings are created, coordinated, and managed in the social world. Management – Meaning – CoordinationThe hierarchy of meaning will change depending on how well you know someone
Coordinated Management of Meaning Theory (CMM)Meaning are Managed by Rules1. Constitutive Rule = Expression of Mild disbelief Knowing what the words count for! “O.M.G.” (oh my gosh) The Interpretation of the “Get out of hear” receiver gives meaning to the worlds
Coordinated Management of Meaning Theory (CMM)Meaning are Managed by Rules cont. 2. Regulative Rules = Patterns of regular behavior within certain situations If you say “O.M.G.” all the time when someone tells you a story, O.M.G switching from a constitutive word or phase to a Regulative word of phase because of the repetition of the use of that word or phase.
Hierarchy of meaning• A kiss in church or “You can count on me” can take on different meaning as the relationship changes.At the introduction phase of a relationship words or phases could take different meaning that a relationship of many years.From Dictionary content to Relationship experience
Meshing• How intentions and interpretation mesh Meaning + Action = CoordinateTwo people having an argument and both people thinking that they came out on top
Communication Accommodation TheoryOriginated in CommunicationSeeks to explain with monitors and adjustmentChange your style of talk or word based on the person you are talking with.Talk slow to with old people,Speak with a southern drawl in the south,Baby talk
Communication Accommodation Theory Speaker Attune: Matching someone else speech characteristics; Accent Length of utterances, Speech rate, Tone
Communication Accommodation TheoryConvergence:To make similar to someone elseIndividuals adapt to each other’s speechChanging you word to sound like your: professor, friend from England or your Cajun roommate
Communication Accommodation TheoryDivergence: When interactants try to highlight differences between themselves and others in the interactions.Full: individual matches the communication behavior of the otherPartial: individual come close to the other but does not match the behavior of the otherHyper: the individual goes beyond the behavior of the other (know as mocking) aka … cross-overUnimodal: converging the vocabulary (Uni = one)Multimodal: several dimensions of behavior
Symmetrical vs. AsymmetricalSymmetrical : Asymmetrical:Both parties in the Only one partyInteraction attempt in the interaction attempts toto converge towards convergeeach other
Antecedents to AccommodationAntecedents (aka) “Cause” to AccommodationWanting to be like anotherNeed for social approval, especially if future interaction is likelyStatus & Power
Consequences of AccommodationDepends of the interpretation we make of others accommodationNegative consequences for convergence if weperceive that the person is accommodating tocurry favor.Doctor – patient interaction
Expectancy Violation TheoryBegan as a theory of nonverbal communicationArousal – causes us to pay more attention to the violation than other elements of the interaction
Expectancy Violation Theory Violation of ExpectationDepends on 2 Factors; 1. Your evaluation of the violation itself 2. Your evaluation of the person committing the violation
Expectancy Violation Theory• Negative Valance ~ Does less than expected• Positive Valance ~ Does more than expected Threshold level is the behavior recognized as violating the expectationArousal = causes an alertness that diverts attention
Expectancy Violation TheoryCommunicator reward valenceReward valence is based on a host of factors that influence assessment of the violation; 1. Personality, 2. Physical attractiveness 3. Likelihood of future interaction 4. Status or power
Theories of Relational Development Relationships is how we explain the worldKey TermsOrientationOutcomesSocial penetration theoryExploratory affective exchangeUncertainty reduction theoryAxiomsReciprocityAffective exchangeStable exchangeSelf-disclosureChapter 10
Social Penetration TheoryThe development of relationships and self-disclosure 4 sequential stages of relationship1. Orientation 2. Exploratory affective 3. Affective exchange 4. Stable exchange
Social Penetration TheoryOrientation:The earliest stage were cautions and tentative in their interaction of sharing information.Surface and Small Talk
Social Penetration TheoryExploratory affective exchange:The individuals begin to relax and share some information beyond small.Family and Back ground
Social Penetration TheoryAffective exchange:Many barriers have been crossed with a great deal of open exchange occurs.Close friends and Romantic
Social Penetration TheoryStable exchange:Continued openness and interactions. Communication occurs often and can be nonverbal levelSolid and stable Friendship. Rate of self- disclosure is slowing down.
Social Penetration Theory• Breadth and Depth ~ As people move through these stages, both the breadth and depth of information exchange increase
Social Penetration TheorySelf Disclosure: involves communication about self and can be both intimate and non-intimate. Self-Disclosure In RelationshipsI am from MichiganI want to be the MayorI have very few close friendsI have low back pain
Social Penetration TheoryReciprocity ~ When one person reveals something about themselves, the other person will tend to feel an obligation to reply with similar information.Is not automaticNot tit-for-tatReply can accrue later in the relationship
Social Penetration TheorySelf Disclosure and ReciprocityThe rate of exchange changes as individuals movethrough relational stages.
Social Exchange Theory Cost – Rewards = OutcomeWe compare our outcomes in a currentrelationship to past relationships and to possibleFuture relationshipsEvaluating relationships in an economic fashion
Social Exchange SituationOutcomes ~ involves a consideration of both The outcome the rewards derived from the will lead to a decision relationship and the cost.Comparison level (CL) ~ Our assessment of part relationshipsComparison level of alternatives (CLalt) ~ Assessment of possible future relationshipsPast, Present and what else is available
Uncertainly Reduction TheoryUncertainly Reduction: A process of increasing predictability outcomes of complete strangers Going through certain steps and checkpoints in order to reduce uncertainty about each other and form an idea of whether one likes or dislikes the other
Uncertainly Reduction TheoryAccording to this theory uncertainty is NOT GOODReduce uncertainties by information seekingThe stages of the relationship is determined by the value, one person places on the relationship and the cost verses the rewards.According to Social Penetration Theory: Things that cause unusual depth discovery lake emotion and social exchange theory lacks emotion.
Information-Seeking StrategiesPassive Stategies~ (aka) Observation : Watching someone in a variety of social situations. Information gathering without interactionExample:You could watch how Glenda acts during partiesespecially those at which she is particularly comfortable.
Information-Seeking StrategiesActive Strategies ~ Asking questions of 3rd parties to test the rulesIndividuals might ask other people questionsabout the target individual or might structurethe environment in ways that information canbe gathered.ExampleYou could talk with Glenda’s friends about her behavior orinvite her to a gathering
Information-Seeking StrategiesInteractive Strategies ~ The target person is asked direct questions or in which self-disclosure is used with hope that reciprocation will lead to more informationExample:You could ask Glenda yourself (interrogation) orShare your own views and hope for reciprocation
Motivations for Reducing UncertaintyFuture interaction: If we think we are going to have future interaction with someoneIncentive: values or possible potential rewardsDeviation: Better understanding with someone is outside the norm.
Axioms of Uncertainty Reduction Theory (Axioms = Taking at face value)Axiom 1:Given the high level of uncertainty at the onset,Increasing verbal communication betweenStrangers will decrease the level of uncertainty Uncertainties verbal communication
Theories of Communication ProcessPositive Feedback ContradictionNegative Feedback PraxisEquifinality External DialecticsContent Function Internal DialecticsContent Function Praxis PatternsRelational Function SymmetricalComplementary DialecticsChapter 11
One Cannot “NOT CommunicateCommunication is not always’ intentionalPeople receive messages, regardless of whether they were sent intentional or not.Major importance in Interpersonal Communication
Content and Relationship FunctionEach message attempts to express content, but it also says something about the relationship Relationship Function classifies the content of the functionContext = wordsRelationship = Tone
Content and Relationship Function cont.“Did you give Ben his meds yet”Content dimension: words within the statementRelationship dimension: Tone of voice can give different meaning negative positive Provides meaning
Symmetrical vs. ComplementarySymmetrical ~ based on equality, mirroring, equal (Talking to your husband, wife or associate)Complementary ~ based on maximizing difference, power imbalance, (“I am more important than you”) (Talking to a student, teacher or boss)
Axioms of Uncertainty Reduction TheoryAxioms 2: uncertainty nonverbal
Axioms of Uncertainty Reduction TheoryAxioms 4: High levels of uncertainty Cause Low levels in intimacy
Axioms of Uncertainty Reduction TheoryAxioms 5: High levels of uncertainty Produce high rates of reciprocity
Application of Uncertainty Reduction TheoryIntercultural: People from different CountriesContinuingRelationshipOrganizational How fire fighters remove theSocialization uncertainties from work
Relational System Theory Relationship are systems and need maintenanceChapter 11
Maintaining the Relationship SystemRegular communication Spending quality timeActs of service Words of affirmationGiftsPositive Feedback: Leads to change or improvement within the relationshipNegative Feedback: Preserves the status quo
Maintaining the Relationship System Environment RelationshipPermeability ~ Relationships are open to environmental influenceEnvironment ~ Can and will effect relationshipsEquifinality ~ Multiple ways to reach the desired level of satisfaction
Theories of Relational DialecticsContradiction~ Perhaps the most central and dining feature of a dialectical approach.One in which both forces can – and do – exist simultaneously. (In a relationship you can simultaneously desire intimacy and distance )
Dialectics within a Relationship1: Connectedness SeparatenessIndividual autonomy must be sacrificedTo much connection results in Identity lose
Dialectics within a Relationship2. Certainly Uncertainly Without predictability and uncertainly a Healthy Relationship would become bring and could not be sustained. Managing the tension between certainty and uncertainly is a central part of relational communication
Dialectics within a Relationship3. Openness ClosednessNot a linear path to intimacySometimes we need for the other person to know everythingAll feeling and facts need not be shared
Dialectics within a Relationship4. Inclusion SeclusionNeed seclusion to bond and must negotiate the tension between doing things as a couple and doing things within a larger groupNeed out side exposure for stimulation support
Dialectics within a Relationship5. Conventionality UniquenessExcessive uniqueness makes others uncomfortable (following social norms)Intimacy requires that relational partners fell different from the rest of the worldThings that are only known inside the relationship (Pet names, eating cereal from a cool whip bowl)
Dialectics within a Relationship6. Revelation Concealment“Going Public” about one issue or another provides opportunities for support. There are times within the relationship you will want To keep things private (mis-carriage) and other times you will want to be public (wedding)
Patterns of Relational Praxis identified Paxis Pattern DefinitionDenial Connectedness but ignoring needs for separateness. Don’t work out in the long runDisorientation Overwhelmed. Contradictions are regarded as inevitable, negative, and unchangeable.Spiraling inversion Bouncing back & forth between poles, meets most of the needs of the RelationshipSegmentation Compartmentalization, some issues are dealt by favoring one pole other anotherBalance Reconcile both poles / in compromiseRecalibration Temporarily reframing situation so that poles don’t seem oppositional
Theories of Communication ContextWeick’s theory of organizing: equivocality, enactment, selection, retention, recipes, causal mapsUnobtrusive and concertive control theory: simple, technological, bureaucratic, and concertive control; identification, disciplineChapter 12
Dialogue Used to maintain relationships !A coming together of diverse voices in conversationConversation that defines & redefines Relationship as they emerge in actual situations over timeWhat we use to manage dialectical tensions
DialogueCan be used as a turning point in a relationshipNeed not be verbal comm., could be an actionSelf, other and relationship are constructed and maintained through talk.
DialogueCreate moments (photos) or turning points to remember as importantRetelling old stories that highlights similarity and shared experience (chronotopic similarity)Identify and reinforce difference between and others (self-becoming) (men are from mars women are from venus)
DialogueUnity with in difference:Dialogue gives us a chance to achieve unity within diversityWe use conversations to manage competing needs for connection and autonomyExpress needs and perceptions and empathize with needs and perceptions of others
DialogueWhat changes our relationships:Amplitude: Strength of feeling and behaviorsSalience: focus on past situations, present or future (babies, marriage, etc…)
DialogueSequence – order of events in the relationship How you organize your time What you do around and with one anotherPace/Rhythms: Rapidity of events, length of intervals between events
Dialogue is AestheticAesthetic perceived pattern in the relationship that makes it seem identifiable, unique and wholeDialogue produces an overall sense of what the relationship is likeWhen we talk about our relationship and tell stories about them out talk reflects that aestheticsMomentary and evolving
Narrative ParadigmNarrative: Express and understand thru story telling which is a natural part of being humanOur beliefs and behaviors are reflected in and shaped by narrativesMore board than theoryNarrative = perspective or approach
Narrative ParadigmIn contrast to narrative , many theories of communication are grounded in rational paradigmNarration “symbolic actions” – words and or deeds that have sequence and meaning for who create or interpret them”
Narrative Paradigm vs. Rational Word Paradigm Narrative RationalWe are story tellers we are rational beingDecision are based on good reasons Decision are based on argumentsGood reason are based on history Arguments should be logical and SoundBiography, Culture and chamber Rationality is based on quality ofRationality is based on how internally knowledge and formal reasoning consistent and truthful stories seems The world can fully understand thoughWe experience the world thought reasoning stories
Narrative RationalityTraditional, test of rationality include do claims correspond to actual facts?Have all the facts been considered?Are arguments internally consistent?Does the reasoning that connects bacts and claims seem logical?
Narrative RationalityCoherence:Structural Coherence: Do the elements of the story flow smoothlyMaterial Coherence: Is t he character in the storyCharacterological:Fidelity: Does the story seem believable? Does it ring true?Fidelity: A measure of simplistic
Evaluation the Narrative ParadigmAn interpretive theoryCriticized as overboardNarrative rationality may be overratedBut does help to explain why we tell stories and why some are more believable
Narrative is in more of Political filmsReal world emphasis on groups and teams design of typical organizations has changed (Growing decision task complexity)Simple vs. complex problemsHalf of all decisions fail (nutt)(if a decision sticks for a year, it is considered a good decision.
Functional theory of Group Decision Making Key functions Include:1. Understanding of the issues2. Criteria for evaluation3. Identification of alternatives Process4. Evaluation of alternatives To Make5. Selection of alternative that Decisions matches established criteriaChapter 13
Functional Theory of Group Decision Making1. Analysis of problem situation2. Establish criteria for evaluation solutions3. Consider positive & negative attributes of specific solutions4. Must establish operating norms and procedures that guide groups communication Functional Theory argues that these functions associated with higher quality decisions
Functional Theory of Group Decision MakingResearch generally supports the theory, but individual studies often differ with regards to which functions are most related to decision quality.Overall, research shows that the most important factors are1. Assessing negative consequences of potential solutions.2. Problem analysis
Functional Theory of Group Decision Making • Criticisms: Applies only to groups with no history, (not real groups) aka ad hoc groups Applies only to task related groups
Multiple Sequence modelUnitary sequence path ~ Follows the traditional sequence of orientation, “Rational, logical and standard”Complex cyclic path ~ Multiple problem-solution cyclesSolution-oriented path ~ Centers of solutions and involves no activity to problem definition or analysis.
Symbolic convergence theoryFantasy Theme ~ Ignites group interaction. Refers to something outsideFantasy Chain ~ “chaining out” Sharing of group fantasies that groups develop a sense of community and shared identityFantasy Type / Vision ~ emerges when same set of themes cross several groups Once ideas goes across groups it becomes a vision
Impact of Symbolic Convergence TheoryBelieves that the sharing of group fantasiesIndentifying who is “in” and “out” of the groupClearly divides the sympathetic or good people (we) from the unsympathetic or the evil people (they)
Bona fide group (BFG) perspectiveGroups are complex and contextualTreats groups as a social system linked to its contextBFG are marked by shifting membershipBFG are clearly not zero-history or ad hoc groups